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Special Issue "Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hanna Nałęcz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Child and Adolescent Health, Institute of Mother and Child, 17A Kasprzaka Str., 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: physical activity; health behaviors; adolescents; public health
Dr. Talita Honorato-Rzeszewicz
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Mother and Child, 17A Kasprzaka Str., 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: physical activity; epidemiology; weight gain; obesity; adolescent pregnancy
Dr. hab. Ida Laudańska-Krzemińska
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Physical Activity and Health Promotion Science, Poznań University of Physical Education, 27/39 Krolowej Jadwigi Str., 61-871 Poznan, Poland
Interests: health promotion; health behavior; physical activity; setting; self-assessment of health; health awareness

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On behalf of IJERPH, a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes manuscripts in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health, we are organizing a Special Issue about physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children and youths, which will offer an opportunity to publish high-quality multidisciplinary research: original articles, critical reviews, research notes, and short communications that may deepen our understanding of the role of physical activity.

The lack of physical activity in children and youths disrupts proper physical, mental, and social growth and development and is also a major risk factor for noncommunicable diseases, poor HRQL, and premature mortality. Based on recommendations guiding physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents, we are interested in papers analyzing the wide context of determinants of these behaviors, as well as their reciprocal relationships.

For this Special Issue in IJERPH, we especially welcome studies carried out in children/youth population involving the following topics:

  • Physical activity/sedentary behavior assessment and surveillance in the context of recommendations;
  • Physical activity/sedentary behaviors and mental health;
  • Psychosocial correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors;
  • Physical literacy studies;
  • Neighborhood environment—built and social, as factors influencing choices leading to physical activity/sedentary behaviors;
  • Gross motor skill development;
  • The association between gross motor skills and physical activity/sedentary behaviors;
  • Screen- and sitting time correlates;
  • Active/passive transportation and physical activity levels;
  • The role of sleep duration and sleep behaviors in children and adolescents’ energy expenditure behaviors.

Dr. Hanna Nałęcz
Dr. Talita Honorato-Rzeszewicz
Dr. hab. Ida Laudańska-Krzemińska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Physical literacy
  • Gross motor skills
  • Sedentary behaviors
  • Sitting time
  • Screen time
  • Sleep
  • Recommendations
  • Children
  • Adolescents

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Article
Home and Neighborhood Physical Activity Location Availability among African American Adolescent Girls Living in Low-Income, Urban Communities: Associations with Objectively Measured Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18095003 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Based on the ecological model of active living, the neighborhood environment may relate to individual physical activity (PA) behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (1) generate a replicable neighborhood-level physical activity location availability score (PALAS) from data variables associated with physical [...] Read more.
Based on the ecological model of active living, the neighborhood environment may relate to individual physical activity (PA) behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (1) generate a replicable neighborhood-level physical activity location availability score (PALAS) from data variables associated with physical activity among adolescents and adults, and apply this score to Baltimore City, Maryland, and (2) determine if relationships exist between PA and PA location availability. Geographic information systems (GISs) were used to create the PALAS. Using linear regression models, we examined relations between objectively measured PA among low-income, urban, predominantly African American adolescent girls (n = 555, 2009–2012 data collection), and the PALAS rating of their neighborhood environment (neighborhood PALAS) and their home neighborhood area (PALAS variables/subcomponents within 0.25 miles of the home). A PALAS map of the study area was created, illustrating neighborhoods varying in availability and variety of PA locations. After adjusting for confounders, a higher neighborhood PALAS (β = 0.10, p = 0.041) and the presence of a recreation center in the home neighborhood area (β = 0.46, p = 0.011) were associated with more minutes per day spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Policy makers and stakeholders should consider increasing access to PA locations as a strategy to promote PA among adolescent girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Physical and Sedentary Activities and Childhood Overweight/Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study among First-Year Children of Primary Schools in Modena, Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063221 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Children obesity is a serious public health issue. This study aimed to investigate physical/sedentary activities of first-year primary schools children in Modena, and their association with overweight/obesity and dietary habits of children and family characteristics to identify the risk factors for unhealthy lifestyles. [...] Read more.
