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Health and Wellness in the Workplace

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 58171

Special Issue Editors


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Chief Guest Editor
Tactical Fitness and Nutrition (TFAN) Collaborative, Oklahoma State University, CRC 183 Colvin Center, Stillwater, OK 74074, USA
Interests: tactical strength and conditioning; health and fitness; occupational health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA
Interests: tactical strength and conditioning; change-of-direction speed; strength and conditioning for team sport athletes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Tactical Fitness and Nutrition Lab, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74074, USA
Interests: health promotion and disease prevention programming for tactical populations; dietary quality of Child Nutrition Programs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A healthy workforce is vital for delivering high-quality products and services, as well as maintaining the economic strength of a society. However, with the industrialization of many jobs and the physical and psychological stressors associated with many occupations, maintaining a healthy workforce is becoming increasingly more difficult. This may have a significant impact on employee productivity, health care costs, and overall job satisfaction. For these reasons, many employers are interested in solutions that will motivate employees to take control of their health and well-being. Health and Wellness programs aimed at increasing physical activity, stress reduction, nutritional quality, and chronic disease prevention are of significant interest. 

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the Health and Wellness Programs in the Workplace. The Guest Editors would like to invite original research and reviews (narrative reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses) on the following topics:

  • Assessing the workplace food environment
  • Policy, systems, and environment approach in the workplace
  • Worksite wellness policies and programs
  • Increasing opportunities for physical activity in the workplace
  • Stress reduction in the workplace
  • The impact of sitting/sedentary time on health and productivity of employees
  • Cost-effectiveness of health promotion/ disease prevention programs in the workplace
  • Impact of Covid on mental health and productivity of employees
  • Physiological monitoring and injury mitigation for employees

Dr. Jay Dawes
Dr. Robert Lockie
Dr. Robin Orr
Dr. Jill Joyce
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (18 papers)

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12 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Role Ambiguity and Workers’ Creativity during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China
by Jing Zhang, Yidan Hong and Andrew P. Smith
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315977 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Job role ambiguity is becoming more and more common due to the increase in telecommuting caused by the COVID-19 epidemic. In order to understand the internal mechanism of the association between role ambiguity and creativity, this study examined it in the context of [...] Read more.
Job role ambiguity is becoming more and more common due to the increase in telecommuting caused by the COVID-19 epidemic. In order to understand the internal mechanism of the association between role ambiguity and creativity, this study examined it in the context of the Demands–Resources–Individual Effects (DRIVE) model. Participants were employees from all walks of life in mainland China, with a total of 437 valid data. The results showed that role ambiguity had no significant direct effect on creativity but exerted a negative effect on creativity through the chain mediating effect of affective rumination and perceived stress. A good relationship with a supervisor helped employees reduce their affective rumination when faced with the pressure of role ambiguity. The results show that how employees perceive role ambiguity plays an essential role in determining the potency of the after-effect of role ambiguity. Resources from supervisors can help reduce the negative perception of ambiguous roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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28 pages, 2446 KiB  
Article
Occupational Well-Being of Multidisciplinary PHC Teams: Barriers/Facilitators and Negotiations to Improve Working Conditions
by Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz, Daiani Modernel Xavier, Clarice Alves Bonow, Joana Cezar Vaz, Letícia Silveira Cardoso, Cynthia Fontella Sant’Anna, Valdecir Zavarese da Costa, Carlos Henrique Cardona Nery and Helena Maria Almeida Macedo Loureiro
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315943 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Well-being at work is one of the factors determining healthy work conditions and is perceived by workers as a positive psychological state. In this study, the concept of well-being at work was used together with occupational functionality (i.e., current health state, current work [...] Read more.
