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Special Issue "Mosquito-Borne Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Nicholas Johnson

1. Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK; 2. Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A Special Issue on “Mosquito Borne Diseases” is being organised by the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health to re-focus attention on the ongoing public and veterinary impact of mosquitoes on disease transmission and control. For detailed information on the journal and submission see the website (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph).

Mosquitoes are responsible for some of the most devastating diseases of humans and have affected human populations for millennia. The requirement to obtain a blood meal by female mosquitoes makes them highly effective vectors of a range of diseases. Viruses in particular have adapted to transmission by mosquitoes from the established heavyweights such as dengue virus and yellow fever, to the recent emergence of chikungunya virus and Zika virus, causing rapid disease spread on a continental scale. From a zoonotic perspective, viruses, such as West Nile and Rift Valley fever, affect a range of domestic animals in difficult-to-predict outbreaks.

Parasites in the form of malaria in humans have been a continued challenge, with the World Health Organisation estimating 216 million human cases in 2016. Furthermore, the study of mosquito-borne malarial parasites in non-human primates, is pointing to the origin of those species affecting humans, and the impact of avian malaria is now being recognised in both wild and captive bird populations. In addition, Difilaria immitis or dog heartworm is found across a large area of the world and provides a clear veterinary example of a mosquito borne disease.

The effect such diseases have is reflected in the range of methods employed to control them. Vaccination is available for some, pre-eminently the introduction in the 20th century of yellow fever vaccines. Attempts to replicate this success has been achieved for some such as Japanese encephalitis virus but stalled for others, and in many cases have not even been attempted. Likewise, approaches to control the vector, particularly the anthropophilic species Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, have proliferated from the low-tech of insecticide impregnated bed nets to complex genetic manipulation of the vector.

This Special Issue is open on the subject area of “Mosquito Borne Diseases” and I would welcome original papers and reviews that consider all aspects of the vector, the diseases that they transmit and the control of both. The keywords listed below provide an outline to possible areas of interest although the breadth of the subject is such that it should only be considered a guide.

Dr. Nicholas Johnson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mosquito
  • vector
  • vectorial capacity
  • bloodmeal
  • host preference
  • virus
  • protozoa
  • bacteria
  • transmission
  • surveillance
  • control

