Special Issue "Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Robin Orr
Website
Guest Editor
Tactical Research Unit, Bond University, 4229 Gold Coast, Australia
Interests: optimising the physical wellbeing of military; law enforcement and fire and rescue personnel; specialising in load carriage and injury risk management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rodney Peter Pope
Website
Guest Editor
School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Sydney, Australia
Interests: tactical forces injury risk management; tactical forces physical performance; physiotherapy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jay Dawes
Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Tactical Fitness and Nutrition (TFAN) Collaborative, Oklahoma State University, CRC 183 Colvin Center, Stillwater, OK 74074, USA
Interests: improving health; fitness and performance for first responders and military personnel (i.e, law enforcement officers, firefighters, paramedics, soldiers); human performane optimization via strength training and conditioing
Dr. Robert Lockie
Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Development, 800 North State College Blvd., Fullerton, CA 92834, USA
Interests: tactical strength and conditioning; analysis of law enforcement, correctional, firefighter and ROTC populations; linear speed, change-of-direction speed, and agility; strength and conditioning; team sport analysis.
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to submit critical reviews and original research for a Special Issue on tactical populations. In this instance, tactical populations include those serving in military, paramilitary, law enforcement, fire and rescue, and paramedical occupations. Submission of papers that underpin the health and safety of tactical populations, and therefore the public that they serve, are welcome. Topics may focus on the recruitment, retention, and rehabilitation of tactical personnel across their occupational lifespan (from initial training through to retirement).

We thank you for considering this invitation and are available for any inquiries.

Dr. Robin Orr
Dr. Jay Dawes
Dr. Robert Lockie
Prof. Rod Pope
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Military
  • Police
  • Firefighter
  • Law enforcement
  • Army
  • Navy
  • Airforce
  • Marines
  • First responder
  • Tactical
  • Recruit
  • Trainee
  • Officer

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Body Composition on Post-Exercise Parasympathetic Reactivation of Firefighter Recruits
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010339 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Firefighters have a sustained risk for experiencing a sudden cardiac event after completing a fire call. Heart rate recovery (HRR) can be utilized to characterize autonomic nervous system (ANS) recovery and has been linked to cardiac events. Research suggests that body composition influences [...] Read more.
Firefighters have a sustained risk for experiencing a sudden cardiac event after completing a fire call. Heart rate recovery (HRR) can be utilized to characterize autonomic nervous system (ANS) recovery and has been linked to cardiac events. Research suggests that body composition influences post-exercise HRR responses in non-firefighter populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percent body fat (BF) on the HRR response of firefighter recruits. BMI (kg·m−2), WC (cm), and BF (%) data from 57 firefighter recruits were collected. HRR (b·min−1) data were collected at completion (HR0), as well as 15 (HR15), 30 (HR30), 45 (HR45), 60 (HR60), 120 (HR120), and 180 (HR180) seconds following a submaximal step test, and commonly utilized clinical HRR indices were calculated (ΔHRR30, ΔHRR60, ΔHRR120, and ΔHRR180). After controlling for sex, linear mixed regression models did not identify significant interactions between body composition (ps > 0.05) and HRR response across time. However, significant (ps < 0.05) indirect semi-partial correlations were identified between BF and ΔHRR30 (rsp = −0.31) and ΔHRR60 (rsp = −0.27), respectively. Reducing overall BF (vs. BMI or WC) should be prioritized to improve the post-exercise ANS recovery of firefighter recruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
Open AccessArticle
Training-Induced Acute Neuromuscular Responses to Military Specific Test during a Six-Month Military Operation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010215 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Limited data are available regarding strength and endurance training adaptations to occupational physical performance during deployment. This study assessed acute training-induced changes in neuromuscular (electromyography; EMG) and metabolic (blood lactate, BLa) responses during a high-intensity military simulation test (MST), performed in the beginning [...] Read more.