Well-being at work is one of the factors determining healthy work conditions and is perceived by workers as a positive psychological state. In this study, the concept of well-being at work was used together with occupational functionality (i.e., current health state, current work environment, and barriers/facilitators to implementing well-being at work), occupational risk perception, and proactivity/negotiations held by workers to improve working conditions. In this context, the objectives were to identify the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics independently associated with levels of well-being at work of the multidisciplinary PHC health team; detect barriers or facilitators resulting from the attitudes of colleagues, community members, and managers that influence the well-being at work of the multidisciplinary health team; and identify with whom and what reasons led health workers to become proactive and negotiate improved working conditions. This cross-sectional study addressed 338 health workers from the multidisciplinary teams of PHC outpatient services in the extreme south of Brazil. Multivariate linear regression models were adopted to analyze data. The results show various independent associations with levels of well-being at work. Nursing workers (technicians and nurses) more frequently expressed job commitment and job satisfaction. Difficulties in solving problems and performing work routines, and co-workers’ attitudes directly influence the well-being of the PHC team members. Risk perception (physical and chemical) also influences well-being. Negotiations in which PHC managers engaged to improve working conditions appeared as a significant predictor of job commitment, job satisfaction, and job involvement. The results reveal that well-being at work is an important indicator of the potential of workers’ proactivity in negotiating improved working conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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18 pages, 3387 KiB  
Article
Body Composition and Fitness Characteristics of Firefighters Participating in a Health and Wellness Program: Relationships and Descriptive Data
by Robert G. Lockie, Joseph M. Dulla, Daniel Higuera, Kristina A. Ross, Robin M. Orr, J. Jay Dawes and Tomas J. Ruvalcaba
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315758 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
This study investigated body composition and fitness test relationships from firefighters participating in a health and wellness program and categorized firefighters according to population norms relative to sex and age. Data from 270 firefighters (men = 258, women = 12) were analyzed, including [...] Read more.
This study investigated body composition and fitness test relationships from firefighters participating in a health and wellness program and categorized firefighters according to population norms relative to sex and age. Data from 270 firefighters (men = 258, women = 12) were analyzed, including body composition (body mass index [BMI], body fat percentage [BF%], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio) and fitness (sit-and-reach, grip strength, leg press, crunches, push-ups, maximal aerobic capacity [V̇O2max]) tests. Mann–Whitney U-test analysis (p < 0.05) showed that male firefighters had a greater WC, WHR, grip strength and leg press. Female firefighters had a greater BF% and better sit-and-reach. Partial correlations controlling for sex indicated 22/24 correlations between body composition and fitness were significant (r = −0.143–−0.640). ~52% of firefighters were overweight, and 25% were Obesity Class I-III. ~76% had an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) considering BMI and WC. ~22% were fatter than average-to-overfat considering BF%. Most firefighters (73–94%) were good-to-excellent in sit-and-reach, grip strength, and push-ups; average-to-well above average in crunches; average-to-above average in leg press; and had good-to-superior V̇O2max. Although most firefighters had better fitness compared to the general population, many had increased CVD risk. The data highlighted the need for comprehensive approaches to improving firefighter health and decreasing CVD risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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14 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Justified Concerns? An Exploration of the Leg Tuck in a Tactical Population
by Robert G. Lockie, Robin M. Orr and J. Jay Dawes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113918 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The leg tuck was replaced by the plank in the Army Combat Fitness Test, in part because it was felt it discriminated against women. There is limited leg tuck research, including between-sex comparisons and relationships with other fitness tests. This study investigated the [...] Read more.
