Special Issue "Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Holly Blake
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2HA, UK
Interests: workplace health; workplace wellness; health promotion; behaviour change; interventions; physical activity; self-management; digital
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An organisation’s greatest asset is its people, and there is a strong business case for investing in a healthy work culture. With the rise in sickness absenteeism and associated financial impacts on organisations and the economy, workplace health and wellbeing is a top priority. There is a focus on what organisations are doing to attract employees, promote attendance, and operate a healthy working environment. The workplace can provide a useful arena for reaching populations for health and lifestyle intervention. There are many contemporary threats to health and wellbeing in the workforce, particularly an ageing workforce; the increase in chronic disease and mental ill-health; work-related stress; presenteeism and leavism; as well as technological advances and issues of equality, diversity, and inclusion.

This Special Issue in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is devoted to recent findings on “Workplace Health and Wellbeing”. This Issue will make a substantial contribution to the understanding of contemporary workplace health and wellbeing issues; the influence of health and wellbeing on individual and organisational outcomes; and the impact of workplace strategies, policies, and interventions on individuals and employers.

A wide range of topics will be included in this Issue, related to but not limited to the mental and physical wellbeing of employees and particular occupational groups; psychosocial risk factors; the implementation and effectiveness of workplace wellness programmes; the engagement of line managers in workplace health initiatives, promoting healthy lifestyles at work; health screening interventions in workplace settings; the prevention or management of chronic conditions at work; the impact of health on the capacity of employees to work (e.g., supporting people with disabilities; health conditions; and rehabilitation); studies around wellbeing and recruitment and/or retention; and the impact of workplace interventions on work engagement work performance and/or productivity.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Holly Blake
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • workforce
  • interventions
  • workplace wellness
  • health promotion
  • screening
  • occupational health
  • chronic diseases
  • mental health
  • return to work
  • retention

Published Papers (37 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Associated Work-Related Factors among Indoor Workers in a Multi-Ethnic Southeast Asian Country
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010164 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Little is known about the effect of working conditions on vitamin D status in Southeast Asia, where vitamin D deficiency is common despite the presence of sunlight all year round in most places. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its [...] Read more.
Little is known about the effect of working conditions on vitamin D status in Southeast Asia, where vitamin D deficiency is common despite the presence of sunlight all year round in most places. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated work-related factors among indoor workers using the data of 213 participants (aged ≥21 years) from a workplace cohort study in Singapore. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <50 nmol/L. Data on work-related factors, socio-demographic characteristics, and lifestyle habits were collected using standardized questionnaires. Clinical and biochemical measurements were performed using standard tools and protocols. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to examine the independent association of work-related factors with vitamin D deficiency. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 59.6 nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 32.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.6–39.6%). In the multivariate analysis, office workers (prevalence ratio (PR): 2.16, 95% CI: 1.12–4.16 versus control room workers), workshop workers (PR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.05–4.81 versus control room workers), and night shift workers (PR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03–1.67) were at a greater risk for vitamin D deficiency. Workplace policies and wellness programs should encourage workers to take regular breaks to go outdoors for sunlight exposure and to consume adequate amounts of vitamin D-rich foods to maintain optimal vitamin D levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Workplace-Adapted Mindfulness-Based Programme to Reduce Stress in Workers at a Private Sector Logistics Company: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051643 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
There is a high prevalence of stress in the logistics sector owing to very demanding, fast-paced and unpredictable tasks. Mindfulness-based programmes may reduce stress but require considerable practice. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a shortened, workplace-adapted mindfulness-based programme [...] Read more.
There is a high prevalence of stress in the logistics sector owing to very demanding, fast-paced and unpredictable tasks. Mindfulness-based programmes may reduce stress but require considerable practice. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a shortened, workplace-adapted mindfulness-based programme for the logistics sector (WA-MBP-LS) for the purpose of reducing stress. A nonblinded, nonrandomised, two-arm controlled trial was conducted. The WA-MBP-LS (n = 32) consisted of six weekly 90-min mindfulness sessions. The control group (n = 36) attended a psycho-educational seminar. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) were measured at pretest, posttest and 6-month follow-up. Differences between groups were evaluated using mixed-effects models. Qualitative methods were used to analyse implementation issues. A 64.2% reduction was observed between initial volunteers and actual participants. Attrition at six-month follow-up was 45.6%. Participants attended a median of five sessions. Decreases in PSS favoured the WA-MBP-LS group at posttest and follow-up. FFMQ played a mediating role in PSS reductions. Barriers were disinterest, lack of programming, work overload and absences from work. Facilitators were curiosity, timing, company facilities and audio recordings. The WA-MBP-LS was feasible and effective in reducing stress, but more efforts to improve the practicalities of implementation are desirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Health-Promotion Program Based on the Action Research Paradigm to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Blue Collar Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244958 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
This study developed and evaluated a health management program based on the participant-centered concept of action research to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among blue collar workers. Data from structured questionnaires completed by 32 workers in a small-to-medium sized workplace from September [...] Read more.
This study developed and evaluated a health management program based on the participant-centered concept of action research to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among blue collar workers. Data from structured questionnaires completed by 32 workers in a small-to-medium sized workplace from September 2015 to October 2016 as well as participants’ anthropometrical (weight and waist) and biological (blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol) data were analyzed using paired t-test and Fisher’s exact test. To examine the longitudinal effect of the intervention, survival analysis and linear mixed model (LMM) were used. There was an improvement in participants’ self-regulation in maintaining health-promoting behaviors, body weight, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol following the intervention. Furthermore, the effects of the health management program continued even after the program ended. These findings suggest that the health management program developed in this study could be effective in reducing CVD risk factors among workers in small-to-medium sized workplaces and should be applied to other small-to-medium sized workplaces to foster health-promoting behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Lifestyle Health Promotion Interventions for Nurses: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010017 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3259
Abstract
Background: Prior research has investigated various strategies to improve health, wellbeing and the job-related outcomes of nurses. However, the scope of this evidence is not clear and the types of intervention most likely to have positive outcomes are unknown. Objective: To provide an [...] Read more.