Children obesity is a serious public health issue. This study aimed to investigate physical/sedentary activities of first-year primary schools children in Modena, and their association with overweight/obesity and dietary habits of children and family characteristics to identify the risk factors for unhealthy lifestyles. Child physical/sedentary activities were gathered through an anonymous questionnaire administered to parents, as well as family characteristics and weight/height of child and parents. Logistic regression models, eventually adjusted for parents’ sociodemographic characteristics, were used to analyze data. Questionnaires were delivered by 660 families (74.2%), of which 72 without anthropometric data were excluded. Three out of four children spent in physical activities less than 7 h/week, while 63.9% dedicated to sedentary activities two or more hours/day. From multivariate analysis, the habit significantly affecting children’s overweight/obesity was spending time on tablets/Personal Computers/mobile phones/videogames. Higher parental education level resulted in a protective factor for implementing unhealthy lifestyles in terms of time dedicated to physical/sedentary activities. Our results suggest the need of interventions to increase time for physical activity and to promote a responsible use of digital media involving the entire families to reach all parents regardless of their education and nationality with a possible relapse on other family members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
Article
The Impact of Physical Education Based on the Adventure Education Programme on Self-Esteem and Social Competences of Adolescent Boys
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063021 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of physical education based on the adventure education programme on the social competences of adolescent boys. The participants (n = 70) were 1st grade high school students between 15 and 16 years old. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of physical education based on the adventure education programme on the social competences of adolescent boys. The participants (n = 70) were 1st grade high school students between 15 and 16 years old. Adolescents’ social competences were measured using the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Social Competence Questionnaire (SCQ) before and after the intervention. An experimental repeated-measures design was used, with a comparison group. ANOVA (2 × 2) for interaction group x time showed statistical significance in competences revealed in situations of social exposure (F1, 68 = 5.16, p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.07) and competences revealed in situations requiring assertiveness (F1, 68 = 4.73, p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.07). Using the adventure education (AE) programme may be recommended as a way of developing social skill competences revealed in situations of social exposure and competences revealed in situations requiring the assertiveness of adolescents through physical activity that can be easily integrated into the school environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
First Graders’ Stationary Behavior in Norwegian After-School Programs: A Mixed Methods Investigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041938 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 858
Abstract
After-school programs (ASPs) might influence the activities and behaviors of children. The aim of the reported study was to investigate how stationary behavior unfolds during ASP time in a sample of Norwegian first graders. A total of 42 first graders from 14 ASPs [...] Read more.
After-school programs (ASPs) might influence the activities and behaviors of children. The aim of the reported study was to investigate how stationary behavior unfolds during ASP time in a sample of Norwegian first graders. A total of 42 first graders from 14 ASPs were observed during one entire ASP day. ActiGraph accelerometers were used to measure the intensity of their physical activity (PA). Children were found to be involved in stationary behavior for 54.9% of the studied ASP time—a median of 79.5 min (IQR = 62.0). However, there was considerable variation among the children in the sample. Most stationary behavior—63.5% of all stationary behavior during ASP time—was accumulated when the children were sitting indoors. The proportion of stationary behavior was significantly higher indoors than outdoors, during adult-managed time than child-managed time, and during time spent together with other children than time spent alone (p < 0.05). In child-managed physical activity play outdoors, stationary behavior commonly occurred during short periods of standing still. Stationary behavior was usually rapidly broken up by longer periods of PA. Stationary periods involved activities in close relationship with other children and appeared to be important for social interaction and friendship building. The researchers suggest that ASP staff members should actively promote physical activity play that breaks up sedentary time and replaces some stationary behaviors with PA, especially among the least active children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Levels of Physical Activity and Mental Health in Adolescents in Ireland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041713 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
The benefits of physical activity for the physical health of individuals are well documented. Less is known about the benefits of physical activity for mental health. This paper explores the associations between physical activity and positive mental health and mental health problems. The [...] Read more.