Limited data are available regarding strength and endurance training adaptations to occupational physical performance during deployment. This study assessed acute training-induced changes in neuromuscular (electromyography; EMG) and metabolic (blood lactate, BLa) responses during a high-intensity military simulation test (MST), performed in the beginning (PRE) and at the end (POST) of a six-month crisis-management operation. MST time shortened (145 ± 21 vs. 129 ± 16 s, −10 ± 7%, p < 0.001) during the operation. Normalized muscle activity increased from PRE to POST in the hamstring muscles by 87 ± 146% (116 ± 52 vs. 195 ± 139%EMGMVC, p < 0.001) and in the quadriceps by 54 ± 81% (26 ± 8 vs. 40 ± 20%EMGMVC, p < 0.001). In addition, higher acute BLa values were measured after MST during POST. Changes in BLa and EMG suggested an increased neural input and metabolic rate during POST MST, likely leading to faster performance times at the end of the operation. High EMG values throughout the different phases of MST suggested that despite the anaerobic nature of the test, the soldiers were able to maintain their voluntary muscle activation level until the end of the test. This indicates only limited neural fatigue during the two-minute high-intensity military specific performance. While learning effect may explain some part of the improvement in the MST performance times, combined strength and endurance training three times per week may improve neuromuscular performance in occupationally relevant tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of a Training Academy on the Parasympathetic Nervous System Reactivation of Firefighter Recruits—An Observational Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010109 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading type of line-of-duty death among firefighters. An inability to restore parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) control after activity is associated with SCD. Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) provides unique insight into reactivation of the PSNS. Thus, the [...] Read more.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading type of line-of-duty death among firefighters. An inability to restore parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) control after activity is associated with SCD. Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) provides unique insight into reactivation of the PSNS. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in HRR responses of 25 male firefighter recruits. HR data were collected after submaximal exercise at week 1 (W1), week 6 (W6), and week 15 (W15) of their training at an academy. Percent maximal heart rate (%MHR) measures were computed at each HRR time point (%MHR0, %MHR15, %MHR30, %MHR45, %MHR60, %MHR120, %MHR180) and absolute HRR values were calculated at 30 s (ΔHRR30), 60 s (ΔHRR60), 120 s (ΔHRR120), and 180 s (ΔHRR180). After controlling for age and percent body fat, there was no statistically significant interaction between Week × HRR (p = 0.730), and there were no changes in ΔHRR30, ΔHRR60, and ΔHRR120, and ΔHRR180 indices across time. However, %MHR at W6 and W15 was significantly lower than %MHR at W1 at every HRR time point (ps < 0.001). Therefore, although the firefighter recruit training academy elicited positive training adaptations, changes in PSNS reactivation after submaximal activity were not identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessCommunication
Muscular Fitness Improves during the First Year of Academy Studies among Fighter Pilot Cadets
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249168 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Background: An adequate level of muscular fitness is related to occupational performance in military personnel, including pilots flying high performance aircraft. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline level and the change in muscular fitness between the first and [...] Read more.
Background: An adequate level of muscular fitness is related to occupational performance in military personnel, including pilots flying high performance aircraft. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline level and the change in muscular fitness between the first and the second years of the Air Force Academy among fighter pilot cadets. Methods: The muscular strength and endurance test results of 182 male fighter pilot cadets were analyzed during their first year in the Air Force Academy and one year after. Maximal isometric strength tests included trunk flexion, trunk extension and bilateral leg extension tests, whereas muscle endurance was measured with modified a sit-up test and seated alternative dumbbell press. Results: The maximal isometric bilateral strength of the leg extensor muscles increased from 220 ± 42 to 232 ± 42 kg. The maximal isometric trunk extension strength increased from 117 ± 21 to 120 ± 19 kg and trunk flexion from 82 ± 16 to 86 ± 17 kg. Muscle endurance increased from 68 ± 13 to 75 ± 15 repetitions/min in seated dumbbell press and from 47 ± 12 to 51 ± 13 repetitions/min in sit-up test. Conclusions: Both maximal strength and muscular endurance improved among fighter pilot cadets, which indicates that occupational performance is well maintained or improved from the perspective of physical fitness during the early phase of academy studies. Education in the Air Force Academy, including physical education, seems beneficial in improving muscular fitness among military pilots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Can Physiological and Psychological Factors Predict Dropout from Intense 10-Day Winter Military Survival Training?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239064 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Background: In the military context, high levels of physiological and psychological stress together can compromise individual’s ability to complete given duty or mission and increase dropout rates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if baseline physical fitness, body composition, hormonal and [...] Read more.