Background: Prior research has investigated various strategies to improve health, wellbeing and the job-related outcomes of nurses. However, the scope of this evidence is not clear and the types of intervention most likely to have positive outcomes are unknown. Objective: To provide an overview and synthesis of the effectiveness of interventions conducted with the goal of improving health, wellbeing and the job-related outcomes of nurses. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted from January 2000 to December 2018, with pre-defined criteria (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE and PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO; and BioMed Central). In total, 136 intervention studies with a total sample of 16,129 participants (range 9–3381) were included and evaluated. Data extraction, quality assessment and risk of bias analyses were performed. Results: Studies included randomised controlled trials (RCTs; n = 52, 38%), randomised crossover design studies (n = 2, 1.5%) and non-randomised pre-post studies with a control group (n = 31, 23%) and without a control group (n = 51, 37.5%). The majority of interventions focused on education, physical activity, mindfulness, or relaxation. Thirty-seven (27%) studies had a multimodal intervention approach. On average, studies had relatively small samples (median = 61; mode = 30) and were conducted predominantly in North America (USA/Canada, n = 53). The findings were mixed overall, with some studies reporting benefits and others finding no effects. Dietary habits was the most successfully improved outcome (8/9), followed by indices of body composition (20/24), physical activity (PA) (11/14), and stress (49/66), with >70% of relevant studies in each of these categories reporting improvements. The lowest success rate was for work-related outcomes (16/32). Separate analysis of RCTs indicated that interventions that focus solely on education might be less likely to result in positive outcomes than interventions targeting behavioural change. Conclusions: Interventions targeting diet, body composition, PA, or stress are most likely to have positive outcomes for nurses’ health and/or wellbeing. The methodologically strongest evidence (RCTs) is available for body composition and stress. Interventions relying solely on educational approaches are least likely to be effective. Organisational outcomes appear to be more challenging to change with lifestyle intervention, likely requiring more complex solutions including changes to the work environment. There is a need for more high-quality evidence since many studies had moderate or high risk of bias and low reporting quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of a Historical Accident in a Spanish Coal Mine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193615 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
There has been a long history of coal mine accidents and these, usually, involve serious injuries, fatalities, and the destruction of facilities. In the seventies, an explosion killed 28 miners in a Spanish coal mine. This paper gives insight into the main factors [...] Read more.
There has been a long history of coal mine accidents and these, usually, involve serious injuries, fatalities, and the destruction of facilities. In the seventies, an explosion killed 28 miners in a Spanish coal mine. This paper gives insight into the main factors of the accident by means of the causation mode, using two well-known alternatives: (1) the method from the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo (INSST), where the causes and circumstances of the accident are classified into immediate causes and basic causes, and (2) the Feyer and Williamson method, where the classification is done using precursor events and contributing factors. The analysis identifies the lessons to be learned from the disaster. Both methods have given very similar results, verifying the goodness of the analysis. Methane emissions due to a variation in the exploitation method, the electrical installation, and a lack of safety procedures and training were the main causes of the accident. These findings explain the real causes of this accident and can be very valuable for the prevention of future accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases at Baseline and Their Short-Term Changes in a Workplace Cohort in Singapore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224551 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
We aimed to examine the behavioural and clinical risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at baseline and their changes over 12 months in a workplace cohort in Singapore. A total of 464 full-time employees (age ≥ 21 years) were recruited from a variety [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the behavioural and clinical risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at baseline and their changes over 12 months in a workplace cohort in Singapore. A total of 464 full-time employees (age ≥ 21 years) were recruited from a variety of occupational settings, including offices, control rooms, and workshops. Of these, 424 (91.4%) were followed-up at three months and 334 (72.0%) were followed up at 12 months. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect data on health behaviours and clinical measurements were performed by trained staff using standard instruments and protocols. Age-adjusted changes in risk factors over time were examined using generalized estimating equations or linear mixed-effects models where appropriate. The mean age of the participants at baseline was 39.0 (SD: 11.4) years and 79.5% were men. Nearly a quarter (24.4%) were current smokers, slightly more than half (53.5%) were alcohol drinkers, two-thirds (66%) were consuming <5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day, and 23.1% were physically inactive. More than two-thirds (67%) were overweight or obese and 34.5% had central obesity. The mean follow-up was 8.6 months. After adjusting for age, over 12 months, there was a significant increase in the proportion consuming <5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day by 33% (p = 0.030), who were physically inactive by 64% (p < 0.001), and of overweight or obese people by 15% (p = 0.018). The burden of several key NCD risk factors at baseline was high and some worsened within a short period of time in this working population. There is a need for more targeted strategies for behaviour change towards a healthy lifestyle as part of the ongoing health and wellness programs at workplaces in Singapore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
From Happiness Orientations to Work Performance: The Mediating Role of Hedonic and Eudaimonic Experiences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245002 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
In organizations, psychologists have often tried to promote employees’ well-being and performance, and this can be achieved through different pathways. The happy-productive worker thesis states that ‘happy’ workers perform better than ‘unhappy’ ones. However, most studies have focused on hedonic well-being at the [...] Read more.
In organizations, psychologists have often tried to promote employees’ well-being and performance, and this can be achieved through different pathways. The happy-productive worker thesis states that ‘happy’ workers perform better than ‘unhappy’ ones. However, most studies have focused on hedonic well-being at the expense of the person’s eudaimonic experience. This study examines whether orientations to happiness (i.e., life of pleasure/meaning) are related to hedonic (i.e., perception of comfort) and eudaimonic (i.e., activity worthwhileness) experiences that, in turn, improve performance. We applied multilevel structural equation modeling to diary data (68 office workers; n = 471 timepoints). We obtained significant effects of: life of pleasure on self-rated performance through activity worthwhileness, life of meaning on performance (self-rated, rated by the supervisor) through activity worthwhileness, and life of meaning on performance rated by the supervisor through perception of comfort. Results show more significant paths from/or through eudaimonia to performance than from/or through hedonia. The results suggest that the pursuit and/or experience of eudaimonic happiness is more beneficial for work performance than the pursuit and/or experience of hedonic happiness. Theoretical and practical implications for organizations are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Multimorbidity Development in Working People
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234749 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Multimorbidity is defined as the coexistence of multiple chronic conditions in one person. It affects the way people lead their lives and might be a heavy burden, especially for those with limited material resources. This study explores the prevalence of multimorbidity in the [...] Read more.
Multimorbidity is defined as the coexistence of multiple chronic conditions in one person. It affects the way people lead their lives and might be a heavy burden, especially for those with limited material resources. This study explores the prevalence of multimorbidity in the working population and discusses the distribution of multimorbidity in specific sub-groups. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of nationally representative data in South Korea (Korea Health Panel, 2010–2015). Generalized estimation models were applied to examine the individual effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and job-related variables. We found that about five percent of workers who initially had no or one chronic condition developed multimorbidity during within five years. About 20% of working women had multimorbidity at age 55, about 10 years earlier than working men. A higher prevalence appeared in working women with school-age children, non-standard employment, no autonomy at work, or unskilled occupation. SES was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of multimorbidity in both gender after controlling for the effect of age and other covariates. Multimorbidity is a major health concern in the working population and prevention and control should be promoted in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessReview
Happy-Productive Teams and Work Units: A Systematic Review of the ‘Happy-Productive Worker Thesis’
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010069 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2196
Abstract
The happy-productive worker thesis (HPWT) assumes that happy employees perform better. Given the relevance of teams and work-units in organizations, our aim is to analyze the state of the art on happy-productive work-units (HPWU) through a systematic review and integrate existing research on [...] Read more.
