Special Issue "Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydro-ecology provides an important tool for better assessing and understanding the interactions among animals and plants and their surrounding water systems in terms of surface water and groundwater. For example, expanding crop-raising activities to meet the growing need for food may cause overutilization of surface water and severe groundwater pollution. Many countries are facing significant challenges such as securing potable water supply, managing wild swings of droughts and floods, and maintaining sustainable hydro-ecological environment for generations to come.  This Special Issue aims to address these concerns from a wide array of angles. We welcome theoretical and practical contributions to the general theme of water resources and hydro-ecology. Specific topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Agricultural Water Management
  • Health Impacts of Extreme Events
  • Surface Water and Groundwater Pollution Control
  • Water-Energy-Food Nexus Approaches

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Published Papers (22 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Influential Factors Affecting Protective Coping Behaviors of Flood Disaster: A Case Study in Shenzhen, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165945 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
As the risk of urban flooding increases worldwide, floods seriously endanger the safety of people’s lives and property. Understanding the protective coping behaviors of the public in flood disasters is crucial to the implementation of effective flood mitigation measures and flood risk management. [...] Read more.
As the risk of urban flooding increases worldwide, floods seriously endanger the safety of people’s lives and property. Understanding the protective coping behaviors of the public in flood disasters is crucial to the implementation of effective flood mitigation measures and flood risk management. In this study, influential factors affecting protective coping behaviors in the face of flood disasters were identified, and the effects of these factors were discussed as well. Shenzhen City in China was selected as the study area, in which a questionnaire survey of 339 respondents was carried out in three flood-prone districts. Correlation analysis was conducted to preselect potential influential factors. Then, two linear regression models were established to identify main influential factors and to explore the interaction effects of these factors. The results indicated that age, monthly income, flood experience, trust in government and insurance willingness were main influential factors of protective coping behaviors. Trust in government had the highest positive correlation coefficient, while monthly income and age were negatively associated with protective coping behaviors. The interaction between insurance willingness and monthly income jointly affected protective coping behaviors of the public. The findings of this study could help authorities better understand the public’s intention to cope with flood and design effective risk reduction measures, not only for Shenzhen, but also for many other similar cities that facing with the same situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Decoupling of Water Resources Utilization and Agricultural Economic Development in Gansu Province from the Perspective of Water Footprint
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165758 - 09 Aug 2020
Abstract
Objectively evaluating the decoupling status of water resources utilization and economic development is an important sign of judging the sustainability of regional economic development. From the perspective of water footprint (WF), this paper expands the scope of water resources accounting by assessing agricultural [...] Read more.
Objectively evaluating the decoupling status of water resources utilization and economic development is an important sign of judging the sustainability of regional economic development. From the perspective of water footprint (WF), this paper expands the scope of water resources accounting by assessing agricultural blue WF, green WF and gray WF. The Tapio decoupling index was used to explore the decoupling status of agricultural WF and economic development in Gansu Province from 2006 to 2015, and the logarithmic mean divisor index (LMDI) decomposition model was used to identify the main driving factors of agricultural WF changes and explore the degree of divergence between agricultural economic development and water resources utilization. The results showed that agricultural economic growth was a main factor for the increase of WF; the improvement of agricultural production technology had a restraining effect, and the population effect and structural effect had a lesser effect. During the research period, the relationship between agricultural WF and economic growth in Gansu Province changed from weak decoupling to strong decoupling, and the contributing factors to decoupling were in descending order: economic, technological, structural and population. Finally, this paper puts forward suggestions on optimizing planting structure, improving agricultural technology and economic development mode to promote the sustainable development of local agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Fe(III) Adsorption onto Zeolite and Bentonite
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165718 - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
In this study, the adsorption of Fe(III) from aqueous solution on zeolite and bentonite was investigated by combining batch adsorption technique, Atomic adsorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Although iron is commonly found in water and is an essential bioelement, [...] Read more.