The leg tuck was replaced by the plank in the Army Combat Fitness Test, in part because it was felt it discriminated against women. There is limited leg tuck research, including between-sex comparisons and relationships with other fitness tests. This study investigated the leg tuck in a firefighter trainee population (274 males, 31 females). Archival fitness test data included: Illinois agility test (IAT); push-ups; pull-ups; leg tucks; multistage fitness test; 4.54 kg backwards overhead medicine ball throw (BOMBT); 10-repetition maximum deadlift; and 18 kg kettlebell farmer’s carry over a 91.44 m course. Independent samples t-tests (p < 0.05) and effect sizes (d) compared the sexes. Partial correlations and stepwise regression (controlling for sex; p < 0.05) calculated relationships between the leg tuck with the other tests. Male trainees outperformed females in all tests (p ≤ 0.003). The largest difference was for the BOMBT (d = 2.59) not the leg tuck (d = 1.28). The strongest leg tuck relationships were with pull-ups (r = 0.790) and push-ups (r = 0.553). Sex, pull-ups, and push-ups predicted the leg tuck (r2 = 0.674). Approximately 80% of the females could complete one leg tuck, although female personnel may require specific strength and power training. Pulling strength may be a determining factor in leg tuck performance, which is likely not indicated by the plank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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15 pages, 2499 KiB  
Article
Profiling the Typical Training Load of a Law Enforcement Recruit Class
by Danny Maupin, Ben Schram, Elisa F. D. Canetti, Joseph M. Dulla, J. Jay Dawes, Robert G. Lockie and Robin M. Orr
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013457 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Law enforcement academies, designed to prepare recruits for their prospective career, represent periods of high physical and mental stress, potentially contributing to recruits’ injuries. Managing stress via monitoring training loads may mitigate injuries while ensuring adequate preparation. However, it is vital to first [...] Read more.
Law enforcement academies, designed to prepare recruits for their prospective career, represent periods of high physical and mental stress, potentially contributing to recruits’ injuries. Managing stress via monitoring training loads may mitigate injuries while ensuring adequate preparation. However, it is vital to first understand an academy’s typical training load. The aim of this study was to profile the typical training load of law enforcement recruits over the course of 22 weeks. Data were prospectively collected using global positioning system (GPS) units placed on recruits during a portion of the academy training, while a desktop analysis was retrospectively applied to six other classes. A Bland–Altman plot was conducted to assess the agreement between the two methods. A linear mixed model was conducted to analyse the difference in distances covered per week, while other variables were presented graphically. Adequate agreement between the desktop analysis and GPS units was observed. Significant differences (p-value < 0.01) in distance covered (9.64 to 11.65 km) exist between weeks during early academy stages, which coincide with increases (~6 h) in physical training. Significant decreases in distances were experienced during the last five weeks of academy training. Most acute:chronic workload ratios stayed between the proposed 0.8 to 1.3 optimal range. Results from this study indicate that large increases in training occur early in the academy, potentially influencing injuries. Utilizing a desktop analysis is a pragmatic and reliable approach for instructors to measure load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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8 pages, 620 KiB  
Article
Analysis of a State Police Academy Menu Cycle for Dietary Quality and Performance Nutrition Adequacy
by Bryan Michael Pepito, Jay Dawes, Deana Hildebrand and Jillian Joyce
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912642 - 3 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Law enforcement officers have high rates of overweight and obesity. With diet as a leading risk factor, training academies present an opportunity for early-career nutrition intervention. Our purpose was to determine the dietary quality (DQ) and performance nutrition adequacy of a state police [...] Read more.
Law enforcement officers have high rates of overweight and obesity. With diet as a leading risk factor, training academies present an opportunity for early-career nutrition intervention. Our purpose was to determine the dietary quality (DQ) and performance nutrition adequacy of a state police academy’s cafeteria menu. This cross-sectional content analysis included six weeks (three daily meals, Monday–Friday) of a police academy menu. Nutrient content was determined by portioning menus, gathering food specifications, and performing nutrient analysis. DQ was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015. Statistical analyses included independent t-tests and Cohen’s d. The total HEI score was 54/100. Subcomponent scores indicating adequacy included added sugar (5/5), total protein (4.97/5) and whole fruits (4.77/5). Seafood/plant proteins (0.33/5), fatty acid ratio (1.31/5), and dairy scores (1.59/10) needed significant improvement. The menu met the recommended intake for 13 of 19 nutrients investigated. Nutrients that did not meet adequacy were calories (% mean difference, needs-menu = 36.7%), carbohydrates (52.3%), vitamins D (82.5%) and E (66.7%), magnesium (44.1%), and potassium (41.8%). The academy menu leaves room for improvement in DQ and shortfall nutrients. By increasing low scores, the overall DQ of the menu will increase and supplement missing nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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13 pages, 533 KiB  
Article
Association of Workplace Culture of Health and Employee Emotional Wellbeing
by Michele Wolf Marenus, Mary Marzec and Weiyun Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912318 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3871
Abstract
The study aimed to examine associations between workplace culture of health and employee work engagement, stress, and depression. Employees (n = 6235) across 16 companies voluntarily completed the Workplace Culture of Health (COH) Scale and provided data including stress, depression, and biometrics [...] Read more.