The benefits of physical activity for the physical health of individuals are well documented. Less is known about the benefits of physical activity for mental health. This paper explores the associations between physical activity and positive mental health and mental health problems. The paper utilises data collected from a representative sample of 10–17-year-old adolescents in Ireland. Physical activity in the study is measured using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Mental health was measured using the Cantril Leader of Life Satisfaction, the WHO-5 index, Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) and the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Symptom Checklist (HBSC-SCL). Data were analysed using bivariate (Pearson Correlation, t-test, one-way ANOVA) and multivariate (two-way ANOVA, ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions) analyses. In total, 8636 adolescents were included in this analysis. Higher participation in physical activity was associated with higher scores on the positive mental health indicators and lower scores on the mental health problems indicators. When modelled together, VPA was a stronger predictor of mental health than MVPA, especially in girls. For example, standardised beta coefficients for predicting MHI-5 were −0.09 for MVPA (p < 0.001) and −0.13 for VPA (p < 0.001) To our knowledge, this is the first study that looks at levels of physical activity as well as both positive mental health and mental health problems. The study highlights the need to encourage and enable adolescents, and especially girls, to participate in vigorous exercising as way of promoting positive mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
Article
Associations between Home Environment, Children’s and Parents’ Characteristics and Children’s TV Screen Time Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041589 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
In Ireland, television (TV) screen time is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among children aged less than five years. Little is known about the influence of parental rules and policies or screen time availability and accessibility within the home on children’s TV screen [...] Read more.
In Ireland, television (TV) screen time is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among children aged less than five years. Little is known about the influence of parental rules and policies or screen time availability and accessibility within the home on children’s TV screen time behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which parents’ sociodemographic and sedentary behaviors are associated with children’s TV screen time; and to determine the associations between parents’ rules and practices, home physical environment and children’s daily TV viewing. Three hundred and thirty-two children aged 3–5 years and their parents participated in the study. Children’s TV screen time and home environmental characteristics (parents’ rules and practices and the physical environment) were assessed using questions from standardized and validated questionnaires. The data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Within the different sedentary behaviors evaluated, parents’ TV viewing was positively associated with children’s TV screen time (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.09–2.50, p = 0.018). Leaving the TV on, whether or not it was being watched, was associated with a 38% increased probability of children watching ≥ 1 h TV daily. Children whose parents restricted their outdoor activity were more likely to watch ≥ 1 h TV daily (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.04–3.88, p = 0.036). Findings from the study demonstrated that parents’ own screen time behaviors, leaving the TV on whether it was being watched or not and restricting outdoor play were associated with higher children’s TV viewing in the home environment. This knowledge is essential to inform future interventions aimed to address the increase in screen time among young children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
Article
The Association between Participation in Organized Physical Activity and the Structure of Weekly Physical Activity in Polish Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041408 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
The main aim of the study was to determine the associations of participation in organized physical activity (OPA), and the structure of weekly physical activity (PA) with meeting the PA recommendations among Polish boys and girls. The research was conducted between 2012 and [...] Read more.
