Special Issue "Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sofia Sousa

Guest Editor
LEPABE—Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution is responsible for approximately 6 million deaths per year, accounting for ambient and indoor air pollution. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental hazards, namely, regarding lung development, making them a risk group. Protecting the health of children and the environment is an essential objective for the health policies of any modern society and is also crucial for a sustainable development. Recent studies conducted around the world have been showing effects for very vulnerable periods of development, namely, intrauterine, perinatal, and early childhood. Air pollution is related to numerous diseases in children including low birth weight, asthma, cancer, and neurodevelopmental disorders, which are becoming more widespread. The full impact of air pollution is still not known, and most certainly is underdiagnosed, because exposure is still not well considered, and pollutants toxicity is yet not fully understood. This Special Issue will focus on the impact of air pollution on children’s health, especially on the early stages of their development, contributing to the advancement of this field of knowledge.

Dr. Sofia Sousa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effects of PM2.5 on Third Grade Students’ Proficiency in Math and English Language Arts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186931 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fine particulate air pollution is harmful to children in myriad ways. While evidence is mounting that chronic exposures are associated with reduced academic proficiency, no research has examined the frequency of peak exposures. It is also unknown if pollution exposures influence academic proficiency [...] Read more.
Fine particulate air pollution is harmful to children in myriad ways. While evidence is mounting that chronic exposures are associated with reduced academic proficiency, no research has examined the frequency of peak exposures. It is also unknown if pollution exposures influence academic proficiency to the same degree in all schools or if the level of children’s social disadvantage in schools modifies the effects, such that some schools’ academic proficiency levels are more sensitive to exposures. We address these gaps by examining the percentage of third grade students who tested below the grade level in math and English language arts (ELA) in Salt Lake County, Utah primary schools (n = 156), where fine particulate pollution is a serious health threat. More frequent peak exposures were associated with reduced math and ELA proficiency, as was greater school disadvantage. High frequency peak exposures were more strongly linked to lower math proficiency in more advantaged schools. Findings highlight the need for policies to reduce the number of days with peak air pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Passive Smoking Exposure and Perceived Health Status in Children Seeking Pediatric Care Services at a Vietnamese Tertiary Hospital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041188 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
Understanding the predictors of health conditions and exposure to secondhand smoke among children is necessary to determine the severity of the issues and identify effective solutions. Despite the significant prevalence in smoking and child exposure to secondhand smoke, there have been only a [...] Read more.
Understanding the predictors of health conditions and exposure to secondhand smoke among children is necessary to determine the severity of the issues and identify effective solutions. Despite the significant prevalence in smoking and child exposure to secondhand smoke, there have been only a few studies focusing on this area in Vietnam, and thus the current study aims to fill in this gap. The questionnaires of 435 children aged between 0 and 6 and their caregivers, who agreed to participate in the research, were collected at the Pediatric Department of Bach Mai hospital, Hanoi, in 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with perceived health status and exposure to secondhand smoke among children in the last 24 h and the last 7 days from the date of the survey. Our study found that 43% of the respondents had smokers in the family, and 46.4% of children were exposed to passive smoking in the last 7 days. Urban children were most frequently exposed to passive smoking at home and in public, whereas in the rural area, the home and relatives’ houses were the most common places for exposure. Compared to children whose caregivers were farmers, children of non-government workers were more likely to be exposed to passive smoking in the last 7 days. Moreover, children in a family having smoking rules and no smokers were less likely to be exposed to passive smoking in the last 24 h and 7 days than those living in a family allowing smoking and having smokers. In conclusion, our study shows that the government needs to implement better public smoking monitoring and encourage caregivers to implement smoke-free households or smoking rules in their houses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
Open AccessArticle
Nexus between Air Pollution and Neonatal Deaths: A Case of Asian Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214148 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
The rapid economic growth in Asian countries has witnessed a persistent increase in air pollution complementing adverse health challenges for children in these countries. Quantification of health effects attributable to air pollution (PM2.5) is important in policy implications to tackle air [...] Read more.
