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Special Issue "Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Environment Science and Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xiaoping Li

Dean of Environmental Science Department, Shaanxi Normal University, No.620, Chang'an Street, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paresh C. Ray

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street, P.O. Box 17910, Jackson, MS 39217-0510, USA
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paul B. Tchounwou

Department of Biology, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street, Box 18750, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
E-Mail
Phone: 6019690777
Fax: +1 601 979 2349

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) for the publication of Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Environment Science and Health organized by Shaanxi Normal University at Xi’an, China, on June 4–6, 2017. IJERPH is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

The 2nd International Symposium served as a platform to discuss and share information on the recent developments, scientific advances and research findings in the emerging areas of environmental and public health. During this scientific event, a wide range of important environmental science and public health-related topics were discussed, including the following:

  • Ecological risk assessment of chemical and biological pollutants
  • Big data science and engineering applications to environmental and public health research
  • Environmental pollution and public health
  • Toxicity and health effects of environmental contaminants
  • Approaches to environmental pollution control and prevention
  • Applications of nanoscience and nanotechnology to environmental science and public health
  • Environmental policy and public health

This Special Issue aims to showcase important research and scientific discoveries on the above-listed topics. Submission of full manuscripts of original research, comprehensive reviews and/or short communications on any of these topics is strongly encouraged. If you are interested in submitting a manuscript, please go to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph to register and submit it by the deadline of 30 April 2018. Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere. All manuscripts will be thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process.

There is no difference on indexing and editorial processing between special issue submissions and regular submissions. The only thing is that papers in special issue will be gathered in special issue webpage.