Background: In the military context, high levels of physiological and psychological stress together can compromise individual’s ability to complete given duty or mission and increase dropout rates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if baseline physical fitness, body composition, hormonal and psychological factors could predict dropout from a 10-day intense winter military survival training. Methods: 69 conscripts volunteered to participate in the study. Physical fitness (muscle strength and power, muscle endurance, and aerobic fitness), body composition and hormonal variables (BDNF, testosterone, cortisol, SHBG, DHEAS, IGF-1) together with self-reported psychological factors (short five personality, hardiness, sense of coherence, stress, depression) were assessed prior the survival training. Results: During the survival training, 20 conscripts (29%) dropped out. Baseline aerobic fitness (hazard ratio, HR: 0.997, 95% CI: 0.994–0.999, p = 0.006) and serum cortisol (HR: 1.0006, 95% CI: 1.001–1.011, p = 0.017) predicted dropout in Cox regression model. Each 10 m increase in the 12 min running test decreased the risk for dropout by 3%. Conclusion: Although most of the physiological and psychological variables at the baseline did not predict dropout during a short-term winter survival military training, baseline information of aerobic fitness and serum cortisol concentration may be useful to target support for individuals at higher potential risk for dropout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Aerobic Fitness on Heart Rate Responses of Custody Assistant Recruits during Circuit Training Sessions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218177 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 819
Abstract
This study captured heart rate (HR) responses of custody assistant (CA) recruits undertaking circuit training sessions. Data from 10 male and 12 female CA recruits were analyzed. Based on YMCA step test recovery HR, recruits were divided into higher fitness (HF; top 25%), [...] Read more.
This study captured heart rate (HR) responses of custody assistant (CA) recruits undertaking circuit training sessions. Data from 10 male and 12 female CA recruits were analyzed. Based on YMCA step test recovery HR, recruits were divided into higher fitness (HF; top 25%), lower fitness (LF; bottom 25%), and moderate fitness (MF; remaining recruits) groups. HR was measured during two circuit training sessions featuring calisthenics and running. HR zones were defined as: very light (<57% of age-predicted maximum heart-rate [HRmax]); light (57–63% HRmax); moderate (64–76% HRmax); vigorous (77–95% HRmax); and very vigorous (>95% HRmax). A one-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni post hoc, calculated between-group differences in time spent, and percentage of total time, in the HR zones. In session one, the LF group spent less time in the light training zone compared to the MF group, and more time in the very vigorous zone compared to the HF group (p = 0.027–0.047). In session two, the LF group spent more time in the moderate zone compared to both groups, and a greater percentage of time in the very vigorous zone compared to the MF group (p = 0.002–0.004). LF recruits generally worked harder during circuit training than their fitter counterparts, which supported recommendations for ability-based modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Special Weapons and Tactics Occupational-Specific Physical Assessments and Fitness Measures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218070 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Specialist tactical response police are required to frequently perform physically demanding tasks at high-risk capability levels, emphasizing the need for optimal physical fitness in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between select measures of physical fitness and [...] Read more.