In this study, the adsorption of Fe(III) from aqueous solution on zeolite and bentonite was investigated by combining batch adsorption technique, Atomic adsorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Although iron is commonly found in water and is an essential bioelement, many industrial processes require efficient removal of iron from water. Two types of zeolite and two types of bentonite were used. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities for removal of Fe (III) by Zeolite Micro 20, Zeolite Micro 50, blue bentonite, and brown bentonite were 10.19, 9.73, 11.64, and 16.65 mg.g−1, respectively. Based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses of the raw samples and the solid residues after sorption at low and high initial Fe concentrations, the Fe content is different in the surface layer and in the bulk of the material. In the case of lower initial Fe concentration (200 mg.dm−3), more than 95% of Fe is adsorbed in the surface layer. In the case of higher initial Fe concentration (4000 mg.dm−3), only about 45% and 61% of Fe is adsorbent in the surface layer of zeolite and bentonite, respectively; the rest is adsorbed in deeper layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Assessment of Urban Rainstorm Disaster Based on Multi-Layer Weighted Principal Component Analysis: A Case Study of Nanjing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155523 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nanjing city is taken as a case in this urban rainstorm disaster risk research. Using the data of meteorology and social-economy statistics of Nanjing area, the paper selected ten indicators to establish the risk assessment system of urban rainstorm disaster from the aspects [...] Read more.
Nanjing city is taken as a case in this urban rainstorm disaster risk research. Using the data of meteorology and social-economy statistics of Nanjing area, the paper selected ten indicators to establish the risk assessment system of urban rainstorm disaster from the aspects of the vulnerability of hazard-affected body, the fragility of disaster-pregnant environment, and the danger of hazard factors. Multi-layer weighted principal component analysis (MLWPCA) is an extension of the principal component analysis (PCA). The MLWPCA is based on factor analysis for the division subsystem. Then the PCA is used to analyze the indicators in each subsystem and weighted to synthesize. ArcGIS is used to describe regional differences in the urban rainstorm disaster risk. Results show that the MLWPCA is more targeted and discriminatory than principal component analysis in the risk assessment of urban rainstorm disaster. Hazard-affected body and disaster-pregnant environment have greater impacts on the risk assessment of rainstorm disaster in Nanjing, but the influence of hazard factors is few. Spatially, there is a large gap in the rainstorm disaster risk in Nanjing. The areas with high-risk rainstorm disaster are mainly concentrated in the central part of Nanjing, and the areas with low-risk rainstorm disaster are in the south and north of the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Application of Drought Characteristics Based on Theory of Runs and Copulas in Yunnan, Southwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134654 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
Drought is a complex natural disaster phenomenon. It is of great significance to analyze the occurrence and development of drought events for drought prevention. In this study, two drought characteristic variables (the drought duration and severity) were extracted by using the Theory of [...] Read more.
Drought is a complex natural disaster phenomenon. It is of great significance to analyze the occurrence and development of drought events for drought prevention. In this study, two drought characteristic variables (the drought duration and severity) were extracted by using the Theory of Runs based on four drought indexes (i.e., the percentage of precipitation anomaly, the standardized precipitation index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index and the improved comprehensive meteorological drought index). The joint distribution model of drought characteristic variables was built based on four types of Archimedean copulas. The joint cumulative probability and the joint return period of drought events were analyzed and the relationship between the drought characteristics and the actual crop drought reduction area was also studied. The results showed that: (1) The area of the slight drought and the extreme drought were both the zonal increasing distribution from northeast to southwest in Yunnan Province from 1960 to 2015. The area of the high frequency middle drought was mainly distributed in Huize and Zhanyi in Northeast Yunnan, Kunming in Central Yunnan and some areas of Southwest Yunnan, whereas the severe drought was mainly occurred in Deqin, Gongshan and Zhongdian in Northwest Yunnan; (2) The drought duration and severity were fitted the Weibull and Gamma distribution, respectively and the Frank copula function was the optimal joint distribution function. The Drought events were mostly short duration and high severity, long duration and low severity and short duration and low severity. The joint cumulative probability and joint return period were increased with the increase of drought duration and severity; (3) The error range between the theoretical return period and the actual was 0.1–0.4 a. The year of the agricultural disaster can be accurately reflected by the combined return period in Yunnan Province. The research can provide guidelines for the agricultural management in the drought area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Bodies around Typical Copper Mines in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124315 - 17 Jun 2020
Abstract
In order to understand the heavy metal pollution status and ecological effect in aquatic environment around copper mine areas, seven heavy metals (Cd, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Zn, the Ni, and Pb) in aquatic environments in seven representative copper mine regions were selected [...] Read more.