The happy-productive worker thesis (HPWT) assumes that happy employees perform better. Given the relevance of teams and work-units in organizations, our aim is to analyze the state of the art on happy-productive work-units (HPWU) through a systematic review and integrate existing research on different collective well-being constructs and collective performance. Research on HPWU (30 studies, 2001–2018) has developed through different constructs of well-being (hedonic: team satisfaction, group affect; and eudaimonic: team engagement) and diverse operationalizations of performance (self-rated team performance, leader-rated team performance, customers’ satisfaction, and objective indicators), thus creating a disintegrated body of knowledge about HPWU. The theoretical frameworks to explain the HPWU relationship are attitude–behavior models, broaden-and-build theory, and the job-demands-resources model. Research models include a variety of antecedents, mediators, and moderating third variables. Most studies are cross-sectional, all propose a causal happy–productive relationship (not the reverse), and generally find positive significant relationships. Scarce but interesting time-lagged evidence supports a causal chain in which collective well-being leads to team performance (organizational citizenship behavior or team creativity), which then leads to objective work-unit performance. To conclude, we identify common issues and challenges across the studies on HPWU, and set out an agenda for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Facilitators and Barriers to Nigerian Nurses’ Engagement in Health Promoting Behaviors: A Socio-Ecological Model Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041314 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Nurses make up the single largest healthcare professional group in the Nigerian healthcare system. As frontline healthcare providers, they promote healthy lifestyles to patients and families. However, the determinants of Nigerian nurses’ personal health promoting behaviors (HPBs) remain unknown. Utilizing the socio-ecological model [...] Read more.
Nurses make up the single largest healthcare professional group in the Nigerian healthcare system. As frontline healthcare providers, they promote healthy lifestyles to patients and families. However, the determinants of Nigerian nurses’ personal health promoting behaviors (HPBs) remain unknown. Utilizing the socio-ecological model (SEM) approach, this study aimed to explore the perceived facilitators and barriers to Nigerian nurses’ engagement in HPBs. HPBs were operationalized to comprise of healthy dietary behaviors, engagement in physical activity, low-risk alcohol consumption, and non-smoking behaviors. Our study was carried out in a large sub-urban tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Data collection was via face-to-face semi-structured interviews and participants were registered nurses (n = 18). Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically to produce nine themes that were mapped onto corresponding levels of influence on the SEM. Findings show that in Nigeria, nurses perceive there to be a lack of organizational and policy level initiatives and interventions to facilitate their engagement in HPBs. The determinants of Nigerian nurses’ HPBs span across all five levels of the SEM. Nurses perceived more barriers to healthy lifestyle behaviors than facilitators. Engagement in healthy behaviors was heavily influenced by: societal and organizational infrastructure and perceived value for public health; job-related factors such as occupational stress, high workload, lack of protected breaks, and shift-work; cultural and religious beliefs; financial issues; and health-related knowledge. Organizations should provide facilities and services to support healthy lifestyle choices in Nigeria nurses. Government policies should prioritize the promotion of health through the workplace setting, by advocating the development, implementation, regulation, and monitoring of healthy lifestyle policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
A Cost and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Stand More AT Work (SMArT Work) Intervention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041214 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
This study conducted a cost and cost-benefit analysis of the Stand More AT (SMArT) Work workplace intervention, designed to reduce sitting time. The study was a cluster two-armed randomised controlled trial involving 37 office clusters (146 desk-based workers) in a National Health Service [...] Read more.
This study conducted a cost and cost-benefit analysis of the Stand More AT (SMArT) Work workplace intervention, designed to reduce sitting time. The study was a cluster two-armed randomised controlled trial involving 37 office clusters (146 desk-based workers) in a National Health Service Trust. The intervention group received a height-adjustable workstation with supporting behaviour change strategies. The control group continued with usual practice. Self-report absenteeism, presenteeism and work productivity were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months; and organisational sickness absence records 12 months prior to, and 12 months of the intervention. Mean per employee costs associated with SMArT Work were calculated. Absenteeism, presenteeism and work productivity were estimated, and employer-recorded absence data and employee wage-banding were used to provide a human-capital-based estimate of costs to the organisation. The return-on-investment (ROI) and incremental cost-efficacy ratios (ICER) were calculated. Intervention cost was £692.40 per employee. Cost-benefit estimates show a net saving of £1770.32 (95%CI £-354.40, £3895.04) per employee as a result of productivity increase. There were no significant differences in absence data compared to the control group. SMArT Work provides supporting evidence for policy-makers and employers on the cost benefits of reducing sitting time at work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Device-Measured Sedentary Behaviour are Associated with Sickness Absence in Office Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020628 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Physical activity reduces the risk of several noncommunicable diseases, and a number of studies have found self-reported physical activity to be associated with sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine if cardiorespiratory fitness, device-measured physical activity, and sedentary behaviour were [...] Read more.
Physical activity reduces the risk of several noncommunicable diseases, and a number of studies have found self-reported physical activity to be associated with sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine if cardiorespiratory fitness, device-measured physical activity, and sedentary behaviour were associated with sickness absence among office workers. Participants were recruited from two Swedish companies. Data on sickness absence (frequency and duration) and covariates were collected via questionnaires. Physical activity pattern was assessed using ActiGraph and activPAL, and fitness was estimated from submaximal cycle ergometry. The sample consisted of 159 office workers (67% women, aged 43 ± 8 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for both sickness absence duration (OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–0.96) and frequency (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.90–0.97). Sedentary time was positively associated with higher odds of sickness absence frequency (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.99–1.08). No associations were found for physical activity at any intensity level and sickness absence. Higher sickness absence was found among office workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness and more daily time spent sedentary. In contrast to reports using self-reported physical activity, device-measured physical activity was not associated with sickness absence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Simulation Training to Promote Nurses’ Effective Handling of Workplace Violence: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193648 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Background: Workplace violence in the health care sector has become a growing global problem. Research has shown that although caregivers comprise a high-risk group exposed to workplace violence, most of them lacked the skills and countermeasures against workplace violence. Therefore, through a [...] Read more.
Background: Workplace violence in the health care sector has become a growing global problem. Research has shown that although caregivers comprise a high-risk group exposed to workplace violence, most of them lacked the skills and countermeasures against workplace violence. Therefore, through a quasi-experimental design, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of situational simulation training on the nursing staffs’ concept and self-confidence in coping with workplace violence. Methods: Workplace violence simulation trainings were applied based on the systematic literature review and the conclusions from focus group interviews with nursing staff. Data were obtained from structured questionnaires including: (1) baseline characteristics; (2) perception of aggression scale (POAS); and (3) confidence in coping with patient aggression. Results: The results revealed that training course intervention significantly improved the nursing staffs’ self-perception and confidence against workplace violence (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The “simulation education on workplace violence training” as the intervention significantly improved the workplace violence perception and confidence among nursing staffs in coping with aggression events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessProtocol
The Effectiveness of Digital Interventions for Psychological Well-Being in the Workplace: A Systematic Review Protocol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010255 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
Objective: Psychological well-being has been associated with desirable individual and organisational outcomes. This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of digital interventions for the improvement of psychological well-being and/or the prevention/management of poor mental well-being in the workplace. Methods: This review protocol [...] Read more.