The study aimed to examine associations between workplace culture of health and employee work engagement, stress, and depression. Employees (n = 6235) across 16 companies voluntarily completed the Workplace Culture of Health (COH) Scale and provided data including stress, depression, and biometrics through health risk assessments and screening. We used linear regression analysis with COH scores as the independent variable to predict work engagement, stress, and depression. We included age, gender, job class, organization, and biometrics as covariates in the models. The models showed that total COH scores were a significant predictor of employee work engagement (b = 0.75, p < 0.001), stress (b = −0.08, p < 0.001), and depression (b = 0.08, p < 0.001). Job class was also a significant predictor of work engagement (b = 2.18, p < 0.001), stress (b = 0.95, p < 0.001), and depression (b = 1.03, p = 0.02). Gender was a predictor of stress (b = −0.32, p < 0.001). Overall, findings indicate a strong workplace culture of health is associated with higher work engagement and lower employee stress and depression independent of individual health status. Measuring cultural wellbeing supportiveness can help inform implementation plans for companies to improve the emotional wellbeing of their employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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19 pages, 834 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Learning: A Qualitative Study Exploring Factors Contributing to a Successful Tobacco Cessation Train-the-Trainer Program as a Community of Practice
by Isabel Martinez Leal, Jayda Martinez, Maggie Britton, Tzuan A. Chen, Virmarie Correa-Fernández, Bryce Kyburz, Vijay Nitturi, Ezemenari M. Obasi, Kelli Drenner, Teresa Williams, Kathleen Casey, Brian J. Carter and Lorraine R. Reitzel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137664 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3083
Abstract
Individuals with behavioral health conditions account for 50% of annual smoking-related deaths, yet rarely receive tobacco dependence treatment within local mental health authorities (LMHAs). As lack of training and knowledge are key barriers to providing tobacco dependence treatment, Taking Texas Tobacco-Free (TTTF) developed [...] Read more.
Individuals with behavioral health conditions account for 50% of annual smoking-related deaths, yet rarely receive tobacco dependence treatment within local mental health authorities (LMHAs). As lack of training and knowledge are key barriers to providing tobacco dependence treatment, Taking Texas Tobacco-Free (TTTF) developed an iterative, 4–6-months train-the-trainer program to embed expertise and delivery of sustained education on tobacco-free workplace policies and practices in participating centers. We explore the employee “champions’” train-the-trainer program experiences using a community of practice (CoP) model to identify key contributors to successful program implementation. Across 3 different LMHAs, we conducted semi-structured individual and group interviews online at 2 time points. We interviewed each champion twice (except for 1 champion who dropped out between measurements); pre-implementation (3 group interviews; N = 4 + 4 + 3 = 11 champions); post-implementation (7 individual interviews and 1 group interview; 7 + 3 = 10 champions). Therefore, 11 champions participated in pre- and post-implementation interviews from July 2020–May 2021. Guided by an iterative, thematic analysis and constant comparison process, we inductively coded and summarized data into themes. Five factors contributed to successful program implementation: value of peer support/feedback; building knowledge, champion confidence, and program ownership; informative curriculum, adaptable to targeted populations; staying abreast of current tobacco/nicotine research and products; and TTTF team responsiveness and practical coaching/assistance. Champions reported the TTTF train-the-trainer program was successful and identified attitudes and CoP processes that effectively built organizational capacity and expertise to sustainably address tobacco dependence. Study findings can guide other agencies in implementing sustainable tobacco-free training programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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17 pages, 1610 KiB  
Article
Fit (and Healthy) for Duty: Blood Lipid Profiles and Physical Fitness Test Relationships from Police Officers in a Health and Wellness Program
by Robert G. Lockie, Robin M. Orr and J. Jay Dawes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095408 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
This research analyzed archival health and wellness program data (2018: 169 males, 39 females; 2019: 194 males, 43 females) to document police officer lipid profiles, and correlate lipids with fitness. Bloodwork included total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), and triglycerides [...] Read more.