Specialist tactical response police are required to frequently perform physically demanding tasks at high-risk capability levels, emphasizing the need for optimal physical fitness in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between select measures of physical fitness and performance on an occupational-specific physical assessment (OSPA). A retrospective analysis on 18 male specialist police candidates (age = 32.1 ± 5.04 yrs; height = 183.72 ± 5.79 cm; body mass = 89.44 ± 8.56 kg; body mass index (BMI) = 26.45 ± 1.58 kg/m2) was conducted. Data were comprised of anthropometric measures, assorted fitness measures and OSPA performance scores. A stepwise linear regression determined the influence of measured fitness parameters on OSPA performance. A regression featuring both the 1 RM military shoulder press and grip strength of the non-dominant hand was the most significant predictor of performance (adjusted r2 = 0.565, p = 0.001). A separate model, exclusively using the 1 RM military shoulder press additionally predicted OSPA performance (adjusted r2 = 0.240, p = 0.023). These results emphasize the importance of optimal upper-limb muscular strength and its impact on key occupational tasks in specialist police candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Task-Specific and Strength Training on Simulated Military Task Performance in Soldiers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218000 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 658
Abstract
A soldier’s occupational physical task requirements are diverse and varied. However, the type of physical training that most effectively improves soldiers’ occupational task requirements has not been studied previously. The purpose of this study was to determine the important strength characteristics for soldiers [...] Read more.
A soldier’s occupational physical task requirements are diverse and varied. However, the type of physical training that most effectively improves soldiers’ occupational task requirements has not been studied previously. The purpose of this study was to determine the important strength characteristics for soldiers during a repeated simulated military task course, and the type of training that may be effective to improve these abilities during a specialized military training period. Forty-two (n = 42) soldiers participated in the study. They were divided into three training groups; a soldier task-specific training group (TSG, n = 17), a strength training group (STG, n = 15), and a control group (CON, n = 10). Participants were measured before (PRE), middle (MID) and after (POST) the 12-week training intervention for strength performance and simulated military task test. Simulated military task performance improved significantly in TSG and STG between the PRE and MID measurements (from 9.4 to 15.7%). TSG and STG improved in various spilt times, especially in strength tasks; casualty drag (from 8.3 to 13.6%) and kettlebell carry (from 13.2 to 22.4%) between the PRE and MID measurements. The present study showed that both the training of TSG and STG were more effective than the training of CON (control group) in terms of improving the performance in the repeated simulated military task course. The present study showed that training of TSG was as effective as STG to improve repeated simulated military task course time. Therefore, an optimal training combination should include high-intensity simulated military task field training and strength training programmed with consideration of the military training phase and environmental possibilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived and Measured Physical Fitness of Police Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207628 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 746
Abstract
The physical fitness of police officers needs to support good health and physical performance. Physical fitness comprises a considerable amount of training for police students who are to become police officers. However, to what degree police students are able to perceive their fitness [...] Read more.
The physical fitness of police officers needs to support good health and physical performance. Physical fitness comprises a considerable amount of training for police students who are to become police officers. However, to what degree police students are able to perceive their fitness level and differentiate between health-related and performance-related physical fitness is unknown. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of differentiation between health-related and performance-related physical fitness using physical self-concept and measured indicators of physical fitness. The second aim of this study was to investigate the association between components of physical self-concept and measured indicators of physical fitness of police students. The sample of 177 police students of both sexes (98 males and 79 females) completed a 40-item physical self-description questionnaire and their physical abilities were assessed for handgrip strength, standing long jump, 30 s sit-ups, and 12-min running. Principal component analysis established health-related and performance-related physical fitness from both perceived and measured physical fitness measures. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between the perceived and measured physical fitness. Results suggest small to moderate ability to recognize the level of certain physical abilities, indicating the association between psychological mechanisms and biological functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
Open AccessArticle
We Need You: Influence of Hiring Demand and Modified Applicant Testing on the Physical Fitness of Law Enforcement Recruits
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207512 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
A challenge for law enforcement agencies is the many positions that need filling. Agencies may modify their applicant test battery (ATB; multilevelled testing including fitness, background checks, psychological evaluations) to increase the hiring pool of potential recruits by augmenting the utility of testing. [...] Read more.