Objective: Psychological well-being has been associated with desirable individual and organisational outcomes. This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of digital interventions for the improvement of psychological well-being and/or the prevention/management of poor mental well-being in the workplace. Methods: This review protocol is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019142428). Scientific databases including MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE will be searched for relevant studies published between January 1990 and July 2019. Studies will be included if they report specific primary and secondary outcomes of digital interventions delivered to adults in the workplace for the improvement of their psychological wellbeing and/or the prevention/management of poor mental well-being and were published in English. Following screening of titles and abstracts, full texts of potentially eligible papers will be screened in duplicate to identify studies that assess the effectiveness of those digital interventions. Discrepancies will be resolved through consensus or by consulting a third reviewer. An integrated narrative synthesis will assess included studies’ findings, and a meta-analysis will be performed if included studies appear to be homogeneous. The “Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias” tool and the JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies will be used to appraise included studies. Conclusion: The results of this work will provide recommendations on the use of digital interventions for the promotion of psychological well-being at work. It will also guide the development of future workplace digital interventions and subsequent primary research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
How Abusive Supervision Affects Employees’ Unethical Behaviors: A Moderated Mediation Examination of Turnover Intentions and Caring Climate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214187 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Drawing on psychological contract theory, this research contributes to the unethical behavior literature by exploring employees’ turnover intentions as a mediator of the relationship between abusive supervision and employees’ unethical behavior and the moderating role of the caring climate in the relationship between [...] Read more.
Drawing on psychological contract theory, this research contributes to the unethical behavior literature by exploring employees’ turnover intentions as a mediator of the relationship between abusive supervision and employees’ unethical behavior and the moderating role of the caring climate in the relationship between turnover intentions and unethical behavior. The results from a sample of 679 reveal that turnover intentions mediate relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates’ unethical behavior, and caring climate moderates the positive relationship between turnover intentions and subordinates’ unethical behavior. We also find that the indirect effect is moderated by the caring climate. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessReview
Combined Interventions to Reduce Burnout Complaints and Promote Return to Work: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Mediators of Change
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010055 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Burnout has adverse effects on the health and work-related outcomes of employees. Nevertheless, little is known about effective ways of reducing burnout complaints and facilitating full return to work, which defines rehabilitation. This study consists of a systematic review of the effects of [...] Read more.
Burnout has adverse effects on the health and work-related outcomes of employees. Nevertheless, little is known about effective ways of reducing burnout complaints and facilitating full return to work, which defines rehabilitation. This study consists of a systematic review of the effects of combined interventions (i.e., both person-directed and organization-directed). It also includes the identification and description of mediators of change, thereby explaining how combined interventions do or do not work. Seven electronic databases were searched for English peer-reviewed publications: the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; PsycARTICLES; Web of Science; Scopus; SocINDEX; PubMed; and PsycINFO, using various combinations of search terms (e.g., burnout AND intervention). Out of 4110 abstracts published before 29 September, 2019, 10 studies (reporting the effects of nine combined interventions) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, which were defined using PICOS criteria (participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study design). Although the risk of bias of the included studies is high, all combined interventions were effective in facilitating rehabilitation. Results suggest that involving employees in decision-making and enhance their job control and social support, while eliminating stressors, explain the effectiveness of the intentions. With caution, workplace health promotion practitioners are encouraged to use these findings to tackle burnout among employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Culture, Work, and Subjective Well-Being: The Role of LMX and Resilience in Spanish and Chinese Cultures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244945 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Globalization and interdependencies among nations require a better understanding of the influence of culture on organizational processes. In order to succeed in global business, leaders have to respond to practices that may be different in diverse cultures. This study was conducted within the [...] Read more.
Globalization and interdependencies among nations require a better understanding of the influence of culture on organizational processes. In order to succeed in global business, leaders have to respond to practices that may be different in diverse cultures. This study was conducted within the framework of the leader member exchange approach and from a positive perspective of organizations linking successful businesses and workers’ well-being. The aim of this study was to examine whether the quality of the relationship with the leader predicts engagement and life satisfaction, and whether resilience moderates this relationship in two different cultural contexts (Spanish and Chinese). The sample was composed of 277 workers (127 Chinese workers corresponding to a vertical-collectivistic culture and 150 Spanish workers representing a horizontal-individualistic culture). To test the hypotheses, a structural equations model (SEM) was conducted using the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation method. Results revealed that leader-member exchange (LMX) positively predicts engagement and life satisfaction and that the moderator role of resilience varies across cultures. Resilience moderated the relationship between LMX and engagement and life satisfaction only in the Spanish sample. In the Chinese sample, resilience only moderated the relation between LMX and life satisfaction. Finally, our study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between leaders and subordinates operating in a global context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in the Association between European Workers’ Employment Conditions and Employee Well-Being in 2005, 2010 and 2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031048 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study whether there is a change in the association between employment conditions and European employees’ well-being at three different time points (the years 2005, 2010 and 2015), characterized by different socio-economic contexts. We based our study [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to study whether there is a change in the association between employment conditions and European employees’ well-being at three different time points (the years 2005, 2010 and 2015), characterized by different socio-economic contexts. We based our study on the European Working Conditions Survey. Logistic regressions were performed by adjusting for gender, age, level of education, seniority, occupation, establishment size, activity sector and economic activity. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported. In general, the association between employment conditions (type of employment contract, supervising, weekly working hours, long working hours, other paid jobs, working at weekends or doing shifts) and well-being indicators (anxiety, fatigue and dissatisfaction) seemed to continue being harmful, or had even changed for the worse since 2005. The paper briefly discusses the possible reasons for this situation and calls for future research on the relation between well-being and irregular type of contracts, self-employment, supervising others or hours worked per week. Some implications in public health policies are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
“This Isn’t Just about Things, It’s about People and Their Future”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Working Conditions and Strains of Social Workers in Refugee and Homeless Aid
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203858 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Large parts of Europe have been affected by an influx of refugees and increasing homelessness in recent years. Social workers provide care services for refugees and homeless people, but little is known about their working conditions. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Large parts of Europe have been affected by an influx of refugees and increasing homelessness in recent years. Social workers provide care services for refugees and homeless people, but little is known about their working conditions. The aim of this study was to examine their job demands, resources and health strains. 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with social workers in refugee and homeless aid in Hamburg and Berlin between October and December 2017. The interviews were analysed following Mayring’s qualitative content analysis. Additionally, the job demands and resources of social workers with and without long-term psychological strain were compared. Respondents particularly experienced demands concerning their job content and work organisation, including emotional and quantitative demands. Appreciation expressed by clients and social support from the team served as key resources. Respondents had problems switching off from work, were exhausted and exhibited signs of long-term psychological strain, such as symptoms of burnout or depressive states. Workers reporting long-term psychological strain were more likely to consider themselves as being adversely constrained by legal requirements and to describe inadequate supervision offers and team conflicts. In conclusion, the results indicate the need for job-specific health promotion measures reducing particularly demands concerning social workers’ job content and work organisation and further strengthening their social support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Health and Work Environment among Female and Male Swedish Elementary School Teachers—A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010227 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Background and objectives: Changes in teachers’ work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Changes in teachers’ work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish elementary school teachers experience their health, organizational and social work environment, and the psychosocial safety climate at the workplace, and especially differences and similarities between female and male teachers. Materials and methods: Data were collected with the COPSOQ, OLBI, UWES and PSC-12 from 478 elementary teachers, 81.0% of them women, from twenty schools. The response rate was 96.4%. Results: Teachers reported relatively good general health but experienced high stress, high work pace and emotional demands, low influence at work and a poor psychosocial safety climate. These factors were especially prominent among female teachers. Both women and men experienced good development possibilities and high work engagement. Conclusions: The results of this study can help us to develop a more sustainable work environment for female and male teachers. A more sustainable work environment might attract more people to the profession and incentivize existing teachers to remain in the profession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Development and Fidelity Testing of the [email protected] Digital Toolkit for Employers on Workplace Health Checks and Opt-In HIV Testing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010379 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Background: In the UK, few employers offer general health checks for employees, and opt-in HIV testing is rarely included. There is a need to provide evidence-based guidance and support for employers around health checks and HIV testing in the workplace. An Agile approach [...] Read more.