This research analyzed archival health and wellness program data (2018: 169 males, 39 females; 2019: 194 males, 43 females) to document police officer lipid profiles, and correlate lipids with fitness. Bloodwork included total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Fitness data included maximal aerobic capacity (V·O2max); sit-and-reach; push-ups; vertical jump; grip strength; sit-ups; and relative bench press (RBP). Lipid profiles were compared to national standards. Spearman’s correlations derived relationships between lipids and fitness (p < 0.05). Over 2018–2019, 68–76% of officers had desirable TC (<200 mg/dL) and HDL-C (≥60 mg/dL); 67–72% had desirable TG (<150 mg/dL). 54–62% of officers had LDL-C above desirable (≥100 mg/dL); 13–14% had mildly high TG (150–199 mg/dL); 16–18% had high TG (200–499 mg/dL). In 2018, HDL-C correlated with V·O2max, push-ups, grip strength, and RBP in males, and sit-ups in females. TG correlated with V·O2max (both sexes), sit-ups (males), and grip strength (females). In 2019, TG related to V·O2max, push-ups, vertical jump, sit-ups, and RBP in males. TG and LDL-C related to push-ups, and HDL-C to sit-ups and RBP in females. Relationship strengths were trivial-to-small (ρ = ±0.157 − 0.389). Most officers had good lipid profiles relative to cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, the data highlighted the need for comprehensive approaches to decreasing risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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12 pages, 332 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Perceptions and Impact of Critical Incident Stress Management Peer Support among Firefighters and Paramedics in Canada
by Jill A. B. Price, Caeleigh A. Landry, Jeff Sych, Malcolm McNeill, Andrea M. Stelnicki, Aleiia J. N. Asmundson and R. Nicholas Carleton
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 4976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19094976 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3557
Abstract
Relative to the general population, public safety personnel (PSP) appear at an increased risk of developing mental health challenges as a result of repeated exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs). To help mitigate the impact of PPTEs on PSP mental health, many [...] Read more.
Relative to the general population, public safety personnel (PSP) appear at an increased risk of developing mental health challenges as a result of repeated exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs). To help mitigate the impact of PPTEs on PSP mental health, many PSP agencies have implemented diverse peer support despite limited empirical evidence. The current study was designed to expand the empirical evidence surrounding peer support by investigating one of the most widely used and structured peer support resources: Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM). Specifically, the current study with integrated firefighters and paramedics assessed (a) the prevalence of mental disorders; (b) perceptions of high fidelity CISM peer support; and (c) the comparative associations of CISM with high fidelity (n = 91) versus unknown fidelity (n = 60) versus no CISM (n = 64) and mental health. Results indicated that (a) mental disorders are prevalent among PSP irrespective of gender, age, and years of service; (b) participants perceived CISM peer support as offering beneficial and valuable tools (e.g., skills and coping strategies); and (c) high fidelity CISM environments offer some mental health benefits to individuals who screen positive for alcohol use disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Overall, the current study offers novel information that can inform future directions for evidence-based peer support and policy decisions designed to support the mental health of PSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
13 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Organizational Framework Conditions for Workplace Health Management in Different Settings of Nursing—A Cross-Sectional Analysis in Germany
by Hannah Bleier, Jasmin Lützerath and Andrea Schaller
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063693 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2638
Abstract
Studies show that workplace health promotion (WHP) can reduce sickness-related absenteeism among employees and secure long-term workability. Embedding WHP in workplace health management (WHM) can contribute to sustainability and holism. This study aimed to investigate organizational framework conditions for WHM in different settings [...] Read more.