In order to understand the heavy metal pollution status and ecological effect in aquatic environment around copper mine areas, seven heavy metals (Cd, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Zn, the Ni, and Pb) in aquatic environments in seven representative copper mine regions were selected from the literature in 2005–2013 for ecological risk assessment by using potential ecological risk index, geoaccumulation index, nemerow index and species sensitivity distribution method (Potential Affected Fraction (PAF) and Multi-Substance PAF (MSPAF)). The results of sediment ecological risk analysis showed that Cd, Cu and Pb were the main pollutants in sediments. The results of species sensitivity distribution analysis showed that the HC5 values (Hazardous Concentration for 5% of species) of seven heavy metals were different with order Zn > Cr > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Hg. The MSPAF of seven copper mines in the following order with species sensitivity distribution method was as follows: Dabaoshan (99%) = Dahongshan (99%) = Baiyin (99%) > Dexing (97%) > Jinchuan (92%) > Tongling (39%) > Daye (24%). This study analyzes the impact of copper mining on the aquatic environment, and the results of this study will be great value for the comprehensive pollution governance of mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Acute Erythromycin Exposure on the Swimming Ability of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Medaka (Oryzias latipes)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103389 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Erythromycin is a widely used antibiotic, and erythromycin contamination may pose a threat to aquatic organisms. However, little is known about the adverse effects of erythromycin on swimming ability. To quantify erythromycin-induced damage to fish swimming ability, Oryzias latipes and Danio rerio were [...] Read more.
Erythromycin is a widely used antibiotic, and erythromycin contamination may pose a threat to aquatic organisms. However, little is known about the adverse effects of erythromycin on swimming ability. To quantify erythromycin-induced damage to fish swimming ability, Oryzias latipes and Danio rerio were acutely exposed to erythromycin. The swimming ability of the experimental fish was measured after exposure to varying doses of erythromycin (2 µg/L, 20 µg/L, 200 µg/L, and 2 mg/L) for 96 h. Burst speed (Uburst) and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of experimental fish significantly decreased. In addition, gene expression analysis of O. latipes and D. rerio under erythromycin treatment (2 mg/L) showed that the expression of genes related to energy metabolism in the muscle was significantly reduced in both species of fish. However, the gene expression pattern in the head of the two species was differentially impacted; D. rerio showed endocrine disruption, while phototransduction was impacted in O. latipes. The results of our study may be used as a reference to control erythromycin pollution in natural rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Potential Mapping Combining Artificial Neural Network and Real AdaBoost Ensemble Technique: The DakNong Province Case-study, Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072473 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
The main aim of this study is to assess groundwater potential of the DakNong province, Vietnam, using an advanced ensemble machine learning model (RABANN) that integrates Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) with RealAdaBoost (RAB) ensemble technique. For this study, twelve conditioning factors and wells [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to assess groundwater potential of the DakNong province, Vietnam, using an advanced ensemble machine learning model (RABANN) that integrates Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) with RealAdaBoost (RAB) ensemble technique. For this study, twelve conditioning factors and wells yield data was used to create the training and testing datasets for the development and validation of the ensemble RABANN model. Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and several statistical performance measures were used to validate and compare performance of the ensemble RABANN model with the single ANN model. Results of the model studies showed that both models performed well in the training phase of assessing groundwater potential (AUC ≥ 0.7), whereas the ensemble model (AUC = 0.776) outperformed the single ANN model (AUC = 0.699) in the validation phase. This demonstrated that the RAB ensemble technique was successful in improving the performance of the single ANN model. By making minor adjustment in the input data, the ensemble developed model can be adapted for groundwater potential mapping of other regions and countries toward more efficient water resource management. The present study would be helpful in improving the groundwater condition of the area thus in solving water borne disease related health problem of the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Early Warning Method for Regional Water Resources Carrying Capacity Based on the Logical Curve and Aggregate Warning Index
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072206 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
The sustainable utilization of water resources is a significant factor in the development of the national economy and society. Regional water resources carrying capacity (RWRCC) is an appropriate method for evaluating the balance in such utilization. In this paper, we combined time difference [...] Read more.