Background: In the UK, few employers offer general health checks for employees, and opt-in HIV testing is rarely included. There is a need to provide evidence-based guidance and support for employers around health checks and HIV testing in the workplace. An Agile approach was used to develop and evaluate a digital toolkit to facilitate employers’ understanding about workplace health screening. Methods: The [email protected] toolkit development included an online survey (STAGE 1: n = 201), stakeholder consultation (STAGE 2: n = 19), expert peer review (STAGE 3: n = 24), and pilot testing (STAGE 4: n = 20). The toolkit includes employer guidance on workplace health promotion, workplace health screening, and confidential opt-in HIV testing with signposting to resources. Pilot testing included assessment of fidelity (delivery and engagement) and implementation qualities (attitudes, resources, practicality, acceptability, usability and cost). Results: STAGE 1: The vast majority of respondents would consider offering general health checks in the workplace that included confidential opt-in HIV testing, and this view was broadly comparable across organisation types (n = 201; public: 87.8%; private: 89.7%; third: 87.1%). STAGES 2 and 3: Stakeholders highlighted essential content considerations: (1) inclusion of the business case for workplace health initiatives, (2) clear pathways to employer responsibilities, and (3) presenting HIV-related information alongside other areas of health. With regards presentation, stakeholders proposed that the toolkit should be concise, with clear signposting and be hosted on a trusted portal. STAGE 4: Employers were satisfied with the toolkit content, usability and utility. The toolkit had high fidelity with regards to delivery and employer engagement. Assessment of implementation qualities showed high usability and practicality, with low perceived burden for completion and acceptable cost implications. Very few resource challenges were reported, and the toolkit was considered to be appropriate for any type of organisation, irrespective of size or resources. Conclusions: Employers perceived the [email protected] toolkit to be useful, meaningful and appropriate for their needs. This digital resource could be used to support employers to engage with health screening and opt-in HIV testing within the context of workplace health promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Work-Life Balance in Great Companies and Pending Issues for Engaging New Generations at Work
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245122 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2490
Abstract
The changing nature of employment and work causes new demands in society, such as work-life balance, that has emerged in labor relations as an important aspect of a healthy work environment. In this context, Best Companies to Work for are a reference in [...] Read more.
The changing nature of employment and work causes new demands in society, such as work-life balance, that has emerged in labor relations as an important aspect of a healthy work environment. In this context, Best Companies to Work for are a reference in caring for their staff, and it is well known that new generations—that frequently use the Internet to be informed—are making their decisions as job seekers by checking and comparing corporate websites. In order to learn from the best companies, but also to discover what could be improved by identifying the gaps, this study observes the current work-life balance practices in the last Best Companies to Work for awarded by Fortune. The main contribution of this work is the development of a weighted index for benchmarking purposes considering the preferences of new generations at work. The study demonstrates that the best companies still report low levels of work-life balance information. The main implication drawn from the study, due the requirements of new generations at work and the rapidly emerging field of e-recruiting, is the need for human resource departments to fit work and personal life in a fluid way, while maintaining a healthy balance. It is also recommended for companies to improve their disclosure of work-life practices on line for attracting talent from Millennials and Generation Z. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Financial Incentives for Successful Smoking Cessation in Real-Life Company Settings: A Qualitative Needs Assessment among Employers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245135 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
Randomized studies have shown that financial incentives can significantly increase the effect of smoking cessation treatment in company settings. Evidence of effectiveness alone is, however, not enough to ensure that companies will offer this intervention. Knowledge about the barriers and facilitators for implementation [...] Read more.
Randomized studies have shown that financial incentives can significantly increase the effect of smoking cessation treatment in company settings. Evidence of effectiveness alone is, however, not enough to ensure that companies will offer this intervention. Knowledge about the barriers and facilitators for implementation in the workplace is needed, in order to develop an implementation strategy. We performed a qualitative needs assessment among 18 employers working in companies with relatively many employees with a low educational level, and our study revealed priority actions that aim to improve the implementation process in these types of workplaces. First, employers need training and support in how to reach their employees and convince them to take part in the group training. Second, employers need to be convinced that their non-smoking employees will not consider the incentives unfair, or they should be enabled to offer alternative incentives that are considered less unfair. Third, the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation group trainings including financial incentives should be explained to employers. Finally, smoking cessation should become a standard part of workplace-based health policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Size Matters: A Latent Class Analysis of Workplace Health Promotion Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Likelihood of Action in Small Workplaces
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041251 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Workplace health programs (WHPs) have been shown to improve employee health behaviours and outcomes, increase productivity, and decrease work-related costs over time. Nonetheless, organizational characteristics, including size, prevent certain workplaces from implementing these programs. Past research has examined the differences between small and [...] Read more.