The main aim of the study was to determine the associations of participation in organized physical activity (OPA), and the structure of weekly physical activity (PA) with meeting the PA recommendations among Polish boys and girls. The research was conducted between 2012 and 2019 in the Silesian region of Poland among 3499 secondary school students. To determine the structure of PA (school, transportation, home, recreation, vigorous moderate, and walking), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form (IPAQ-LF) questionnaire was used. Adolescents participating in OPA showed significantly more PA (p < 0.001) than non-participating adolescents. The strongest associations were observed between participation in OPA and vigorous PA. The weekly recommendation of vigorous PA was met by 61% of the students with three or more lessons of OPA per week, 29% of students with one or two lessons of OPA per week, and 24% of students not participating in OPA. Therefore, boys and girls with no OPA are at greatest risk of health issues. Schools, sports clubs, and leisure institutions should increase the participation of adolescents in OPA, especially non-participants. Comprehensive school PA programs should especially include those forms of OPA that respect health weaknesses, individual talents for specific types of PA, and preferred types of PA among adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Boys: Cross-Sectional Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010245 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Physical inactivity of children can be a precursor of reduced bone mineral density, considered to be a typical problem only in old age. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density in 96 Polish boys aged 14–17 years with varied [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity of children can be a precursor of reduced bone mineral density, considered to be a typical problem only in old age. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density in 96 Polish boys aged 14–17 years with varied physical activity (swimmers, track and field athletes, non-athletes) and the effect of bone composition, birth weight and breastfeeding during infancy on bone parameters. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed according to the kinanthropometric standards. Bone parameters of the forearm were measured by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data on the infant’s birth weight and the length of breastfeeding were collected during direct interviews with mothers. The strongest links with bone parameters were found for the type of physical activity and birth weight. Regardless of birth weight, track and field athletes had the most advantageous bone parameters (mainly sT-score prox values). Swimmers with normal or low birth weight had less favourable sT-score prox values than non-athletes. The type of physical activity proved to be an important determinant of bone parameters. Childhood and adolescence are important periods of bone development and increasing the content of bone mineral components, and the bone status in later years of life depends to a large extent on this period. The perinatal period, especially the correct birth weight of the child, not only has a significant effect on general health, but also on bone status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Promotion of Elementary School Students’ Health Literacy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249560 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Health literacy is an important outcome of the discussion of school-related health education and health promotion in the 21st century. Although the improvement of health literacy at an early age is increasingly recognized and few interventions show the development of children´s health literacy, [...] Read more.
Health literacy is an important outcome of the discussion of school-related health education and health promotion in the 21st century. Although the improvement of health literacy at an early age is increasingly recognized and few interventions show the development of children´s health literacy, still there is little research in this area. The purpose of the study was to examine the enhancement of health literacy among children in a physical activity-based program at elementary school. In total, 137 students aged 6–12 years participated in the program, which included health knowledge transfer in child-appropriate games and exercises. Participants´ health literacy was assessed using the HLS-Child-Q15-DE at the beginning and the end of the program. The instrument measures the access, understanding, appraisal and application of health-related information on a four-point Likert-type scale. As expected, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significant increases in self-reported health literacy over time. The results show that the degree of change in health literacy was not associated with gender or age. The results suggest that the physical activity-based program has the potential to improve elementary school children´s health literacy, even though in a single group pilot study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Activity–Inactivity Patterns, Screen Time, and Physical Activity: The Association with Overweight, Central Obesity and Muscle Strength in Polish Teenagers. Report from the ABC of Healthy Eating Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217842 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Today, the time spent actively is increasingly being replaced by screen-based media, although in some teenagers, a high level of physical activity (PA) and longer time spent in front of a screen (screen time, ST) may coexist as a mixed behavioral pattern. This [...] Read more.
Today, the time spent actively is increasingly being replaced by screen-based media, although in some teenagers, a high level of physical activity (PA) and longer time spent in front of a screen (screen time, ST) may coexist as a mixed behavioral pattern. This study aimed to examine the association of the pattern created as activity (low/high ST with high PA) and inactivity patterns (low/high ST with low PA) with overweight, central obesity, and muscle strength in Polish teenagers taking into consideration socioeconomic and demographic factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from elementary school children (n = 1567), aged 11–13 years. Height, weight, waist circumference, and handgrip strength were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the overweight measure, and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated as the central obesity measure. Data on ST, PA, socioeconomic status, demographics, and nutrition knowledge were collected by a questionnaire. Activity–inactivity patterns were defined by an a priori approach. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was applied. The most active pattern (lowST-highPA) was found in 17% of the total sample. Teenagers with the most inactive pattern (highST-lowPA) had over four times higher chance of general overweight. No association between WHtR ≥0.5 and highST-highPA pattern was found. Higher muscle strength (>1 SD) was associated only with high physical activity. Urban residence or lower socioeconomic status increased adherence to the most inactive pattern. From a public health perspective, implementing interventions promoting active patterns in 11–13-year-old teenagers is important for obesity prevention and enhanced physical fitness, especially in girls, teenagers living in urban areas, and from families with lower socio-economic status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Changes in Physical Activity Patterns from Childhood to Adolescence: Genobox Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197227 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
Longitudinal changes of physical activity (PA) from childhood into adolescence have not been accurately described yet for the Spanish population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes of PA, assessed by accelerometry and anthropometric measures in a cohort of 213 [...] Read more.