Studies show that workplace health promotion (WHP) can reduce sickness-related absenteeism among employees and secure long-term workability. Embedding WHP in workplace health management (WHM) can contribute to sustainability and holism. This study aimed to investigate organizational framework conditions for WHM in different settings of nursing in Germany (acute care hospital, long-term care (LTC) facilities and home-based LTC). In a project on WHM implementation, managers with personnel responsibility for nurses (n = 16) were surveyed. In total, 46 close-ended questions on organizational framework conditions of WHM in their care facility were answered at the beginning of the project. No significant differences were found for the indexes of health promoting willingness, health promoting management, social capital and workplace health activity. Descriptive analysis showed that home-based LTC performed slightly better on average. Home-based LTC and LTC facilities had higher ratings in health promoting willingness than in actually managing the process (health promoting management), while the results for acute care hospitals were reversed. Acute care hospitals showed the lowest values for the topics of health as a leadership topic and evaluation of incidents of violence, which were generally rated lower among all settings. Need for action can be identified in improving personal, financial and time resources, evaluation and information on WHM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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16 pages, 690 KiB  
Article
The Workplace and Psychosocial Experiences of Australian Senior Doctors during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study
by Jonathan Tran, Karen Willis, Margaret Kay, Kathryn Hutt and Natasha Smallwood
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053079 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had significant mental health impacts among healthcare workers (HCWs), related to resource scarcity, risky work environments, and poor supports. Understanding the unique challenges experienced by senior doctors and identifying strategies for support will assist doctors facing [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had significant mental health impacts among healthcare workers (HCWs), related to resource scarcity, risky work environments, and poor supports. Understanding the unique challenges experienced by senior doctors and identifying strategies for support will assist doctors facing such crises into the future. A cross-sectional, national, online survey was conducted during the second wave of the Australian COVID-19 pandemic. Inductive content analysis was used to examine data reporting workplace and psychosocial impacts of the pandemic. Of 9518 responses, 1083 senior doctors responded to one or more free-text questions. Of the senior doctors, 752 were women and 973 resided in Victoria. Four themes were identified: (1) work-life challenges; (2) poor workplace safety, support, and culture; (3) poor political leadership, planning and support; and (4) media and community responses. Key issues impacting mental health included supporting staff wellbeing, moral injury related to poorer quality patient care, feeling unheard and undervalued within the workplace, and pandemic ill-preparedness. Senior doctors desired better crisis preparedness, HCW representation, greater leadership, and accessible, authentic psychological wellbeing support services from workplace organisations and government. The pandemic has had significant impacts on senior doctors. The sustainability of the healthcare system requires interventions designed to protect workforce wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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15 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Diversity of Perceptions of Disability in the Workplace vs. Cultural Determinants in Selected European Countries
by Dorota Kwiatkowska-Ciotucha, Urszula Załuska, Cyprian Kozyra, Alicja Grześkowiak, Marzena Żurawicka and Krzysztof Polak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042058 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
The perception of people with disability (PwD) is of key importance for the full inclusion of this group in the labour market. The article presents selected results of research on the perception of PwD in the workplace. The analyses are based on the [...] Read more.
The perception of people with disability (PwD) is of key importance for the full inclusion of this group in the labour market. The article presents selected results of research on the perception of PwD in the workplace. The analyses are based on the results of semiotics research conducted in Poland and of quantitative study in the form of computer-assisted Internet interviews (CAWI) carried out on representative samples from eight European countries. Opinions of Internet users were collected in Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece, Spain, Germany, Poland, Sweden and Great Britain. The results of semiotic analyses on texts mainly from Polish culture made it possible to identify the prevailing images of disability in Polish popular culture and inspired the authors to seek diversity in perceptions of disability depending on social and cultural patterns in a given country. The results of the international survey were used to compare all eight countries with regard to the relationship between the dimensions of culture according to G. Hofstede, and openness to people with disability in the workplace. The conducted research indicates that the perception of the issue of disability is significantly related to the selected dimensions of culture according to G. Hofstede. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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16 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
Wellbeing in Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion in the Relationship between Personal Resources and Exhaustion
by Annalisa Grandi, Margherita Zito, Luisa Sist, Monica Martoni, Vincenzo Russo and Lara Colombo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031714 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
Italy was the second country to be affected by COVID-19 in early 2020, after China. The confrontation with the pandemic led to great changes in the world of work and, consequently, to the personal world of workers. In such a challenging situation, it [...] Read more.