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Using Human Movement Data to Identify Potential Areas of Zika Transmission: Case Study of the Largest Zika Cluster in Singapore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050808
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
Singapore experienced its first Zika virus (ZIKV) cluster in August 2016. To understand the implication of human movement on disease spread, a retrospective study was conducted using aggregated and anonymized mobile phone data to examine movement from the cluster to identify areas of [...] Read more.
Singapore experienced its first Zika virus (ZIKV) cluster in August 2016. To understand the implication of human movement on disease spread, a retrospective study was conducted using aggregated and anonymized mobile phone data to examine movement from the cluster to identify areas of possible transmission. An origin–destination model was developed based on the movement of three groups of individuals: (i) construction workers, (ii) residents and (iii) visitors out of the cluster locality to other parts of the island. The odds ratio of ZIKV cases in a hexagon visited by an individual from the cluster, independent of the group of individuals, is 3.20 (95% CI: 2.65–3.87, p-value < 0.05), reflecting a higher count of ZIKV cases when there is a movement into a hexagon from the cluster locality. A comparison of independent ROC curves tested the statistical significance of the difference between the areas under the curves of the three groups of individuals. Visitors (difference in AUC = 0.119) and residents (difference in AUC = 0.124) have a significantly larger difference in area under the curve compared to the construction workers (p-value < 0.05). This study supports the proof of concept of using mobile phone data to approximate population movement, thus identifying areas at risk of disease transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Vertical Transmission in the Control of Dengue Fever
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050803
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
In this work, a two-strain dengue model with vertical transmission in the mosquito population is considered. Although vertical transmission is often ignored in models of dengue fever, we show that effective control of an outbreak of dengue can depend on whether or not [...] Read more.
In this work, a two-strain dengue model with vertical transmission in the mosquito population is considered. Although vertical transmission is often ignored in models of dengue fever, we show that effective control of an outbreak of dengue can depend on whether or not the vertical transmission is a significant mode of disease transmission. We model the effect of a control strategy aimed at reducing human-mosquito transmissions in an optimal control framework. As the likelihood of vertical transmission increases, outbreaks become more difficult and expensive to control. However, even for low levels of vertical transmission, the additional, uncontrolled, transmission from infected mosquito to eggs may undercut the effectiveness of any control function. This is of particular importance in regions where existing control policies may be effective and the endemic strain does not exhibit vertical transmission. If a novel strain that does exhibit vertical transmission invades, then existing, formerly effective, control policies may no longer be sufficient. Therefore, public health officials should pay more attention to the role of vertical transmission for more effective interventions and policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Socio-Ecological Factors Associated with Dengue Risk and Aedes aegypti Presence in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050682
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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Abstract
Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease in the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, with the first cases reported in 2002 and subsequent periodic outbreaks. We report results of a 2014 pilot study conducted in Puerto Ayora (PA) on Santa Cruz Island, and Puerto [...] Read more.
Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease in the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, with the first cases reported in 2002 and subsequent periodic outbreaks. We report results of a 2014 pilot study conducted in Puerto Ayora (PA) on Santa Cruz Island, and Puerto Baquerizo Moreno (PB) on San Cristobal Island. To assess the socio-ecological risk factors associated with dengue and mosquito vector presence at the household level, we conducted 100 household surveys (50 on each island) in neighborhoods with prior reported dengue cases. Adult mosquitoes were collected inside and outside the home, larval indices were determined through container surveys, and heads of households were interviewed to determine demographics, self-reported prior dengue infections, housing conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue. Multi-model selection methods were used to derive best-fit generalized linear regression models of prior dengue infection, and Aedes aegypti presence. We found that 24% of PB and 14% of PA respondents self-reported a prior dengue infection, and more PB homes than PA homes had Ae. aegypti. The top-ranked model for prior dengue infection included several factors related to human movement, household demographics, access to water quality issues, and dengue awareness. The top-ranked model for Ae. aegypti presence included housing conditions, mosquito control practices, and dengue risk perception. This is the first study of dengue risk and Ae. aegypti presence in the Galápagos Islands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Emerging Mosquito-Borne Threats and the Response from European and Eastern Mediterranean Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122775
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
Mosquito-borne viruses are the cause of some of the greatest burdens to human health worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where both human populations and mosquito numbers are abundant. Due to a combination of anthropogenic change, including the effects on global climate and wildlife [...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne viruses are the cause of some of the greatest burdens to human health worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where both human populations and mosquito numbers are abundant. Due to a combination of anthropogenic change, including the effects on global climate and wildlife migration there is strong evidence that temperate regions are undergoing repeated introduction of mosquito-borne viruses and the re-emergence of viruses that previously were not detected by surveillance. In Europe, the repeated introductions of West Nile and Usutu viruses have been associated with bird migration from Africa, whereas the autochthonous transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses has been driven by a combination of invasive mosquitoes and rapid transcontinental travel by infected humans. In addition to an increasing number of humans at risk, livestock and wildlife, are also at risk of infection and disease. This in turn can affect international trade and species diversity, respectively. Addressing these challenges requires a range of responses both at national and international level. Increasing the understanding of mosquito-borne transmission of viruses and the development of rapid detection methods and appropriate therapeutics (vaccines / antivirals) all form part of this response. The aim of this review is to consider the range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public health in Europe and the eastern Mediterranean, and the national response of a number of countries facing different levels of threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle The Identification of Scientific Communities and Their Approach to Worldwide Malaria Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122703