Longitudinal changes of physical activity (PA) from childhood into adolescence have not been accurately described yet for the Spanish population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes of PA, assessed by accelerometry and anthropometric measures in a cohort of 213 children from the prepubertal to pubertal period, focusing on those with valid data from both time points (n = 75). Sedentary time (ST) increased about 50%, while all PA intensities declined from the pre-pubertal to pubertal period. Light PA (LPA) was the major contributor, decreasing by about 30%. Boys were more active than girls in both periods, but they showed a higher decline in PA, especially moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). The proportion who reached the recommendation of 60 min of MVPA decreased by 33.3% in boys and 4.6% in girls. Children with obesity or overweight had lower MVPA than those with normal-weight in the pre-pubertal period, but no differences were found in the pubertal period. This study shows a decrease of PA and an increase of sedentarism in the transition from childhood to adolescence, particularly in boys. Regardless of body weight, adolescents tend to be less active. Therefore, prevention programs should be implemented to achieve optimal PA and reduce sedentarism during infancy considering the differences found by sex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Validity of Items Assessing Self-Reported Number of Breaks in Sitting Time among Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186708 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
Background: Sedentary behaviour guidelines recommend that individuals should regularly break up sitting time. Accurately monitoring such breaks is needed to inform guidelines concerning how regularly to break up sitting time and to evaluate intervention effects. We investigated the concurrent validity of three [...] Read more.
Background: Sedentary behaviour guidelines recommend that individuals should regularly break up sitting time. Accurately monitoring such breaks is needed to inform guidelines concerning how regularly to break up sitting time and to evaluate intervention effects. We investigated the concurrent validity of three “UP4FUN child questionnaire” items assessing the number of breaks in sitting time among children and adolescents. Methods: Fifty-seven children and adolescents self-reported number of breaks from sitting taken at school, while watching TV, and during other screen time activities. Participants also wore an activPAL monitor (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK) to objectively assess the number of sitting time breaks (frequency/hour) during the school period and the school-free period (which was divided in the periods “after school” and “during the evening”). Concurrent validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlations. Results: Self-reported number of breaks/hour at school showed good concurrent validity (ρ = 0.676). Results were moderate to good for self-reported number of breaks/hour while watching TV (ρ range for different periods: 0.482 to 0.536) and moderate for self-reported number of breaks/hour in total screen time (ρ range for different periods: 0.377 to 0.468). Poor concurrent validity was found for self-reported number of breaks/hour during other screen time activities (ρ range for different periods: 0.157 to 0.274). Conclusions: Only the questionnaire items about number of breaks at school and while watching TV appear to be acceptable for further use in research focussing on breaks in prolonged sitting among children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
Article
The Contribution of Organised Leisure-Time Activities in Shaping Positive Community Health Practices among 13- and 15-Year-Old Adolescents: Results from the Health Behaviours in School-Aged Children Study in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6637; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186637 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Background and Objective: Participation in organised out-of-school leisure-time activities (OLTAs) has been shown to have a positive impact on community health practices and to lessen inequities in social and environmental opportunities among youths. According to the social capital theory, OLTAs foster bridging [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Participation in organised out-of-school leisure-time activities (OLTAs) has been shown to have a positive impact on community health practices and to lessen inequities in social and environmental opportunities among youths. According to the social capital theory, OLTAs foster bridging ties that allow individuals to forge new, wider-ranging social connections, increasing social integration and opportunities for identity-related exploration. This study aimed to describe participation in different types of OLTAs and its association with perceived life satisfaction, physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and drunkenness in a representative sample of youths. Methods: A representative sample of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students (n = 47,799) was recruited throughout all Italian regions within the Italian 2013/2014 Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Data were collected according to the HBSC study protocol. Participants were compared on outcomes according to OLTA participation type (i.e., non-sport, sport-only, and mixed vs. no-OLTA). In accordance with the study sampling procedures, hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Results: Participation in OLTAs was significantly associated