The sustainable utilization of water resources is a significant factor in the development of the national economy and society. Regional water resources carrying capacity (RWRCC) is an appropriate method for evaluating the balance in such utilization. In this paper, we combined time difference correlation analysis and set pair analysis firstly to identify the early warning sign index (EWSI) for RWRCC, and warning limits were determined using a logical curve. Analytic hierarchy process based on the accelerating genetic algorithm (AGA-AHP) method was used to improve the KLR model by determining weights objectively. We took advantage of the new improved model to build the aggregate warning index (AWI). Then, according to the corresponding relationship between EWSI and AWI, the early warning system for regional water resources carrying capacity (EWS-RWRCC) was established, and a case study was carried out in Anhui Province. The results showed there are eight effective EWSI obtained through the early warning analysis process of RWRCC in Anhui Province, among which the repetitive use rate of industrial water and average daily coefficient have a greater impact on AWI. Basically, the EWS-RWRCC can describe RWRCC changes in Anhui Province. From 2006 to 2014, more than half the signal lights in Anhui Province were yellow and orange, which indicated a poor state. It has been proved that the constraints of population, GDP growth and water supply capacity on the utilization of water resources in the future will be further tightened, which should be considered for future monitoring and early warning. The early warning method we used here can be widely applied into other fields; the results will enhance monitoring capacity and scientifically guide regional water resources management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism of Membrane Fouling Control by HMBR: Effect of Microbial Community on EPS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051681 - 05 Mar 2020
Abstract
A hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) employing activated sludge and biofilm simultaneously is proved to represent a good performance on membrane fouling control compared to conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) by reducing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), especially bound EPS (B-EPS). In order to better understand [...] Read more.
A hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) employing activated sludge and biofilm simultaneously is proved to represent a good performance on membrane fouling control compared to conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) by reducing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), especially bound EPS (B-EPS). In order to better understand the mechanism of membrane fouling control by the HMBR in regard of microbial community composition, a pilot scale HMBR operated to treat domestic wastewater for six months, and a CMBR operated at the same time as control group. Results showed that HMBR can effectively control membrane fouling. When transmembrane pressure reached 0.1 MPa, the membrane module in the HMBR operated for about 26.7% longer than that in the CMBR. In the HMBR, the quantity of EPS was significantly lower than that in the CMBR. In this paper, soluble EPS was also found to have a close relationship with cake layer resistance. The species richness and diversity in the HMBR were higher than those in the CMBR, and a certain difference between the compositions of microbial communities in the two reactors was confirmed. Therefore, the difference in microbial community compositions may be the direct reason why EPS in the HMBR was lower than that in the CMBR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Community Compositions of Phytoplankton and Eukaryotes during the Mixing Periods of a Drinking Water Reservoir: Dynamics and Interactions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041128 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 26
Abstract
In deep drinking water reservoir ecosystems, the dynamics and interactions of community compositions of phytoplankton and eukaryotes during the mixing periods are still unclear. Here, morphological characteristics combined with high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) were used to investigate the variations of phytoplankton and the [...] Read more.