Prof. Dr. Xiaoping Li
Prof. Dr. Paresh C. Ray
Prof. Dr. Paul B. Tchounwou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Electrode Modification and Optimization in Air-Cathode Single-Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071349
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
Due to the known problems of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), such as low electricity generation performance and high cost of operation, we modified the electrode with graphene and polyaniline (PANI) is a single-chamber air-cathode MFC and then evaluated the effects of electrode modification [...] Read more.
Due to the known problems of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), such as low electricity generation performance and high cost of operation, we modified the electrode with graphene and polyaniline (PANI) is a single-chamber air-cathode MFC and then evaluated the effects of electrode modification on MFC electricity generation performance. Carbon cloth electrodes (unmodified, CC; graphene-modified, G/CC; and polyaniline-graphene-modified, PANI-G/CC) were prepared using the impregnation method. Sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPcS) was then introduced as a cathode catalyst. The Co-PANI-G/CC cathode showed higher catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction compared with other electrodes. The maximum power density of the MFC with Co-PANI-G/CC cathode was 32.2 mW/m2, which was 1.8 and 6.1 times higher than the value obtained with Co-G/CC and Co/CC cathodes, respectively. This indicates a significant improvement in the electricity generation of single-chamber MFCs and provides a simple, effective cathode modification method. Furthermore, we constructed single-chamber MFCs using the modified anode and cathode and analyzed electricity generation and oxytetracycline (OTC) degradation with different concentrations of OTC as the fuel. With increasing added OTC concentration, the MFC performance in both electricity generation and OTC degradation gradually decreased. However, when less than 50 mg/L OTC was added, the 5-day degradation rate of OTC reached more than 90%. It is thus feasible to process OTC-containing wastewater and produce electricity using single-chamber MFCs, which provides a new concept for wastewater treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Adsorptive Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Modified Sludge: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040826
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
The sludge from the water supply plant was investigated to remove fluoride ions from the water. To improve the adsorption ability, the original sludge sample was treated with fuel oxidation, pyrolysis, hydrochloric acid, and sulphuric acid methods, and hydrochloric acid treatment improved the [...] Read more.
The sludge from the water supply plant was investigated to remove fluoride ions from the water. To improve the adsorption ability, the original sludge sample was treated with fuel oxidation, pyrolysis, hydrochloric acid, and sulphuric acid methods, and hydrochloric acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the sludge on the fluoride in water significantly, with a maximum adsorption capacity to 140 mg/kg. The adsorption experimental data was the well fitted pseudo-first-order model and the Langmuir isotherms model. SEM images and XRD patterns of the adsorbent were recorded to get a better insight into the adsorption process. The effect of three variables, hydrochloric acid treated sludge (HWS) dose, pH, and initial fluoride concentration were studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. The model of the adsorption and optimum conditions was investigated using the response surface methodology. The optimum removal efficiency of fluoride can reach 81.153% under the optimum condition: HWS dose of 14.10 g/L and pH value at 6.12. The effect of co-existing anions and the removal efficiency from the water were also studied. The results suggest that sludge from the water supply plant can be reused as a coagulant for the removal of fluoride from poor quality water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years) in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040740
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the growth of industry, the extensive use of lead, and urban expansion in Northwestern Valley Cities (NVC) China, there is probable reason for presuming an increasing risk of lead exposure. However, little is known about the lead exposure of children less than [...] Read more.
With the growth of industry, the extensive use of lead, and urban expansion in Northwestern Valley Cities (NVC) China, there is probable reason for presuming an increasing risk of lead exposure. However, little is known about the lead exposure of children less than 6 years old in NVC. As a first investigation, this study uses a survey to systematically determine the influences of various risk factors within the family environment, parents’ background, children’s behavior, mother’s behavior during pregnancy, and parental perception about children’s blood lead (CBL). A total of 596 families were recruited from the general population in Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xining and Yan’an. Parents, and their children (<6 years old), were asked about the environment and behaviors which could possibly relate with lead exposure. The results indicated that in the typical NVC of China, children’s environment and behavior, parents’ education level, and mother’s pregnancy behavior, were associated with potential CBL. It was noted that not all parents in NVC China recognized the importance of children’s lead exposure. Therefore, children’s health care and medical screening campaigns need to be designed to improve family’s fundamental knowledge of lead hazards, associated health effects, and prevention in the NVC of China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Pb-Resistant Bacillus subtilis Bacterium Isolate for Co-Biosorption of Hazardous Sb(III) and Pb(II): Thermodynamics and Application Strategy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040702
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
The present work is the first to study co-biosorption of Pb(II) and Sb(III) by a novel bacterium and its application strategy. The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions from aqueous solution using B. subtilis were investigated. Optimum pH, biomass dosage, contact time [...] Read more.
The present work is the first to study co-biosorption of Pb(II) and Sb(III) by a novel bacterium and its application strategy. The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions from aqueous solution using B. subtilis were investigated. Optimum pH, biomass dosage, contact time and temperature were determined to be 5.00, 6.00 mg/L, 45 min and 35 °C, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by B. subtilis. Results showed that Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data of Pb(II) better than others, while biosorption of Sb(III) obeyed the Freundlich model well. The biosorption capacity of B. subtilis biomass for Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions was found to be 17.34 ± 0.14 and 2.32 ± 0.30 mg/g, respectively. Kinetic data showed the biosorption process of Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions both followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with R2 ranging from 0.974 to 0.999 for Pb(II) and from 0.967 to 0.979 for Sb(III). The calculated thermodynamic parameters, negative ∆G and positive ∆H and ∆S values, indicated the biosorption of Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions onto B. subtilis biomass in water was feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. Bacterial bioleaching experiment revealed B. subtilis can increase the mobility of Pb(II) and Sb(III) in polluted soil when pH was close to 6 at low temperature. Consequently, B. subtilis, as a cheap and original bacterial material, could be a promising biomass to remove Pb or isolate Sb from industrial wastewater and to assist phytoremediation of Pb and Sb from weak acid or near neutral pH polluted soils at low temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040607
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, presenting potential threats to the ecological environment and human health. Sixty-two urban soil samples were collected in the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest China. They were analyzed for concentration, pollution, and ecological and [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, presenting potential threats to the ecological environment and human health. Sixty-two urban soil samples were collected in the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest China. They were analyzed for concentration, pollution, and ecological and health risk of sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The total concentrations of the sixteen PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in the urban soil ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 µg/kg with an average of 2052.6 µg/kg. The concentrations of some individual PAHs in the urban soil exceeded Dutch Target Values of Soil Quality and the Σ16PAHs represented heavy pollution. Pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene had high ecological risk to aquatic/soil organisms, while other individual PAHs showed low ecological risk. The total ecological risk of PAHs to aquatic/soil organisms is classified as moderate. Toxic equivalency quantities (TEQs) of the sixteen PAHs varied between 21.16 and 1625.78 µg/kg, with an average of 423.86 µg/kg, indicating a relatively high toxicity potential. Ingestion and dermal adsorption of soil dust were major pathways of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) of human exposure to PAHs were 2.86 × 10−5 for children and 2.53 × 10−5 for adults, suggesting that the cancer risk of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil is acceptable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Content of Heavy Metal in the Dust of Leisure Squares and Its Health Risk Assessment—A Case Study of Yanta District in Xi’an
