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Open AccessArticle

Moral Sensitivity, Empathy and Prosocial Behavior: Implications for Humanization of Nursing Care

1
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Providencia 7500912, Chile
2
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
3
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universidad Politécnica y Artística del Paraguay, Asunción 1628, Paraguay
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238914
Received: 26 October 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Humanization of nursing is related to certain social and moral variables. Moral sensitivity, empathy, and prosocial behavior help understand a situation and make decisions that benefit the patient. The objective of this study is to find out how these variables are related, and define the differences in moral sensitivity, empathy, and prosocial behavior in humanization of nursing. We also analyzed the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between moral sensitivity and prosocial behavior. The sample was made up of 330 Spanish nurses aged 22 to 56, who completed the HUMAS Scale and adapted versions of the Basic Empathy Scale, the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and the Prosocial Behavior Scale. Descriptive analyses, bivariate correlations and multiple mediation models were calculated. The results found significantly different mean scores between all the groups in responsibility and moral strength, cognitive empathy, and prosocial behavior, and in moral burden, the differences were in the high-humanization-score group compared to the low-score group. Furthermore, the mediation models showed the mediating effect of cognitive empathy between the responsibility, strength, and moral burden factors on prosocial behavior, but not of affective empathy. The study concluded that humanization in nursing is closely related to moral sensitivity, cognitive empathy, and prosocial behavior. This facilitates a helping, caring, and understanding attitude toward patient needs, but without the affective flooding that affective empathy can lead to. View Full-Text
Keywords: humanization; moral sensitivity; empathy; prosocial behavior; nursing care humanization; moral sensitivity; empathy; prosocial behavior; nursing care
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MDPI and ACS Style

Suazo, I.; Pérez-Fuentes, M.d.C.; Molero Jurado, M.d.M.; Martos Martínez, Á.; Simón Márquez, M.d.M.; Barragán Martín, A.B.; Sisto, M.; Gázquez Linares, J.J. Moral Sensitivity, Empathy and Prosocial Behavior: Implications for Humanization of Nursing Care. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8914. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238914

AMA Style

Suazo I, Pérez-Fuentes MdC, Molero Jurado MdM, Martos Martínez Á, Simón Márquez MdM, Barragán Martín AB, Sisto M, Gázquez Linares JJ. Moral Sensitivity, Empathy and Prosocial Behavior: Implications for Humanization of Nursing Care. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8914. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238914

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suazo, Iván; Pérez-Fuentes, María d.C.; Molero Jurado, María d.M.; Martos Martínez, África; Simón Márquez, María d.M.; Barragán Martín, Ana B.; Sisto, Maria; Gázquez Linares, José J. 2020. "Moral Sensitivity, Empathy and Prosocial Behavior: Implications for Humanization of Nursing Care" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 8914. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238914

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