In deep drinking water reservoir ecosystems, the dynamics and interactions of community compositions of phytoplankton and eukaryotes during the mixing periods are still unclear. Here, morphological characteristics combined with high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) were used to investigate the variations of phytoplankton and the eukaryotic community in a large canyon-shaped, stratified reservoir located at the Heihe River in Shaanxi Province for three months. The results showed that Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta were the dominant taxa of the phytoplankton community, accounting for more than 97% of total phytoplankton abundance, which mainly consisted of Melosira sp., Cyclotella sp., and Chlorella sp., respectively. Illumina Miseq sequencing suggested that the biodiversity of eukaryotes increased over time and that species distribution was more even. Arthropoda (6.63% to 79.19%), Ochrophyta (5.60% to 35.16%), Ciliophora (1.81% to 10.93%) and Cryptomonadales (0.25% to 11.48%) were the keystone taxa in common, contributing over 50% of the total eukaryotic community. Cryptomycota as a unique fungus was observed to possess significant synchronization with algal density, reaching a maximum of 10.70% in December (when the algal density distinctly decreased) and suggesting that it might affect the growth of algae through parasitism. Co-occurrence network patterns revealed the complicated and diverse interactions between eukaryotes and phytoplankton, suggesting that eukaryotes respond to variations in dynamic structure of the phytoplankton community, although there might be antagonistic or mutualistic interactions between them. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that environmental variables collectively explained a 96.7% variance of phytoplankton and 96.3% variance of eukaryotic microorganisms, indicating that the temporal variations of phytoplankton and eukaryotic microorganisms were significantly affected by environmental conditions. This study shows that potential interactions exist between phytoplankton and eukaryotic microorganism communities, andcould improve our understanding of the ecological roles of phytoplankton and eukaryotic microorganisms in changing aquatic ecosystems. However, long-term investigations are necessary in order to obtain comprehensive understandings of their complicated associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Affect Path to Flood Protective Coping Behaviors Using SEM Based on a Survey in Shenzhen, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030940 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The initial concept of flood control has gradually shifted to flood risk management which emphasizes more public participation. Therefore, understanding the public’s protective coping behavioral patterns to floods is significant, and can help improve the effectiveness of public participation and implementation of flood-mitigation [...] Read more.
The initial concept of flood control has gradually shifted to flood risk management which emphasizes more public participation. Therefore, understanding the public’s protective coping behavioral patterns to floods is significant, and can help improve the effectiveness of public participation and implementation of flood-mitigation measures. However, the quantitative effect of socio-demographic factors on flood risk perception and behaviors is not clear. In this study, the socio-demographic factors are included to explore the quantitative relationship with and the affect path to flood protective coping behaviors with socio-demographic factors are studied. Shenzhen City in China is chosen as the study area, which suffers frequent urban floods every year. Questionnaire surveys are conducted in five flood-prone communities there, and 339 valid questionnaires were collected. The correlations between flood risk perception, flood risk knowledge, flood risk attitude, socio-demographic factors, and protective coping behaviors are analyzed firstly. A structural equation model (SEM) about these factors is then established to verify the correctness of hypothetical paths and discover new paths. The results indicates that socio-demographic factors and flood risk perception do not have impacts on protective coping behaviors directly, but are mediated by flood risk knowledge and flood risk attitude. Flood risk attitude is an important factor that affects protective coping behaviors directly. Moreover, two affect paths to flood protective coping behaviors are proposed. The findings of Shenzhen city in this study can be extended to other cities with similar characteristics, providing support for conducting effective flood mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Flood Evacuation Process in Vulnerable Community with Mutual Aid Mechanism: An Agent-Based Simulation Framework
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020560 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Timely and secure evacuation of residents during flood disasters or other emergency events is an important issue in urban community flood risk management, especially in vulnerable communities. An agent-based modeling framework was proposed in order to indicate how the community properties (e.g., community [...] Read more.
Timely and secure evacuation of residents during flood disasters or other emergency events is an important issue in urban community flood risk management, especially in vulnerable communities. An agent-based modeling framework was proposed in order to indicate how the community properties (e.g., community density and percentage of vulnerable residents), residents’ psychological attributes (e.g., flood risk tolerance threshold) and mutual aid mechanism affect the flood evacuation process. Results indicated that: (1) The community density negatively affected the flood evacuation efficiency. The greater the density of the community, the longer the evacuation time. (2) There was a negative correlation between the flood risk tolerance threshold of residents and evacuation efficiency. (3) The proportion of vulnerable resident agents had opposite effects on the evacuation efficiency of different types of communities, which was to negatively affect low-density communities and positively affect high-density communities. (4) Mutual aid mechanism can reduce evacuation time in low-density communities, and the effect was more pronounced with a higher proportion of vulnerable resident agents in the community. These findings can help managers to develop better emergency evacuation management for urban communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
A Machine Learning Ensemble Approach Based on Random Forest and Radial Basis Function Neural Network for Risk Evaluation of Regional Flood Disaster: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010049 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most developed regions in China. This is also a flood-prone area where flood disasters are frequently experienced; the situations between the people–land nexus and the people–water nexus are very complicated. Therefore, the accurate assessment [...] Read more.