with high life satisfaction in all ages (sport-only: odds ratio (OR) = 1.67, 1.48 and 1.55 for 11- 13- and 15-year-olds; mixed: OR = 1.95, 1.60 and 1.45, respectively). Youths participating in OLTAs were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations and report lower rates of tobacco use and drunkenness. Conclusions: Participation in OLTAs showed a favourable impact on health behaviours. Thus, community organisations and clubs, whether supported by public investments, could contribute to the enhancement of beneficial health practices, by engaging and serving the community as a whole and further reducing inequities in both social and environmental opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and the Sense of Coherence—Their Role in Body Acceptance among Polish Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165791 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the protective role of physical activity (PA) and other health-related bio-psycho components (physical fitness, body composition, body perception and the sense of coherence (SOC)) in body acceptance. We searched for gender differences in those relationships. [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the protective role of physical activity (PA) and other health-related bio-psycho components (physical fitness, body composition, body perception and the sense of coherence (SOC)) in body acceptance. We searched for gender differences in those relationships. We investigated 231 adolescents aged 13–16 years from an urban area in Poland. We conducted objective measurements of height, weight, fat% and relative value of minute oxygen consumption. Questionnaires for PA, SOC Body Figure Perception and body acceptance were applied. Linear regression was used for analyzing determinants of body acceptance. We found that more physically active girls reported a less slim ideal vision of their figure (p < 0.05). Physical fitness is a better predictor of body acceptance than physical activity. In the final model, the sense of coherence, body mass index (BMI), and gender (being a boy) were also predictors of body acceptance (F(6,92) = 13.084, p < 0.0001). Gender differences were discussed in the present study. Fitness enhancing physical activity should be recommended for adolescents to achieve the protective psychosocial effect especially among girls. Physical activity on a daily basis brings positive results in a more adequate and reasonable body assessment and it can play a protective role in terms of mental wellbeing. Body satisfaction varies between genders and it is a more sensitive issue among girls than boys during adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
Article
Screen Time and Sleep of Rural and Urban South African Preschool Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155449 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the extent to which preschool children meet guidelines for screen time (<1 h/day) and sleep (10–13 h/24-h) and explored home factors that affect these behaviors. Parents of preschoolers across income settings in South Africa (urban high-income n = [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the extent to which preschool children meet guidelines for screen time (<1 h/day) and sleep (10–13 h/24-h) and explored home factors that affect these behaviors. Parents of preschoolers across income settings in South Africa (urban high-income n = 27, urban low-income n = 96 and rural low-income n = 142) completed a questionnaire. Urban high-income children had higher rates of exceeding screen time guidelines (67.0%) than children from urban low-income (26.0%) and rural low-income (3.5%) settings. Most children (81.0%) met sleep guidelines on weekdays and on weekends (75.0%). More urban high-income children met the sleep guideline, in comparison to both low-income settings. Fewer urban high-income parents (50.0%) thought that screen time would not affect their preschooler’s health, compared to urban low-income (90.4%) and rural low-income (81.7%) parents. Weeknight bedtime was positively correlated with both weekday screen time (p = 0.001) and weekday TV time (p = 0.005), indicating that more time on screens correlated with later bedtimes. Meeting screen time and sleep guidelines differs across income settings, but it is evident that parents of preschoolers across all income settings would benefit from greater awareness about guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Factors Associated with Students Meeting Components of Canada’s New 24-Hour Movement Guidelines over Time in the COMPASS Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155326 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
This study aimed to determine if secondary school students are meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (24-MG), as well as each individual recommendation (physical activity; sleep; sedentary behavior) within the 24-MG, and which student-level characteristics predict meeting the 24-MG, both cross-sectionally and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine if secondary school students are meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (24-MG), as well as each individual recommendation (physical activity; sleep; sedentary behavior) within the 24-MG, and which student-level characteristics predict meeting the 24-MG, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This study is the first to examine longitudinal changes in students meeting the 24-MG, as well as student-level characteristics that were predictive of favourable shifts in movement patterns. Cross-sectional data were obtained for 11,793 grade 9 students across Canada as part of