Workplace health programs (WHPs) have been shown to improve employee health behaviours and outcomes, increase productivity, and decrease work-related costs over time. Nonetheless, organizational characteristics, including size, prevent certain workplaces from implementing these programs. Past research has examined the differences between small and large organizations. However, these studies have typically used a cut-off better suited to large countries such as the USA. Generalizing such studies to countries that differ based on population size, scale of economies, and health systems is problematic. We investigated differences in WHP knowledge, attitudes, and practices between organizations with under 20 employees, 20–99 employees, and more than 100 employees. In 2017–2018, a random sample of employers from 528 workplaces in Alberta, Canada, were contacted for participation in a cross-sectional survey. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify underlying response pattern and to group clusters of similar responses to categorical variables focused on WHP knowledge, attitudes, practices and likelihood of action. Compared to large organizations, organizations with fewer than 20 employees were more likely to be members of the Medium–Low Knowledge of WHP latent class (p = 0.01), the Low Practices for WHP latent class (p < 0.001), and more likely to be members of Low Likelihood of Action in place latent class (p = 0.033). While the majority of workplaces, regardless of size, recognized the importance and benefits of workplace health, capacity challenges limited small employers’ ability to plan and implement WHP programs. The differences in capacity to implement WHP in small organizations are masked in the absence of a meaningful cut-off that reflects the legal and demographic reality of the region of study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Occupational, Transport, Leisure-Time, and Overall Sedentary Behaviors and Their Associations with the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among High-Tech Company Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103353 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
This study examined the associations of overall and domain-specific (i.e., occupational, transport, and leisure-time) sedentary behaviors with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among high-tech company employees in Taiwan. A total of 363 participants employed at high-tech companies (mean age ± standard deviation: 37.4 [...] Read more.
This study examined the associations of overall and domain-specific (i.e., occupational, transport, and leisure-time) sedentary behaviors with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among high-tech company employees in Taiwan. A total of 363 participants employed at high-tech companies (mean age ± standard deviation: 37.4 ± 7.2 years) completed a questionnaire administered by email regarding their overall, occupational, transport, and leisure-time sedentary behaviors. Self-reported data of height and weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, and total cholesterol levels were also collected in 2018. An adjusted binary logistic regression model was employed in the analysis. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, high-tech company employees who used a computer (or Internet) for more than 2 h per day during their leisure time were more likely to have CVD risk factors (odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–3.00). No significant associations with CVD risk factors were detected for total sedentary time, occupational sitting, television viewing time, and transport-related sitting. Despite the nature of cross-sectional design in this study, our findings may have considerable implications for intervention designers and policymakers of Taiwan. Developing effective strategies for limiting leisure-time computer use should be considered for the prevention of CVD among high-tech company employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Workplace Violence in Chinese Hospitals: The Effects of Healthcare Disturbance on the Psychological Well-Being of Chinese Healthcare Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193687 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Healthcare disturbance is a form of workplace violence against healthcare workers perpetrated by patients, their relatives, and gangs hired by them. It is a prevalent phenomenon in China, where evidence suggests that it impacts on the job satisfaction of healthcare workers. This study [...] Read more.
Healthcare disturbance is a form of workplace violence against healthcare workers perpetrated by patients, their relatives, and gangs hired by them. It is a prevalent phenomenon in China, where evidence suggests that it impacts on the job satisfaction of healthcare workers. This study aims to examine the relationship between healthcare disturbance, surface acting as a response to emotional labour, and depressive symptoms in Chinese healthcare workers. The study adopted a cross-sectional design and used an online survey methodology. Data were collected from 418 doctors and nurses from one hospital in China. The results showed that frequency of healthcare disturbance was positively related to surface acting and depressive symptoms, respectively; surface acting was also positively related to depression, while deep acting showed no effect on symptoms of depression. Furthermore, surface acting in response to emotional labour mediated the relationship between healthcare disturbance and depressive symptoms. The results highlight the importance of preventing healthcare disturbance and of training healthcare staff in strategies for managing emotional demands in reducing depressive symptoms in Chinese healthcare staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
What Does a Single-Item Measure of Job Stressfulness Assess?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091480 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Single-item measures of global job stressfulness are increasingly used in occupational health research, yet their construct validity remains unexplored. This study used a qualitative approach to identify frames of reference that underlie self-ratings on such a measure. Data were collected from a convenience [...] Read more.
Single-item measures of global job stressfulness are increasingly used in occupational health research, yet their construct validity remains unexplored. This study used a qualitative approach to identify frames of reference that underlie self-ratings on such a measure. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 55 adults in full-time employment who completed a single-item measure inviting a rating of the extent to which their job is generally stressful. A cognitive interview schedule was used to explore the factors taken into account when providing a global rating, with thematic analysis applied to identify themes in the interview transcripts. The most common frames of reference were the presence of problematic psychosocial working conditions, particularly job demands. Health characteristics, predominantly poor psychological wellbeing, emerged as a further less dominant secondary theme. Almost half the sample cited four or more referents. In terms of the timeframe under consideration, most participants referred to a long timeframe such as their work in general, with some specifying their current job and, a few, recent weeks. These findings shed light on the frames of reference used to inform judgements on global job stressfulness elicited by a single-item measure and in doing so contribute to the evidence base to support the application of such measures in occupational health research and organisational psychosocial risk management activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
The Association between Organizational Justice and Psychological Well-Being by Regular Exercise in Korean Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122223 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Many studies have shown that organizational justice (OJ) is related to psychological determinants of employees’ physical and mental health in the workplace, and these health outcomes also lead to the psychological well-being (PW) of employees. Additionally, physical activity is one of the most [...] Read more.
Many studies have shown that organizational justice (OJ) is related to psychological determinants of employees’ physical and mental health in the workplace, and these health outcomes also lead to the psychological well-being (PW) of employees. Additionally, physical activity is one of the most important issues related to health in the workplace. This study compared the level of perceived OJ according to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and examined the association between OJ and PW by regular exercise (hours per week) in Korean employees. This study used cross-sectional data obtained from 494 subjects in South Korea. Self-administered questionnaires comprising OJ, PW, and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, drinking, sleeping, and exercise) were completed by employees in April 2017. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the association of procedural justice (PJ) and interactional justice (IJ) with the prevalence odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the high risk to PW. After the adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, the main effects of PJ and IJ on the high risk to PW were significantly observed, and when these values were stratified by a regular exercise category, the lowest odds ratio was observed in a group that exercised for 1–2 h (hours per week). Organizations must encourage trust and consideration between employees and supervisors and carry out efforts to improve their environment, such as making the decision-making process fairer and encouraging employees to exercise regularly. This intervention may help prevent a high risk to PW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Well-Being: Its Relationship with Work-to-Family Conflict and Burnout among Males and Females
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132291 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
The present study aims to apply gender-specific analyses to examine how work-to-family conflict (WFC) and burnout are related to well-being among the workers in Taiwan. A cross-sectional research design was adopted. A questionnaire was distributed to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, WFC, [...] Read more.
The present study aims to apply gender-specific analyses to examine how work-to-family conflict (WFC) and burnout are related to well-being among the workers in Taiwan. A cross-sectional research design was adopted. A questionnaire was distributed to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, WFC, burnout, and well-being. In total, 4259 full-time workers in the manufacturing industry were recruited. Gender-specific statistical analyses were used. The results showed that no significant gender difference occurred on WFC; however, females had higher scores on burnout compared to males. In the correlation analyses, WFC as well as burnout were negatively associated with well-being in both genders. In the regression analyses when demographic factors were controlled, burnout explained larger variances of well-being in both genders compared with WFC. WFC made a smaller contribution to the models predicting well-being in males in contrast to females. Moreover, the significant association between WFC and well-being for males disappeared when burnout was taken into account. The conclusion reached was that to improve workers’ well-being, organizations should develop relevant policies to decrease the extent of burnout for different genders. The policies that the organization adopted should consider females’ needs beyond work-related burden. Moreover, merely decreasing the extent of WFC is insufficient to enhance males’ well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
The Interaction Effects of Burnout and Job Support on Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) among Firefighters and Policemen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132369 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Policemen and firefighters encounter numerous emergency events that frequently lead to high burnout and low job support, resulting in adverse health effects. A number of studies reported the correlation between job characteristics and the risk of peptic ulcer diseases (PUD) across various industries. [...] Read more.
Policemen and firefighters encounter numerous emergency events that frequently lead to high burnout and low job support, resulting in adverse health effects. A number of studies reported the correlation between job characteristics and the risk of peptic ulcer diseases (PUD) across various industries. However, there is very little research on evaluating the interaction effects of burnout and job support on the prevalence of PUD among firefighters and policemen. The objective of this study was to assess the interactional effects between burnout and job support on the prevalence of PUD among firefighters and policemen. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study. Registered, full-time police officers and firefighters in Taiwan were anonymously interviewed by a mail-delivered questionnaire. All female workers were excluded due to different job characteristics and a limited sample size. A total of 9328 firefighters and 42,798 policemen completed the questionnaire, with a response rate of 78.7%. Overall, prevalence rates of self-reported and self-reports of physician-diagnosed PUD were 8.3% and 6.5% for policemen and 7.1% and 5.5% for firefighters, respectively. There was a 22% reduced odds ratio of PUD as diagnosed by physicians for the group with low burnout and high job support, but an increased odds ratio of 53% for the group with high burnout and low job support, after adjusting for lifestyle and demographic variables. There must be an increase of job support and reduction of burnout through the modification of work structure and setting up of counseling services to reduce workplace stress and the prevalence of PUD among policemen and firefighters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Health Behaviors as a Mediator of the Association Between Interpersonal Relationships and Physical Health in a Workplace Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132392 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
The etiology of diseases is multifactorial, involving genetic, environmental, and lifestyle-related behaviors. Considering the pathway that involves behavioral processes, a huge body of empirical evidence has shown that some healthy behaviors such as non-smoking, any or moderate alcohol consumption, a healthy diet, (e.g., [...] Read more.
The etiology of diseases is multifactorial, involving genetic, environmental, and lifestyle-related behaviors. Considering the pathway that involves behavioral processes, a huge body of empirical evidence has shown that some healthy behaviors such as non-smoking, any or moderate alcohol consumption, a healthy diet, (e.g., fruit and vegetable intake), and physical activity, decrease the risk of disease and mortality. This study aimed to explore the potential mediating effect of combined health behaviors on the association between interpersonal relationships and physical health in a Brazilian adult worker population from the Occupational Health Service within the oil industry in Bahia, Brazil. The sample included 611 workers, of which 567 (92.8%) were males and 44 (7.2%) females, age ranging from 18 to 73 years (M = 41.95; SD = 8.88). The significant predictors of physical health were interpersonal relationships and health behaviors. Health behaviors contributed significantly to a reduction in the effect of interpersonal relationships on physical health outcomes. As far as it is known, there has been no prior work in Brazil that simultaneously examined the best predictors of physical health in oil workers using this conceptual model. Interventions in the workplace environment need to consider health behavior as a mediator between interpersonal relationships and physical health, aligned in a global psychosocial approach to health at work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
Open AccessArticle
How Does Internal and External CSR Affect Employees’ Work Engagement? Exploring Multiple Mediation Mechanisms and Boundary Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142476 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
We investigate the different mechanisms concerning how employees’ perceptions of external and internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) serve to influence employees’ work engagement. By combining social exchange theory and social identity theory, we implement and examine an integrated moderated mediation framework in which [...] Read more.
We investigate the different mechanisms concerning how employees’ perceptions of external and internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) serve to influence employees’ work engagement. By combining social exchange theory and social identity theory, we implement and examine an integrated moderated mediation framework in which employees’ value orientations (e.g., collectivism or individualism) impact the mediating mechanism between their perceived external and internal CSR, organizational pride and perceived organizational support (POS), and work engagement. This work fills a research gap to examine the indirect relationship between employees’ perceptions of external and internal CSR and work engagement. Using two periods of survey data from 250 working employees in China, we find that employees’ perceptions of external CSR positively influence work engagement via organizational pride. The value of collectivism strengthens the direct effect of employees’ perceptions of external CSR on work engagement, and the indirect effect of employees’ perceptions of external CSR on work engagement via organizational pride. Moreover, employees’ perceptions of internal CSR positively influence work engagement via POS. The value of individualism strengthens the direct effect of employees’ perceptions of internal CSR on work engagement, and the indirect effect of employees’ perceptions of internal CSR on work engagement via POS. The results contribute to both theory and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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“Woulda, Coulda, Shoulda”. Workers’ Proactivity in the Association between Emotional Demands and Mental Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183309 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The present study aimed to explore the mediating role of hostile customer relations in the association between emotional dissonance and workers’ mental health. Moreover, the moderating role of proactive personality as a buffer against hostile customer relations was assessed. Emotional demands become crucial [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to explore the mediating role of hostile customer relations in the association between emotional dissonance and workers’ mental health. Moreover, the moderating role of proactive personality as a buffer against hostile customer relations was assessed. Emotional demands become crucial within professions that involve a direct relationship with clients and, if poorly managed, can negatively affect workers’ health and performance. Accordingly, data were collected on a sample of n = 918 mass-retail employees working for one of the leading Italian supermarket companies. Most participants were women (62.7%) with a mean age = 40.38 (SD = 7.68). The results of a moderated mediation analysis revealed that emotional dissonance was related to more hostile customer relations that, in turn, were associated with higher rates of mental health symptoms. Proactive personality emerged as a protecting factor that prevented the onset of conflicts with clients, particularly among workers experiencing high levels of emotional dissonance. The identification of resources enabling management of emotional demands could suggest suitable adaptive strategies for customer-facing roles, thus preventing the occurrence of adverse mental health symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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How Should Stressors Be Examined in Teachers? Answering Questions about Dimensionality, Generalizability and Predictive Effects Using the Multicontext Stressors Scale
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183388 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Using the Multicontext Stressors Scale (MSS), this study investigates which factorial structure should be used to measure teacher stressors, and the extent to which this factorial structure of MSS remains invariant across gender. Subsequently, grounded in self-determination theory, the present study also examines [...] Read more.