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most developed regions in China. This is also a flood-prone area where flood disasters are frequently experienced; the situations between the people–land nexus and the people–water nexus are very complicated. Therefore, the accurate assessment of flood risk is of great significance to regional development. The paper took the YRD urban agglomeration as the research case. The driving force, pressure, state, impact and response (DPSIR) conceptual framework was established to analyze the indexes of flood disasters. The random forest (RF) algorithm was used to screen important indexes of floods risk, and a risk assessment model based on the radial basis function (RBF) neural network was constructed to evaluate the flood risk level in this region from 2009 to 2018. The risk map showed the I-V level of flood risk in the YRD urban agglomeration from 2016 to 2018 by using the geographic information system (GIS). Further analysis indicated that the indexes such as flood season rainfall, urban impervious area ratio, gross domestic product (GDP) per square kilometer of land, water area ratio, population density and emergency rescue capacity of public administration departments have important influence on flood risk. The flood risk has been increasing in the YRD urban agglomeration during the past ten years under the urbanization background, and economic development status showed a significant positive correlation with flood risks. In addition, there were serious differences in the rising rate of flood risks and the status quo among provinces. There are still a few cities that have stabilized at a better flood-risk level through urban flood control measures from 2016 to 2018. These results were basically in line with the actual situation, which validated the effectiveness of the model. Finally, countermeasures and suggestions for reducing the urban flood risk in the YRD region were proposed, in order to provide decision support for flood control, disaster reduction and emergency management in the YRD region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Bio-Capture of Solid Pollutants by Vegetation Canopy Cave in Shallow Water Flow
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234846 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vegetation has already been acknowledged to have the ability to remove fine solid pollutants by retention and absorption, and is widely used in the biorestoration engineering of natural shallow water flow. Vegetation usually takes a long time to obtain the expected removal rate. [...] Read more.
Vegetation has already been acknowledged to have the ability to remove fine solid pollutants by retention and absorption, and is widely used in the biorestoration engineering of natural shallow water flow. Vegetation usually takes a long time to obtain the expected removal rate. Therefore, vegetation is not applicable for some urgent or pressing situations. In addition, in traditional biorestoration engineering, solid pollutants usually deposit in the soil of flow bed, which infiltrates into the far-field and accumulates in crops to threaten human health. Herein, we propose a new biotechnique of foliage capture by designing a cave on the top of a vegetation canopy, which is aimed to enhance the removal efficiency (i.e., achieve quick removal) and avoid the soil deposition of pollutants. The effectiveness and efficiency of this new design were validated by a set of indoor water flume experiments, with one flat canopy top configuration serving as the model of a traditional bioretention system and three cave configurations of differing aspect ratios. The results showed that compared with that of the flat canopy top, the total amount of foliage-captured solid particles for the three caved canopies increased by 3.8, 7.3, and 12.2 times. Further, we found that the foliage-capture efficiency depended on the aspect ratio of the canopy cave. The results revealed that the effectiveness of foliage capture and the enhanced efficiency were mainly from three hydrodynamic mechanisms: (i) as flow penetrated the cave boundary from the above-canopy region to the within-canopy region, it entrained solid pollutants to collide with the foliage and increased their fate of capture; (ii) the large eddy vortices of turbulence broke due to the increasing canopy resistance, which resulted in enhanced mixing dynamics for fine, suspended, solid pollutants to collide into foliage; and (iii) the flow shear along the cave boundary decreased, which provided a reduced lift force for solid pollutants to suspend or resuspend. Comparisons between the flat canopy and caved canopies of three aspect ratios showed that the design of the canopy cave is highly significant for capture efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthropogenic Effects on Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes of River Water in Cities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224429 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes are important indicators for studying water cycles. The isotopes are not only affected by climate, but are also disturbed by human activities. Urban construction has changed the natural attributes and underlying surface characteristics of river basins, thus affecting [...] Read more.
Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes are important indicators for studying water cycles. The isotopes are not only affected by climate, but are also disturbed by human activities. Urban construction has changed the natural attributes and underlying surface characteristics of river basins, thus affecting the isotopic composition of river water. We collected urban river water isotope data from the Global Network for Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) database and the literature, and collected river water samples from the Naqu basin and Huangshui River basin on the Tibetan Plateau to measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Based on 13 pairs of urban area and non-urban area water samples from these data, the relationship between the isotopic values of river water and the artificial surface area of cities around rivers was analyzed. The results have shown that the hydrogen and oxygen isotope (δD and δ18O) values of river water in urban areas were significantly higher than those in non-urban areas. The isotopic variability of urban and non-urban water was positively correlated with the artificial surface area around the rivers. In addition, based on the analysis of isotope data from 21 rivers, we found that the cumulative effects of cities on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes have led to differences in surface water line equations for cities with different levels of development. The combined effects of climate and human factors were the important reasons for the variation of isotope characteristics in river water in cities. Stable isotopes can not only be used to study the effects of climate on water cycles, but also serve as an important indicator for studying the degree of river development and utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Can FinTech Development Curb Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224340 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The green development of FinTech empowerment has become a compelling theme in economic development. In this study, based on the weighted least squares (WLS) and threshold regression methods of cross-sectional data, we empirically examine the impact of FinTech development on agricultural nonpoint source [...] Read more.
The green development of FinTech empowerment has become a compelling theme in economic development. In this study, based on the weighted least squares (WLS) and threshold regression methods of cross-sectional data, we empirically examine the impact of FinTech development on agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, a major cause of impaired surface water quality. Our results show that there is an inverted “U” shape relationship between the development of FinTech and agricultural NPS pollution. That is, after crossing a “threshold value”, the level of FinTech development can curb agricultural NPS pollution. At the structural level, the availability of FinTech services, the FinTech infrastructure, and the agricultural NPS pollution also have an inverted “U” shape relationship. At the threshold effect, in the developing stage of an agricultural economy, the overall level of FinTech development, the use of FinTech services, the availability of FinTech services, and the FinTech infrastructure have an inverted “U” shape relationship with agricultural NPS pollution. On the other hand, in the developed stage of an agricultural economy, the impact of FinTech development and its structure on agricultural NPS pollution is insignificant. Hence, we can conclude that FinTech development can help reduce agricultural NPS pollution in under-developed regions. However, due to the fact that a “U” shape relationship always exists between FinTech service quality and agricultural NPS pollution, the quality of FinTech service should be the main focus to reduce agricultural NPS pollution more effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Supply Chain Partner Communication in a Managed Programme in the UK Water Industry: A Case Study with Social Network Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214211 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The water industry in every country aims to effectively and efficiently provide water with satisfactory quality in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. To this end, it is critical to achieve effective communication among the partners in water supply chain networks. In this [...] Read more.
The water industry in every country aims to effectively and efficiently provide water with satisfactory quality in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. To this end, it is critical to achieve effective communication among the partners in water supply chain networks. In this paper, we focus on one of the UK’s largest water utility companies and its eight main contractors and analyze the factors influencing partner and network communication in a managed programme of their asset supply chain. We employ social network analysis to conduct the cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of partner communication. Factors found to influence the communication network are grouping of projects within the programme, individual’s organisational affiliation, status, tenure, elapsed time through the programme lifecycle, and co-location. Our contributions to practice include demonstrating water programme management factors that influence communication and trust and how social network analysis can better inform them about intra- and interorganisational relationships. Moreover, the methodology introduced in this study may be applied to water management in other parts of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Preference Elicitation Technique Based on a Graph Model and Its Application to a Brownfield Redevelopment Conflict in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214088 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Disputes are very common and pervasive in brownfield redevelopment projects, in which multiple stakeholders or decision-makers (DMs) strategically interact with each other with a conflict of interest. The preference information of DMs involved plays a vital role in identifying possible outcomes or resolutions [...] Read more.
Disputes are very common and pervasive in brownfield redevelopment projects, in which multiple stakeholders or decision-makers (DMs) strategically interact with each other with a conflict of interest. The preference information of DMs involved plays a vital role in identifying possible outcomes or resolutions for resolving a tough brownfield conflict. In this research, a novel preference ranking technique is purposefully proposed within the graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR) paradigm to effectively and accurately garner DMs’ actual preferences, in which states are ranked according to their similarities and closeness to the most and least preferred states instead of subjective option statements or weights in traditional preference ranking methods. Finally, a real-world brownfield conflict which occurred in China is utilized to show how the proposed preference ranking method can be applied for conveniently obtaining the true preference information of DMs and strategically determining the equilibria of a given dispute. The case study indicates that the novel preference elicitation approach is more objective and reasonable than the traditional option prioritization method. Moreover, there exists an equilibrium which can provide strategic advice and meaningful insights for addressing the brownfield conflict. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Sustainable Development of Water, Energy, and Food in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193688 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
It is of great significance to deal with the relationship between external factors and the water-energy-food internal system for China’s sustainable development. This paper takes China as the research object, uses the system dynamics method to construct a model for China’s water-energy-food system, [...] Read more.