the COMPASS study. Of this sample, 3713 students provided linked follow-up data from grade 9 to grade 12. The probability of meeting the guidelines was modeled using two-level logistic regression analyses, adjusting for student-level co-variates and school clustering. Only 1.28% (p < 0.0001) of the sample met the overall 24-MG. Among grade 9 students, 35.9% (p < 0.0001), 50.8% (p < 0.0001), and 6.4% (p < 0.0001) were meeting the individual recommendations for physical activity, sleep, and screen time, respectively. Of those students, less than half were still meeting them by grade 12. Community sport participation was the only predictor of all three individual recommendations within the 24-MG. Longitudinal analyses found that community sport participation and parental support and encouragement were significantly associated with Grade 12 students starting to meet the physical activity and screen time recommendations, respectively, after having not met them in grade 9. Findings can be used to inform policy and public health practice, as well as to inform future research examining causal relationships between the variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
Article
Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns among Kenyan and Japanese Children: A Comprehensive Cross-Country Comparison
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124254 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Health benefits of physical activity are well known, yet available physical activity data is limited from children living in African and Asian countries. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate and compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns, particularly hourly variations, [...] Read more.
Health benefits of physical activity are well known, yet available physical activity data is limited from children living in African and Asian countries. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate and compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns, particularly hourly variations, among children in Kenya and Japan. Participants included 298 primary school students (122 Kenyan, 176 Japanese) aged 9–12 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with accelerometers. Domain-specific physical activity, screen time, and proportion of children using active transport to school were measured by questionnaire. A two-way ANOVA (countries × time) was used to examine the differences in the activity patterns between Kenyan and Japanese children. The results from the present study demonstrated that Kenyan children spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared to Japanese children (p < 0.05) with the greatest differences found for weekday evenings (for boys and girls) and weekend afternoons (for girls). This suggests that these were ‘critical periods’ to differentiate the physical activity levels between Kenyan and Japanese children. However, a higher proportion of the children from Japan used active transport to school and spent less time in television viewing and computer gaming. The results suggest that both countries have successes and challenges that can aid in developing effective and country-specific intervention strategies for promoting physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Parent-Child Physical Activity Association in Families with 4- to 16-Year-Old Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114015 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Background: The main aim of this study was to quantify the associations between parents’ and children’s physical activity by age, gender, and the day of the week on the basis of a pedometer-measured step count (SC). Methods: The sample comprised data from 4-to [...] Read more.
Background: The main aim of this study was to quantify the associations between parents’ and children’s physical activity by age, gender, and the day of the week on the basis of a pedometer-measured step count (SC). Methods: The sample comprised data from 4-to 16-year-old children and their parents from the Czech Republic (1102 mother-child dyads and 693 father-child dyads). The parents and their children wore the Yamax SW200 pedometer during seven days of monitoring. Results: The strongest SC association was found between mothers and daughters aged 4–7.9 years on weekdays (rp = 0.402; p < 0.01) and at weekends (rp = 0.577; p < 0.01). In children aged 8–16, the parent-child association is gender-specific, with the father-son relationship being dominant, especially at weekends (weekend SC: fathers-sons8–11.9 y rp = 0.416, p < 0.01; fathers-sons12–16 y rp = 0.443, p < 0.01). An increase of 1000 steps in the fathers (mothers) is associated with an increase of more than 400 (200) steps in their sons (daughters). Conclusions: This study confirms a strong parent-child SC relationship in children younger than eight years of age. In older children, the parent-child SC association is gender-specific and dominated by the father-son relationship, particularly on weekends. The SC associations that are revealed can be used for the development of physical activity programs for adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Article
Attentiveness and Fidgeting While Using a Stand-Biased Desk in Elementary School Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113976 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Standing desks are a viable option to decrease sedentary time in the classroom. However, it is important that standing desks are not detrimental to classroom behavior or learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of stand-biased desks on fidgeting [...] Read more.