Italy was the second country to be affected by COVID-19 in early 2020, after China. The confrontation with the pandemic led to great changes in the world of work and, consequently, to the personal world of workers. In such a challenging situation, it is essential to be able to rely on resources that facilitate individual coping. The aim of this study was to understand the association between personal resources (optimism and humor) and exhaustion, and the role of self-compassion in this relationship. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses on a heterogeneous sample of 422 Italian workers during the first lockdown in April–May 2020. The results revealed that optimism and humor were positively associated with self-compassion; optimism and humor also had a negative association with exhaustion; and self-compassion had a mediating role between the two personal resources and exhaustion. These results confirmed the importance of personal resources in maintaining workers’ wellbeing during a challenging period such as the pandemic. The present study also contributes to the body of knowledge on self-compassion, a relatively new construct that has been little studied in the organizational field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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19 pages, 370 KiB  
Article
“It Is Difficult to Always Be an Antagonist”: Ethical, Professional, and Moral Dilemmas as Potentially Psychologically Traumatic Events among Nurses in Canada
by Rosemary Ricciardelli, Matthew S. Johnston, Brittany Bennett, Andrea M. Stelnicki and R. Nicholas Carleton
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031454 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3816
Abstract
Aims: We explore social and relational dynamics tied to an unexplored potentially psychologically traumatic event (PPTE) that can impact nurses’ well-being and sense of their occupational responsibilities: namely, the moral, ethical, or professional dilemmas encountered in their occupational work. Design: We used a [...] Read more.
Aims: We explore social and relational dynamics tied to an unexplored potentially psychologically traumatic event (PPTE) that can impact nurses’ well-being and sense of their occupational responsibilities: namely, the moral, ethical, or professional dilemmas encountered in their occupational work. Design: We used a semi-constructed grounded theory approach to reveal prevalent emergent themes from the qualitative, open-ended component of our survey response data as part of a larger mixed-methods study. Methods: We administered a national Canadian survey on nurses’ experiences of occupational stressors and their health and well-being between May and September 2019. In the current study, we analyzed data from four open text fields in the PPTE section of the survey. Results: In total, at least 109 participants noted that their most impactful PPTE exposure was a moral, professional, and/or ethical dilemma. These participants volunteered the theme as a spontaneous addition to the list of possible PPTE exposures. Conclusions: Emergent theme analytic results suggest that physicians, other nurses, staff, and/or the decision-making power of patients’ families can reduce or eliminate a nurse’s perception of their agency, which directly and negatively impacts their well-being and may cause them to experience moral injury. Nurses also report struggling when left to operationalize patient care instructions with which they disagree. Impact: Nurses are exposed to PPTEs at work, but little is known about factors that can aggravate PPTE exposure in the field, impact the mental wellness of nurses, and even shape patient care. We discuss the implications of PPTE involving moral, professional, and ethical dilemmas (i.e., potentially morally injurious events), and provide recommendations for nursing policy and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)

Review

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39 pages, 1154 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Footwear on Occupational Task Performance and Musculoskeletal Injury Risk: A Scoping Review to Inform Tactical Footwear
by Robin Orr, Danny Maupin, Robert Palmer, Elisa F. D. Canetti, Vini Simas and Ben Schram
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710703 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5072
Abstract
The aim of this scoping review was to investigate the impact of footwear on worker physical task performance and injury risk. The review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews protocol and registered in [...] Read more.