A challenge for law enforcement agencies is the many positions that need filling. Agencies may modify their applicant test battery (ATB; multilevelled testing including fitness, background checks, psychological evaluations) to increase the hiring pool of potential recruits by augmenting the utility of testing. This study determined fitness differences of law enforcement recruits hired under two different ATB protocols. Retrospective analysis was conducted on seven academy classes (442 males, 84 females) hired under an older ATB, and one class (45 males, 13 females) hired under a newer ATB. Recruits completed the following before academy: 60 s push-ups and sit-ups (muscular endurance); vertical jump (lower-body power); medicine ball throw (upper-body power); 75 yard pursuit run (75PR; change-of-direction speed); and 20 m multistage fitness test (20MSFT; aerobic fitness). Independent sample t-tests (p ≤ 0.001) and effect sizes (d) evaluated between-group fitness differences for recruits hired under the different ATB protocols (combined sexes, males, and females). There were no significant differences between the ATB groups. However, newer ATB female recruits completed 13% fewer 20MSFT shuttles than the older ATB group, which, although not significant (p = 0.007), did have a moderate effect (d = 0.62). Females hired under the newer ATB had lower aerobic fitness, which could impact physical training performance and graduation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Profile of Self-Reported Physical Tasks and Physical Training in Brazilian Special Operations Units: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197135 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 661
Abstract
There is limited research examining the physical tasks that Brazilian special policemen groups can perform in the line of duty. The aims of this study were to (a) identify the occupational tasks of specialist police personnel serving in the Rapid Response Group (GRR) [...] Read more.
There is limited research examining the physical tasks that Brazilian special policemen groups can perform in the line of duty. The aims of this study were to (a) identify the occupational tasks of specialist police personnel serving in the Rapid Response Group (GRR) and Tactical Operations Command (COT), and to profile the frequency, difficulty, and importance of these tasks, and (b) to explore the current physical training these special operations police units (SOPUs) officers undertake to maintain their operational fitness. Univariate analysis for numerical variables (mean and standard deviation (SD)), as well as the absolute and relative frequencies for categorical variables were performed. Two Brazilian SOPUs performed a questionnaire with demographic, performance, and physical training sections. A total of 78 respondents (24 of the GRR and 54 of the COT) completed the survey. “Standing and/or sitting with complete equipment for long periods in different climatic conditions”, and “lifting/pushing/pulling heavier objects” were the most frequent and difficult occupational tasks of both SOPUs, respectively. “Shooting a long weapon” and “breaking a door” were the most important for GRR and COT, respectively. All officers undertook regular physical training (~9 h/week), in an unstructured manner, without supervision, and planning of physical training is carried out autonomously (COT) or a mixture of autonomously and directed (GRR), with the main objectives of developing aerobic endurance and muscle strength. It is important that SOPUs teams train their members’ physical capabilities to perform the tasks identified in this study, as well as follow a structured, supervised, and planned physical training program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Monitoring Neuromuscular Performance in Military Personnel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239147 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
A necessarily high standard for physical readiness in tactical environments is often accompanied by high incidences of injury due to overaccumulations of neuromuscular fatigue (NMF). To account for instances of overtraining stimulated by NMF, close monitoring of neuromuscular performance is warranted. Previously validated [...] Read more.
A necessarily high standard for physical readiness in tactical environments is often accompanied by high incidences of injury due to overaccumulations of neuromuscular fatigue (NMF). To account for instances of overtraining stimulated by NMF, close monitoring of neuromuscular performance is warranted. Previously validated tests, such as the countermovement jump, are useful means for monitoring performance adaptations, resiliency to fatigue, and risk for injury. Performing such tests on force plates provides an understanding of the movement strategy used to obtain the resulting outcome (e.g., jump height). Further, force plates afford numerous objective tests that are valid and reliable for monitoring upper and lower extremity muscular strength and power (thus sensitive to NMF) with less fatiguing and safer methods than traditional one-repetition maximum assessments. Force plates provide numerous software and testing application options that can be applied to military’s training but, to be effective, requires the practitioners to have sufficient knowledge of their functions. Therefore, this review aims to explain the functions of force plate testing as well as current best practices for utilizing force plates in military settings and disseminate protocols for valid and reliable testing to collect key variables that translate to physical performance capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing and Physical Conditioning for Tactical Populations)
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