It is of great significance to deal with the relationship between external factors and the water-energy-food internal system for China’s sustainable development. This paper takes China as the research object, uses the system dynamics method to construct a model for China’s water-energy-food system, and introduces the “two-child” policy and trade friction as the scenario parameters for simulation. The main results of scenario simulation can be summarized as the following three points. In terms of water, the trade friction will hinder China’s industrial water consumption into a low-consumption stage. In terms of energy, both the trade friction and the “two-child” policy, will not change the increasing trend of energy demand. In terms of food, if there is strong response to the “two-child” policy, there will be insufficient food inventory under the current capacity and import ratio. In short, this paper takes the sustainable development of water-energy-food as a starting point and puts forward policy suggestions on the comprehensive formulation of policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Inter-Basin Water Transfer Supply Chain Coordination with Ramsey Pricing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193651 - 28 Sep 2019
Abstract
Often enough, social welfare and private benefit do not align for quasi-public goods/services. The inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) project provides a vivid example of this. In this paper, following the game-theoretical approach, we derive an optimal Ramsey pricing scheme to resolve these conflicts. [...] Read more.
Often enough, social welfare and private benefit do not align for quasi-public goods/services. The inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) project provides a vivid example of this. In this paper, following the game-theoretical approach, we derive an optimal Ramsey pricing scheme to resolve these conflicts. We try to compare traditional supply chain management models with an optimal Ramsey pricing scheme, with an enforcement of coordination among firms. Using simulation techniques, we compute numerical estimates under three regimes: a standard equilibrium decision framework, a coordination decision model and a coordinated Ramsey pricing scheme. Our results show the relative welfare impact of different settings, revealing that the optimal pricing scheme based on the two-part tariff structure cannot only improve social welfare, but also ensure a target profit for participating firms. Lastly, our findings have strong policy implications for the government with profit regulation and the control of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Total Factor Productivity and Influential Factors of the Regional Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Case Study on Inner Mongolia, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173051 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
With the supply of water, energy and food facing severe challenges, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of studying the regional water–energy–food nexus. In this paper, Inner Mongolia, including 12 cities in China, was selected as a research case. A [...] Read more.
With the supply of water, energy and food facing severe challenges, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of studying the regional water–energy–food nexus. In this paper, Inner Mongolia, including 12 cities in China, was selected as a research case. A super-efficiency slack based measure (SBM) model that considered the undesirable outputs was adopted to calculate the regional total factor productivity (TFP) and the Malmquist–Luenberger index was used to investigate the change trend of the TFP from 2007 to 2016 based on understanding the water–energy–food nexus. Finally, influential factors of the TFP were explored by Tobit regression. The results show that the 12 Inner Mongolia cities are divided into higher, moderate and lower efficiency zones. The higher efficiency zone includes Ordos, Hohhot, Xing’an, and Tongliao, and the lower efficiency zone includes Chifeng, Xilin Gol, Baynnur, Wuhai and Alxa. There is a serious difference in TFP between Inner Mongolia cities. During the study period, the TFP of the water–energy–food nexus in Inner Mongolia cities shows a rising trend, which is mainly driven by the growth of technical progress change. However, the average ML values of the lower and moderate efficiency zones were inferior to the higher efficiency zone in six of the ten years, so the difference between Inner Mongolia cities is growing. According to the Tobit regression, the mechanization level and degree of opening up have positive effects on the TFP, while enterprise scale and the output of the third industry have negative effects on the TFP. Government support does not have any significant impact on the TFP. Finally, suggestions were put forward to improve the TFP of the water–energy–food nexus in Inner Mongolia cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
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