The aim of this scoping review was to investigate the impact of footwear on worker physical task performance and injury risk. The review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews protocol and registered in the Open Science Framework. Key search terms were entered into five academic databases. Following a dedicated screening process and critical appraisal, data from the final articles informing this review were extracted, tabulated, and synthesised. Of 19,614 identified articles, 50 articles informed this review. Representing 16 countries, the most common populations investigated were military and firefighter populations, but a wide range of general occupations (e.g., shipping, mining, hairdressing, and healthcare workers) were represented. Footwear types included work safety boots/shoes (e.g., industrial, gumboots, steel capped, etc.), military and firefighter boots, sports shoes (trainers, tennis, basketball, etc.) and various other types (e.g., sandals, etc.). Occupational footwear was found to impact gait and angular velocities, joint ranges of motion, posture and balance, physiological measures (like aerobic capacity, heart rates, temperatures, etc.), muscle activity, and selected occupational tasks. Occupational footwear associated with injuries included boots, conventional running shoes, shoes with inserts, harder/stiffer outsoles or thin soles, and shoes with low comfort scores—although the findings were mixed. Occupational footwear was also linked to potentially causing injuries directly (e.g., musculoskeletal injuries) as well as leading to mechanisms associated with causing injuries (like tripping and slipping). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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27 pages, 1083 KiB  
Review
Musculoskeletal Disorders Associated with Occupational Driving: A Systematic Review Spanning 2006–2021
by Olivia Pickard, Peta Burton, Hayato Yamada, Ben Schram, Elisa F. D. Canetti and Robin Orr
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116837 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5161
Abstract
Several occupations require workers to spend long periods of time driving road vehicles. This occupational task is associated with musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this review was to collate, synthesize, and analyze research reporting on musculoskeletal disorders associated with occupational driving, in order [...] Read more.
Several occupations require workers to spend long periods of time driving road vehicles. This occupational task is associated with musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this review was to collate, synthesize, and analyze research reporting on musculoskeletal disorders associated with occupational driving, in order to develop a volume of evidence to inform occupational disorder mitigation strategies. A systematic search of academic databases (PubMed, EBSCO host, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) was performed using key search terms. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklists. A Cohen’s kappa analysis was used to determine interrater agreement between appraisers. Of the 18,254 identified studies, 25 studies were selected and appraised. The mean critical appraisal score is 69% (range 38–100%), with a fair level of agreement (k = 0.332). The studies report that musculoskeletal disorders, most commonly lower back pain, is of concern in this population, particularly in truck, bus, and taxi drivers. Risk factors for these occupations include long hours in a sitting position, years in the profession, vehicle ergonomics, and vibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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21 pages, 2184 KiB  
Review
Occupational Health and Safety Statistics as an Indicator of Worker Physical Health in South African Industry
by Oscar Rikhotso, Thabiso John Morodi and Daniel Masilu Masekameni
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031690 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7420
Abstract
Operations in general industry, including manufacturing, expose employees to a myriad of occupational health hazards. To prevent exposure, occupational health and safety regulations were enacted, with both employers and workers instituting various risk reduction measures. The analysis of available occupational disease and injury [...] Read more.
Operations in general industry, including manufacturing, expose employees to a myriad of occupational health hazards. To prevent exposure, occupational health and safety regulations were enacted, with both employers and workers instituting various risk reduction measures. The analysis of available occupational disease and injury statistics (indicators of worker physical health) can be used to infer the effectiveness of risk reduction measures and regulations in preventing exposure. Thus, using the READ approach, analyses of occupational disease and injury statistics from South African industry, derived from annual reports of the Compensation Fund, were conducted. The publicly available database of occupational disease and injury statistics from the South African general industry is unstructured, and the data are inconsistently reported. This data scarcity, symptomatic of an absence of a functional occupational disease surveillance system, complicates judgement making regarding the effectiveness of implemented risk reduction measures, enacted occupational health and safety regulations and the status of worker physical health from exposure to workplace hazards. The statistics, where available, indicate that workers continue to be exposed to occupational health impacts within general industry, notwithstanding risk reduction measures and enacted regulations. In particular, worker physical health continues to be impacted by occupational injuries and noise-induced hearing loss. This is suggestive of shortcomings and inefficiencies in industry-implemented preventive measures and the regulatory state. A robust national occupational disease surveillance system is a regulatory tool that should detect and direct policy responses to identified occupational health hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness in the Workplace)
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