Next Article in Journal
How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
A Novel Pb-Resistant Bacillus subtilis Bacterium Isolate for Co-Biosorption of Hazardous Sb(III) and Pb(II): Thermodynamics and Application Strategy
Previous Article in Journal
Antibacterial Activity of Orthodontic Cement Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles Adjacent to Orthodontic Brackets
Previous Article in Special Issue
Content of Heavy Metal in the Dust of Leisure Squares and Its Health Risk Assessment—A Case Study of Yanta District in Xi’an
Open AccessArticle

Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China

1
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
2
International Joint Research Center of Shaanxi Province for Pollutant Exposure and Eco-Environmental Health, Xi’an 710062, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040607
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, presenting potential threats to the ecological environment and human health. Sixty-two urban soil samples were collected in the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest China. They were analyzed for concentration, pollution, and ecological and health risk of sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The total concentrations of the sixteen PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in the urban soil ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 µg/kg with an average of 2052.6 µg/kg. The concentrations of some individual PAHs in the urban soil exceeded Dutch Target Values of Soil Quality and the Σ16PAHs represented heavy pollution. Pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene had high ecological risk to aquatic/soil organisms, while other individual PAHs showed low ecological risk. The total ecological risk of PAHs to aquatic/soil organisms is classified as moderate. Toxic equivalency quantities (TEQs) of the sixteen PAHs varied between 21.16 and 1625.78 µg/kg, with an average of 423.86 µg/kg, indicating a relatively high toxicity potential. Ingestion and dermal adsorption of soil dust were major pathways of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) of human exposure to PAHs were 2.86 × 10−5 for children and 2.53 × 10−5 for adults, suggesting that the cancer risk of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil is acceptable. View Full-Text
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; ecological risk; health risk; urban soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; ecological risk; health risk; urban soil
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Zhang, S.; Wang, L.; Zhang, W.; Shi, X.; Lu, X.; Li, X.; Li, X. Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 607. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040607

AMA Style

Wang L, Zhang S, Wang L, Zhang W, Shi X, Lu X, Li X, Li X. Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(4):607. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040607

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wenjuan; Shi, Xingmin; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaoyun. 2018. "Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 4: 607. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040607

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop