Premenstrual Symptoms and Work: Exploring Female Staff Experiences and Recommendations for Workplaces
1.1. Premenstrual Symptoms and Work
1.2. Aims and Research Questions
- What is the prevalence and severity of premenstrual symptoms in a sample of working women in the UK?
- To what extent does premenstrual symptom severity relate to work absenteeism, job performance, presenteeism, and turnover intentions?
- Are there any individual or work-related variables that are significantly associated premenstrual symptom severity?
- To what extent are premenstrual symptoms and their consequences on work being disclosed to line managers and why?
- What recommendations and suggestions do staff have for employing organizations and line managers to support and help staff with work difficulties associated with premenstrual symptoms?
2. Materials and Methods
2.1.1. Individual and Work-Related Variables
2.1.2. Premenstrual Symptom-Related Variables
2.1.3. Work Outcome Variables
2.1.4. Disclosure, Recommendations and Suggestions for Organizations and Line Managers
3.1. Overall Sample Characteristics
3.1.1. Research Question 1. Premenstrual Symptom Prevalence and Severity
3.1.2. Research Question 2. Associations between Premenstrual Symptom Severity and Work Outcomes
3.1.3. Research Question 3. Associations between Premenstrual Symptom Severity and Individual- and Work-Related Variables
3.1.4. Research Question 4. Line Manager Disclosure for Premenstrual Symptoms and Work Absence
3.1.5. Research Question 5. Recommendations and Suggestions for Employing Organizations and Line Manager Behavior
Showing Understanding and Acceptance
Appropriate Talking and Communication
Accommodating Policies and Flexibility
Appropriate Resources and Work Environments
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Work Outcome||n||No/Mild Premenstrual Symptom Severity||n||Moderate/Severe Premenstrual Symptom Severity||T-Value||p|
|Job performance||75||M = 3.97 (SD = 0.75)||48||M = 3.75 (SD = 0.73)||1.62||0.12|
|Presenteeism 1||74||M = 22.80 (SD = 4.81)||47||M = 17.87 (SD = 4.21)||5.93||0.00 ***|
|Turnover intention 2||76||M = 3.07 (SD = 1.14)||49||M = 3.17 (SD = 0.86)||−0.53||0.60|
Premenstrual Symptom Severity
Premenstrual Symptom Severity
|Work Absence 1:|
|(i) Ever taken time off||No||70||35|
|(ii) Ever left early||No||66||27|
|(i) Intention to reduce working hours||No||44||19|
|(ii) Intention to leave workforce||No||60||33|
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Hardy, C.; Hunter, M.S. Premenstrual Symptoms and Work: Exploring Female Staff Experiences and Recommendations for Workplaces. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073647
Hardy C, Hunter MS. Premenstrual Symptoms and Work: Exploring Female Staff Experiences and Recommendations for Workplaces. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073647Chicago/Turabian Style
Hardy, Claire, and Myra S. Hunter. 2021. "Premenstrual Symptoms and Work: Exploring Female Staff Experiences and Recommendations for Workplaces" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073647