The rapid economic growth in Asian countries has witnessed a persistent increase in air pollution complementing adverse health challenges for children in these countries. Quantification of health effects attributable to air pollution (PM2.5) is important in policy implications to tackle air pollution and associated health problems. This study aims to explore the nexus between air pollution and neonates’ deaths embedded in acute respiratory infection. We collected panel data from the 12 most vulnerable Asian countries over the period of 2000–2017 and analyzed through the fixed-effect model. Empirical results show a positive relation between air pollution, temperature, and neonates’ deaths in the studied Asian countries. The results have attested negative impacts of income and education while positive effect of population density on neonates’ deaths due to acute respiratory infection. Diagnostic and prognostic measures have checked the pace of the respiratory diseases caused by PM2.5 and resultant deaths in Asian countries; yet alarming factors, like mounting industrial air pollution and rapid expansion of industrial zones in urban areas, need to be addressed in policy implications for long term sustainable solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
Open AccessArticle
Ambient Air Pollution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Korea: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183273 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is an occasional cause of unexpected mortality in infancy. While various etiological factors have been hypothesized, air pollution has been consistently presented as an environmental factor. In this study, we aimed to estimate the risk of SIDS in [...] Read more.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is an occasional cause of unexpected mortality in infancy. While various etiological factors have been hypothesized, air pollution has been consistently presented as an environmental factor. In this study, we aimed to estimate the risk of SIDS in relation to exposure to air pollution and the effects of its modifying factors. A mortality dataset with supplementary infant mortality survey data from Statistics Korea was used and combined the concentration of ambient air pollution data from AirKorea based on the date of death and residential addresses of the SIDS cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated according to birthweight, gestational age, maternal age, and infant age using a time-stratified case-crossover study design. The risk of exposure to particulate matter of less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide was estimated. The number of deaths due to SIDS was 454 (253 males and 201 females). The OR per 27.8 µg/m3 increment of PM10 was 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.25) and that per 215.8 ppb of CO was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.03–1.40) in all infants. In females, an increase in NO2 and CO levels was associated with a higher risk of SIDS in low-birthweight and preterm infants. The OR per 15.7 ppb increment in NO2 was highest among preterm infants, with a value of 5.12 (95% CI: 1.27–20.63), and low-birthweight individuals, with a value of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.74–9.72), at a moving average of 0 to 3 days. In males, however, no significant association was found. In the present study, exposure to air pollution was associated with an increased risk of SIDS. This association was more evident in susceptible infants with a low-birthweight or in cases of preterm birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Bisphenol A, Tobacco Smoke, and Age as Predictors of Oxidative Stress in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112025 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate bisphenol A (BPA) and its role in the induction of oxidative stress and confirm the same for tobacco smoke. Methods. A total of 223 young, healthy students (7–19 years old) were recruited in Chivasso, [...] Read more.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate bisphenol A (BPA) and its role in the induction of oxidative stress and confirm the same for tobacco smoke. Methods. A total of 223 young, healthy students (7–19 years old) were recruited in Chivasso, Italy. A spot of urine of each subject was analyzed to quantify BPA, cotinine, and 15F2t-isoprostane. Results. BPA showed a slight increase of concentration proportional with increasing age, even though the 11–14 years age group had slightly lower results, inducing a V-shape. The same trend was observed for 15F2t-isoprostane and cotinine. The result of piecewise linear robust regression shows a break point of the effect of BPA on 15F2t-isoprostane at 6 ng/mg CREA (p < 0.001). At higher levels, 15F2t-isoprostane shows an exponential increase by more than threefold for each one-log unit of BPA. An increase of oxidative stress due to BPA was observed, but only from 6 ng/mg of CREA up. Passive tobacco smoke is also able to induce an increase in oxidative stress. Conclusion. Prevention against BPA and passive tobacco smoke represents an important tool for promoting the highest health standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal Exposure to Particulate Matter during Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes in the Republic of Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040633 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Air pollution has become a global concern due to its association with numerous health effects. We aimed to assess associations between birth outcomes in Korea, such as preterm births and birth weight in term infants, and particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10 [...] Read more.
Air pollution has become a global concern due to its association with numerous health effects. We aimed to assess associations between birth outcomes in Korea, such as preterm births and birth weight in term infants, and particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10). Records from 1,742,183 single births in 2010–2013 were evaluated. Mean PM10 concentrations during pregnancy were calculated and matched to birth data by registered regions. We analyzed the frequency of birth outcomes between groups using WHO criteria for PM10 concentrations with effect sizes estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Women exposed to PM10 > 70 µg/m3 during pregnancy had a higher rate of preterm births than women exposed to PM10 ≤ 70 µg/m3 (7.4% vs. 4.7%, P < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.570; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.487–1.656). The rate of low birth weight in term infants increased when women were exposed to PM10 > 70 µg/m3 (1.9% vs. 1.7%, P = 0.278), but this difference was not statistically significant (aOR 1.060, 95% CI: 0.953–1.178). In conclusion, PM10 exposure > 70 µg/m3 was associated with preterm births. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms and guide policy development to prevent future adverse effects on birth outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
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