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Open AccessArticle

Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years) in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China

by Xuemeng Sun 1,2, Xiaoping Li 1,2,*, Dongying Liu 1,2, Tao Yang 1,2, Yanan Zhao 1,2, Ting Wu 1,2, Yue Cai 1,2, Yuwei Ai 1,2, Xu Zhang 1,2, Jiwen Wang 1,2, Rui Yang 1,2, Hongtao Yu 2,3 and Howard W. Mielke 4
1
Department of Environmental Science, School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
2
International Joint Research Centre of Shaanxi Province for Pollutant Exposure and Eco-Environmental Health, Xi’an 710062, China
3
School of Computer, Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD 21251, USA
4
Department of Pharmacology, Environmental Signaling Laboratory, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-8683, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040740
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
With the growth of industry, the extensive use of lead, and urban expansion in Northwestern Valley Cities (NVC) China, there is probable reason for presuming an increasing risk of lead exposure. However, little is known about the lead exposure of children less than 6 years old in NVC. As a first investigation, this study uses a survey to systematically determine the influences of various risk factors within the family environment, parents’ background, children’s behavior, mother’s behavior during pregnancy, and parental perception about children’s blood lead (CBL). A total of 596 families were recruited from the general population in Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xining and Yan’an. Parents, and their children (<6 years old), were asked about the environment and behaviors which could possibly relate with lead exposure. The results indicated that in the typical NVC of China, children’s environment and behavior, parents’ education level, and mother’s pregnancy behavior, were associated with potential CBL. It was noted that not all parents in NVC China recognized the importance of children’s lead exposure. Therefore, children’s health care and medical screening campaigns need to be designed to improve family’s fundamental knowledge of lead hazards, associated health effects, and prevention in the NVC of China. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead exposures; children’s blood lead; valley cites; family; behaviors and habits; parent perception lead exposures; children’s blood lead; valley cites; family; behaviors and habits; parent perception
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Sun, X.; Li, X.; Liu, D.; Yang, T.; Zhao, Y.; Wu, T.; Cai, Y.; Ai, Y.; Zhang, X.; Wang, J.; Yang, R.; Yu, H.; Mielke, H.W. Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years) in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 740.

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