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030394
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Taking Yanta District in Xi’an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based [...] Read more.
Taking Yanta District in Xi’an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based on the assessment method of human exposure risk proposed by U.S. EPA, with an aim to investigate the content of heavy metal in the dust of leisure squares and its exposure risk. As the results indicate, the average contents of five heavy metals are obviously higher than the soil background value in Shaanxi Province. Therefore, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cr are obviously enriched in urban surface dust in Shaanxi Province, due to the influence of human activities. In addition, it can also be found that the non-carcinogen exposure risk in children is significantly higher than that in adults with the risk values of these five heavy metals all one order of magnitude higher than those of adults. Irrespective of whether addressing the results for children or adults, the non-carcinogen exposure doses of five heavy metals are sorted as Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. According to the present situation, for a child, the total non-carcinogenic risk values of five heavy metals have exceeded the safety limit in 11 of the 20 leisure squares in Yanta District of Xi’an. That means the leisure squares are no longer suitable for physical and recreational activities. For the five heavy metals, the average non-carcinogenic risk value of Cr is largest, and causes the largest threat to health in Yanta District, Xi’an. The carcinogenic exposure doses of the heavy metals Cr, Cd, and Ni are very low in respiratory pathways and there is no carcinogenic health risk. In general, the Cr content in dust in domestic cities is higher than that of foreign cities; however, the Pb content is much lower. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Analysis of Sustainable Development in China Based on the Footprint Family
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020246
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The existing index systems on sustainable evaluation are mostly based on a multi index comprehensive evaluation method. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the selection and assignment of evaluation indexes are greatly influenced by subjective factors, which can result in poor [...] Read more.
The existing index systems on sustainable evaluation are mostly based on a multi index comprehensive evaluation method. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the selection and assignment of evaluation indexes are greatly influenced by subjective factors, which can result in poor comparability of results. By contrast, the Footprint Family (including ecological footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint) is not affected by subjective factors. The Footprint Family also covers the basic tenets of sustainable development. This paper proposes use of a sustainable development evaluation index system based on the principle of the Footprint Family, and including the ecological pressure index (EPI), the ecological occupancy index (EOI), the ecological economic coordination index (EECI), the GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission index (CEI), the water resources stress index (WSI), and the sustainable development index (SDI). Furthermore, a standard for grading the evaluated results based on global benchmarks is formulated. The results of an empirical study in China were the following. The development situation deteriorated from 1990 to 2015. The results showed that the SDI decreased from a medium level (grade 5) to a lower-medium level (grade 4). The results of this empirical study also showed that the method of evaluation can avoid the influence of subjective factors and can be used in the evaluation of sustainable development for various temporal and spatial conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption Behavior and Mechanism for the Uptake of Fluoride Ions by Reed Residues
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010101
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
The adsorption behavior and mechanism for the uptake of fluoride ions by untreated and desugared reed residues (roots, stems and leaves) were studied through adsorption experiments, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and surface area analysis. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of untreated [...] Read more.
The adsorption behavior and mechanism for the uptake of fluoride ions by untreated and desugared reed residues (roots, stems and leaves) were studied through adsorption experiments, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and surface area analysis. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of untreated and desugared reeds followed the order: desugared roots 2136 mg/kg > desugared leaves 1825 mg/kg > desugared stems 1551 mg/kg > untreated roots 191 mg/kg > untreated stems 175 mg/kg > untreated leaves 150 mg/kg, so adsorption capacity of desugared reeds was larger than that of the untreated reeds. The adsorption kinetic of fluoride ions followed a pseudo-first-order model. A Langmuir model could be used to fit the isothermal adsorption process which was a spontaneous endothermic reaction involving mainly physical adsorption. The ΔG for the uptake of fluoride by the desugared reeds was more negative, so the degree of spontaneity was higher than for the use of the untreated reeds. After samples were desugared, the specific surface area and aromaticity of the reed increased, while the polarity and hydrophilicity decreased, which explained the adsorption amount of desugared reed was higher than that of the untreated. This study enriches techniques and methods of removing fluoride ions from water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010009
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an [...] Read more.
Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162) on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m2), three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min) and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010008
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC), the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R), stems (WS-R), leaves (WL-R), and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D), stems (WS-D), and leaves (WL-D) were investigated. The [...] Read more.
To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC), the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R), stems (WS-R), leaves (WL-R), and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D), stems (WS-D), and leaves (WL-D) were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Afforestation on the Species Diversity of the Soil Seed Bank and Understory Vegetation in the Hill-Gullied Loess Plateau, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101285
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Chinese Loess Plateau region has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Thus, large-scale afforestation has continued during the past decades in order to control soil erosion. Afforestation can dramatically alter nutrient cycles, affect soil-carbon storage, and change hydrology. However, it is [...] Read more.
The Chinese Loess Plateau region has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Thus, large-scale afforestation has continued during the past decades in order to control soil erosion. Afforestation can dramatically alter nutrient cycles, affect soil-carbon storage, and change hydrology. However, it is unknown how afforestation influences species diversity of the soil seed bank and understory vegetation compared with spontaneous restoration of abandoned land. Forest land with trees planted 30 years ago, abandoned slope land restored spontaneously for 30 years, and the corresponding slopes with remnant natural vegetation were selected as sampling sites. The species richness both in the soil seed bank and vegetation was significantly higher on the afforested slope compared to the spontaneously restored abandoned land. The species similarity between the afforested slope and the remnant slope land was high both in the soil seed bank and standing vegetation compared to the abandoned land. The soil seed bank density varied from 1778 ± 187 to 3896 ± 221 seeds/m2, and more than half of it was constituted by annual and biennial species, with no significant difference among sampling habitats. However, the afforested slope had higher seed density of grass and shrub/subshrubs compared to the abandoned slope. The present study indicates that in the study region, characterized by serious soil erosion, afforestation can better facilitate vegetation succession compared to spontaneously restoration of abandoned slope land. Full article
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