Standing desks are a viable option to decrease sedentary time in the classroom. However, it is important that standing desks are not detrimental to classroom behavior or learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of stand-biased desks on fidgeting and attentiveness. Ninety-seven students in grades 3, 4, and 6 (ages 8–12 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The intervention employed a within-classroom crossover design, with teacher-determined allocation for seating within each classroom and included the replacement of one-half of the traditional sitting desks with stand-biased desks. Direct observation of student’s attentive and fidgeting behaviors occurred at three assessment periods, at baseline when all students were in a sitting desk condition and at the end of each nine-week intervention. Stand-biased desks did not influence fidgeting behavior, but did have an impact on attentive behavior. Students that were less attentive at baseline had a 40–80% increase incidence rate in non-attentive behavior while in the traditional desk as compared to the stand-biased desk after the intervention. While fidgeting and non-attentive episodes (p = 0.034) were significantly related, the type of desk did not significantly moderate this relationship (p = 0.810). Standing desks can be incorporated into the classroom without negatively influencing classroom behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Research in Indonesian Youth: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207665 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to map physical activity and sedentary behaviour research trends, designs, and topics for Indonesian youth. Methods: This review conforms to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR).” A systematic search on eight [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to map physical activity and sedentary behaviour research trends, designs, and topics for Indonesian youth. Methods: This review conforms to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR).” A systematic search on eight platforms was performed in August 2018 and was updated in April 2020. Results: From 10,753 documents screened, 166 met the selection criteria. Over half of the studies were cross-sectional, and the majority utilized self-reported measurements (physical activity: 81.1%, sedentary behavior: 88.5%). More than two-thirds of the studies examined physical activity only (67.5%). The top three subtopics reported were prevalence/measurement, correlates, and outcomes of physical activity (28%, 24.6%, and 17%, respectively). The prevalence of “sufficient” physical activity ranges between 12.2% and 52.3%, while the prevalence of sedentary behavior ≥3 h per day ranges between 24.5% and 33.8%. Conclusions: Future studies need to focus more on intervention and validation, and research needs to be conducted more with nationally representative samples and on youth at the junior high school level. Future studies need to investigate more on psychological, cognitive, affective, social, cultural, and environmental correlates, and in-depth personal views of physical activity and sedentary behavior. More studies using device-based measurements, longitudinal designs, as well as qualitative and mixed-methods approaches are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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Review
A Sex/Gender Perspective on Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behaviour in Girls and Boys: Results of the genEffects Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145231 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
This systematic review aims to evaluate the extent of sex/gender consideration and effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB). We searched for randomised or non-randomised controlled trials with the outcome SB and a sex/gender analysis in eleven electronic databases. Sixty-seven studies [...] Read more.
This systematic review aims to evaluate the extent of sex/gender consideration and effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB). We searched for randomised or non-randomised controlled trials with the outcome SB and a sex/gender analysis in eleven electronic databases. Sixty-seven studies were included. Sex/gender considerations were qualitatively rated. Sex/gender was reported separately in 44.8% of studies, 14.9% of studies conducted a sex/gender interaction analysis, and 19.4% enrolled either girls or boys. SB was significantly reduced for girls in 16.4%, for boys in 11.9% and for both in 13.4%. No sex/gender intervention effect was found in 38.8%. According to the qualitative rating, studies without significant sex/gender effects reached “detailed” rating twice as often as studies finding a significant intervention effect for either girls or boys, or both. Overall, no clear pattern according to the qualitative rating and in terms of intervention effectiveness can be drawn. The results reveal a lack of sufficient sex/gender information in intervention planning and delivery. Further research should consider analysing sex/gender intervention effects as well as consider sex/gender inclusive intervention planning and delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth)
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