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
It is essential to establish a pattern to detect the strengths and weaknesses of working groups publishing on malaria, to promote coordination to facilitate the eradication of the disease. Given the complexity of the scientific network of groups and institutions studying malaria, it [...] Read more.
It is essential to establish a pattern to detect the strengths and weaknesses of working groups publishing on malaria, to promote coordination to facilitate the eradication of the disease. Given the complexity of the scientific network of groups and institutions studying malaria, it is necessary to use a mathematical algorithm that allows us to know the real structure of research on the disease in the world. In this work, articles with the word “malaria” in the title or author keywords gathered from Elsevier Scopus database were analyzed. By means of specific software, graphs were created. The analysis of the data allowed established different scientific communities, among which two were very diverse: one formed by those groups concerned about the vector transmission and control, and another one focused on the drug resistance of the parasite. Basic, applied, and operational research to eradicate malaria is an ambitious goal of the international institutions and the scientific community. The combination of effort and the establishment of a worldwide-scientific network that allows an effective interconnection (exchange) of knowledge, infrastructure technology, collaborators, financial resources, and datasets will contribute more effectively to end the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Screening for Depressive Mood During Acute Chikungunya Infection in Primary Healthcare Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112552
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: We aimed to screen for depressive mood experienced during acute chikungunya (CHIKV) infection, and to evaluate the association of several exposures with the risk of depressive symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of a multicenter cohort study took place and data from 354 [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to screen for depressive mood experienced during acute chikungunya (CHIKV) infection, and to evaluate the association of several exposures with the risk of depressive symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of a multicenter cohort study took place and data from 354 adult individuals with confirmed CHIKV infection were analyzed. Participants were recruited in primary health care settings and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was used. Prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated by means of logistic models were used. Results: Depressive mood (PHQ-2 score 3 or higher) was reported by 44.1% of individuals. Subjects with articular effusion (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.77–8.11), gastrointestinal manifestations (diarrhea, vomiting or abdominal pain, OR = 1.97, 95 CI 1.21–3.19), and higher length of severe arthralgia (reference ≤ 14 days: 15–30 days, OR = 3.38, 95% CI 1.78–6.41; ≥ 30 days, OR = 1.69, 95% CI 0.95–3.01) were more likely to self-report depressive mood. Increasing age (≥ 40 years old, OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31–0.95) and rash (OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.30–0.98) were associated with a decreased risk of depressive mood. Conclusions: Depressive mood seemed to be a frequent event among analyzed individuals, and markers associated with its risk were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Sampling Method to Measure Socioeconomic Drivers of Aedes albopictus Distribution in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102179
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
Climate change, urbanization, and globalization have facilitated the spread of Aedes mosquitoes into regions that were previously unsuitable, causing an increased threat of arbovirus transmission on a global scale. While numerous studies have addressed the urban ecology of Ae. albopictus, few have [...] Read more.
Climate change, urbanization, and globalization have facilitated the spread of Aedes mosquitoes into regions that were previously unsuitable, causing an increased threat of arbovirus transmission on a global scale. While numerous studies have addressed the urban ecology of Ae. albopictus, few have accounted for socioeconomic factors that affect their range in urban regions. Here we introduce an original sampling design for Ae. albopictus, that uses a spatial optimization process to identify urban collection sites based on both geographic parameters as well as the gradient of socioeconomic variables present in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, encompassing the city of Charlotte, a rapidly growing urban environment. We collected 3645 specimens of Ae. albopictus (87% of total samples) across 12 weeks at the 90 optimized site locations and modelled the relationships between the abundance of gravid Ae. albopictus and a variety of neighborhood socioeconomic attributes as well as land cover characteristics. Our results demonstrate that the abundance of gravid Ae. albopictus is inversely related to the socioeconomic status of the neighborhood and directly related to both landscape heterogeneity as well as proportions of particular resident races/ethnicities. We present our results alongside a description of our novel sampling scheme and its usefulness as an approach to urban vector epidemiology. Additionally, we supply recommendations for future investigations into the socioeconomic determinants of vector-borne disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Predictors of Malaria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients in Beira, Mozambique
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092032
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Co-infection between malaria and HIV has major public health implications. The aims of this study were to assess the malaria prevalence and to identify predictors of positivity to malaria Test in HIV positive patients admitted to the health center São Lucas of Beira, [...] Read more.
Co-infection between malaria and HIV has major public health implications. The aims of this study were to assess the malaria prevalence and to identify predictors of positivity to malaria Test in HIV positive patients admitted to the health center São Lucas of Beira, Mozambique. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed from January 2016 to December 2016. Overall, 701 adult HIV patients were enrolled, positivity to malaria test was found in 232 (33.0%). These patients were found to be more frequently unemployed (76.3%), aged under 40 (72.0%), with a HIV positive partner (22.4%) and with a CD4 cell count <200 (59.9%). The following variables were predictors of malaria: age under 40 (O.R. = 1.56; 95%CI: 1.22–2.08), being unemployed (O.R. = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.24–2.21), irregularity of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis’s (O.R. = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.10–1.78), CD4 cell count <200 (O.R. = 2.01; 95%CI: 1.42–2.32) and tuberculosis comorbidity (O.R. = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.17–2.79). In conclusion, high malaria prevalence was found in HIV patients accessing the out-patients centre of São Lucas of Beira. Our findings allowed us to identify the profile of HIV patients needing more medical attention: young adults, unemployed, with a low CD4 cell count and irregularly accessing to ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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