Using the Multicontext Stressors Scale (MSS), this study investigates which factorial structure should be used to measure teacher stressors, and the extent to which this factorial structure of MSS remains invariant across gender. Subsequently, grounded in self-determination theory, the present study also examines the extent to which stressors may differentially predict teachers' psychological functioning. Participants were 584 (Mage = 45.04; SD = 8.97) secondary school teachers. Goodness-of-fit indices and estimated parameters of the models, together with latent correlations between stressors, offered support for the six-factor structure, whereas the opposite was true for the one-factor structure of the MSS. Results also supported gender invariance of the MSS. Predictive findings showed that student misbehavior, lack of shared decision-making, and workload stressors are negatively related to basic psychological needs. Likewise, results noted the important role of basic psychological needs to reach optimal teachers' psychological functioning. The results are discussed, arguing the importance of assessing and analyzing teacher stressors using a multifactorial and invariant scale. From a more practical approach, it seems important for school leaders to be especially vigilant about all stressors. Nonetheless, if they desire to prevent detrimental psychological functioning in teachers, special attention should be placed on stressors related to student misbehavior, lack of shared decision-making, and workload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Move-It: A Cluster-Randomised Digital Worksite Exercise Intervention in China: Outcome and Process Evaluation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183451 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
We evaluate the outcomes and processes of a video and web-based worksite exercise intervention for sedentary office workers in China, in a 2-arm cluster-randomised wait-list control trial (n = 282: intervention (INT) n = 196 and wait-list control (WLC) n = 86). [...] Read more.
We evaluate the outcomes and processes of a video and web-based worksite exercise intervention for sedentary office workers in China, in a 2-arm cluster-randomised wait-list control trial (n = 282: intervention (INT) n = 196 and wait-list control (WLC) n = 86). Eligible clusters were two sites of a major organisation in China randomly allocated to each group (INT: Guangzhou; WLC: Beijing); eligible participants were site employees (n = 690). A theoretically informed digital workplace intervention (Move-It) involving a 10 min Qigong exercise session (video demonstration via website) was delivered twice a day at set break times during the working day for 12 consecutive weeks. Individual-level outcomes were assessed. Participants’ physical activity increased significantly from baseline to post-intervention similarly in both the intervention and the control group. There was a significantly smaller increase in weekday sitting hours in intervention than controls (by 4.66 h/week), and work performance increased only in the control group. Process evaluation (including six focus groups) was conducted using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework. The intervention had wide reach and was successfully marketed to all employees with good uptake. The participatory approach increased perceived organisational support and enhanced adoption. The intervention was implemented broadly as planned. Qigong worksite exercise intervention can be successfully delivered to sedentary office workers in China using video and web-based platforms. It may increase physical activity and does not adversely affect perceived work performance. The study highlights the complexity of conducting health promotion research in real-world organisational settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Occupational Class Differences in Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Breast Cancer during 2005–2013: A Population-Based Study among Finnish Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183477 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Western countries with clear socioeconomic differences. Higher occupational class is associated with higher breast cancer incidence but with better survival from the disease, whereas lower occupational class is associated with higher risk of [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Western countries with clear socioeconomic differences. Higher occupational class is associated with higher breast cancer incidence but with better survival from the disease, whereas lower occupational class is associated with higher risk of sickness absence. We are not aware of previous studies examining changes over time in occupational class differences in sickness absence due to breast cancer. This paper focuses on occupational class differences in the incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer over the period of 2005–2013. Age-adjusted occupational class differences in the cumulative incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer were calculated utilising a nationally representative 70% random sample of employed Finnish women aged 35–64 years (yearly N varying between 499,778 and 519,318). The results show that higher occupational class was associated with higher annual cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to breast cancer. Lower occupational class was associated with longer duration of absence. Occupational class differences in both cumulative incidence and duration of absence remained broadly stable. As a conclusion, these results suggest that measures should be targeted particularly to promotion of work capacity among employees with breast cancer in lower occupational classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Varicella Seroprevalence in Healthcare Workers at a Medical Center Following Changes in National and Local Hospital Vaccination Policies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193544 - 22 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Background: Varicella seroprevalence in healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan was assessed following the inclusion of varicella zoster vaccination in the national vaccination schedule in 2004 and was made a hospital policy in 2008. Methods: Seroprevalence data were extracted from [...] Read more.
Background: Varicella seroprevalence in healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan was assessed following the inclusion of varicella zoster vaccination in the national vaccination schedule in 2004 and was made a hospital policy in 2008. Methods: Seroprevalence data were extracted from records of pre-employment health check-ups performed between 2008 and 2018 at a single medical center. Staff with complete medical records and anti-varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G (VZV IgG) titers were included. Sex and age group differences in terms of geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared using analysis of variance and chi-squared tests. The significance of the correlation between age and the anti-VZV IgG titer was tested by linear regression. The odds of significant associations among age, sex, vocation, and the years of national and hospital adoption of vaccination were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 7314 eligible participants, 5625 (76.90%) were women, and the mean patient age was 26.80 ± 8.00 years. The lowest VZV-positivity rates were in 18–20-year-old women (85.16%; GMT, 362.89 mIU/mL) and men (87.59%; GMT, 288.07 mIU/mL). VZV positivity increased with age (p < 0.001). Participants born before 2002 were more likely to be seropositive than those born after 2003 (odds ratio, 2.51 vs. 1.0; p < 0.001). The lowest seropositive rate was found in the nursing staff (88.91%; 95% confidence interval, 87.74%–90.05%). Varicella vaccine boosters have been required at pre-employment health check-ups since 2008 if anti-VZV antibodies were not detectable. A follow-up evaluation found marginal significant differences in the odds ratios of seropositivity after 2007 (p = 0.052), especially in 2008 and 2014 (p < 0.05) after the hospital policy launched. Conclusions: Despite public health efforts, a small number of healthcare workers were inadequately protected, and antibody titers were lower than required to maintain herd immunity. For effective prevention of nosocomial infection, VZV IgG status should be documented for all HCWs, and susceptible HCWs should be vaccinated to avoid outbreaks. Pre-employment screening and vaccination have increased immunity and need to be conducted to ensure protection of vulnerable patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019)
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