Special Issue "Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ronald L. Braithwaite
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine East Point, GA, USA
Prof. Dr. Mario De La Rosa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Robert Stempel College of Public Health & Social Work, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, AHC5 505, Miami, FL 33199, USA
Prof. Dr. Selina A. Smith
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Public and Preventive Health, Augusta University, 1120 15th Street, CJ-2318, Augusta, GA 30912, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on HIV, substance abuse and addiction as public health issues for the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph. 

Substance abuse research targeting vulnerable populations remains sparse.  In the HIV arena, prevalence, and incidence and treatment outcome have improved for the white population, but remain dismal for disenfranchised ethnic and racial minority groups. Additionally lacking is intervention research that accounts for the role of cultural determinants of health in preventing, reducing HIV and substance abuse disorders among US ethnic/racial minority communities.  This Special Issue aims to fill the void in the research literature by calling for papers that examine the cultural determinants influencing pathways to substance abuse disorders among racial/ethnic minority populations, and the concomitant impact on the persistent and exponential rate of HIV and addictive behaviors within these groups.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to the racism and stigma as cultural factors influencing substance abuse and addiction-related behaviors and risky sexual behaviors in ethnic/racial minority populations in the U.S.

Prof. Dr. Ronald L. Braithwaite
Prof. Dr. Mario De La Rosa
Prof. Dr. Selina A. Smith
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Etiology of Substance Abuse
  • Social and Cultural Context of Substance Abuse and Addiction
  • Cultural Determinants of Health
  • HIV, Substance Abuse and Ethnic/Racial Minorities
  • Pathways to Substance Abuse Disorders
  • Racism, Stigma, Discrimination
  • Prevention and Treatment Interventions
  • Rehabilitation vs. Criminal Justice Interventions
  • Social Justice Matters
  • Risky Sexual Behaviors
  • Diversifying the Research Workforce

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Psychosocial Correlates of the Intention to Use Condoms among Young Men in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040339 - 23 Mar 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
South Africa leads the world with the number of people infected with HIV. Even with all attempts that have been made to curb HIV, it is still evident that new infections are on the rise. Condom use remains one of the best tools [...] Read more.
South Africa leads the world with the number of people infected with HIV. Even with all attempts that have been made to curb HIV, it is still evident that new infections are on the rise. Condom use remains one of the best tools against this challenge yet a small number of sexually active men use them. This study investigates the psychosocial correlates of the intention to use condoms among young men in KwaZulu-Natal province. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a framework, hierarchical linear regression models were used to determine the unique contribution of the study measures in explaining the overall variance of intention to consistently use condoms. Subjective norms and perceived behavioural control towards consistent condom use explained 46% of the variance in the intention to use a condom, suggesting that health behaviour interventions should focus on targeting the normative beliefs as well as control beliefs of the target population. Furthermore, subjective norms and intentions towards reducing alcohol and marijuana use explained an additional 7% to the final model in intentions to condom use, implying that substance use and condom usage may influence each other. No significant contributions were found for beliefs underlying cultural aspects of responsible manhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Disparity in Retention in Care and Viral Suppression for Black Caribbean-Born Immigrants Living with HIV in Florida
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030285 - 09 Mar 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
(1) The study aim was to assess disparities in non-retention in HIV care and non-viral suppression among non-Hispanic Black Caribbean immigrants living with HIV in Florida. (2) We analyzed cases involving individuals, aged ≥13, who met CDC HIV case definition during 2000–2014. Chi [...] Read more.
(1) The study aim was to assess disparities in non-retention in HIV care and non-viral suppression among non-Hispanic Black Caribbean immigrants living with HIV in Florida. (2) We analyzed cases involving individuals, aged ≥13, who met CDC HIV case definition during 2000–2014. Chi square test was used to evaluate differences in non-retention and non-viral suppression by country of origin/race/ethnicity. Multilevel logistic regressions with three referent groups [US-born Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs)] were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR). (3) Caribbean-born Blacks were less likely to be retained in care or be virally suppressed than US-born Blacks, Hispanics, and NHWs. Bahamians, Haitians, and Trinidadians and Tobagonians had increased odds of non-retention (aOR 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40 –4.10; aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.40–1.66; aOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.38–3.83), and non-viral suppression (aOR 3.23, 95% CI 2.48–4.21; aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.68–1.98; aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06–2.90) compared with NHWs. (4) Caribbean-born Blacks living with HIV infection are less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to be retained in care and/or achieve viral suppression. Further research is urgently needed to determine social, cultural, and biological factors that contribute to this disparity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
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Open AccessArticle
Attitude of Health Care Workers (HCWs) toward Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS and Drug Users: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030284 - 09 Mar 2017
Cited by 18
Abstract
Caring for HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users requires health care workers (HCWs) to have good knowledge of the issues. Cultural differences in HCWs, combined with professional ethics and personal beliefs, could also result in conflicting attitudes, leading to difficulties related to looking after [...] Read more.
Caring for HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users requires health care workers (HCWs) to have good knowledge of the issues. Cultural differences in HCWs, combined with professional ethics and personal beliefs, could also result in conflicting attitudes, leading to difficulties related to looking after people affected by HIV/AIDS or drug users. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients and/or drug users in a sample of workers operating in a large university hospital in southern Italy. A total of 736 workers were surveyed from May to November 2016. During the periodic occupational health surveillance, a questionnaire was administered about attitudes of discrimination, acceptance and fear towards these patients. Respondents showed average levels of acceptance to HIV/AIDS and drug user patients. As years of experience and professional training increased, scores for discrimination, acceptance of HIV/AIDS, acceptance of drug users and fear decreased. Factors positively influencing levels of attitudes were being female and younger. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen the awareness of HCWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
eHealth Familias Unidas: Pilot Study of an Internet Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Family Intervention to Reduce Drug Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030264 - 04 Mar 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper describes the Internet adaptation of an evidenced-based intervention for Hispanic families, eHealth Familias Unidas, and explores whether an Internet-based format is feasible and acceptable to Hispanic families. Core intervention components from the evidence-based intervention, Familias Unidas, were transposed into a video [...] Read more.
This paper describes the Internet adaptation of an evidenced-based intervention for Hispanic families, eHealth Familias Unidas, and explores whether an Internet-based format is feasible and acceptable to Hispanic families. Core intervention components from the evidence-based intervention, Familias Unidas, were transposed into a video format and edited for content. Additionally, interactive exercises and a soap opera series were incorporated to reinforce intervention content and optimize participant engagement and retention. To understand the feasibility and acceptability of eHealth Familias Unidas, we conducted a pilot study and examined findings from: (1) session completion rates for both e-parent group sessions and family sessions (n = 23 families); and (2) qualitative data collected from Hispanic parents (n = 29) that received the eHealth intervention. Engagement and attendance in the intervention showed that 83% of families engaged in the intervention and that there was an overall session completion rate of 78%. Qualitative interviews were conducted mid and post intervention with a combined total of 29 participants. A general inductive approach was used to derive themes from the collected data. Overall, parents expressed positive feedback in regards to the intervention and stated that there were multiple lessons learned from participating in eHealth Familias Unidas. Findings indicate that an Internet-based family intervention is not only feasible and acceptable for Hispanic families, but also offers a viable option to ameliorate barriers to participation and implementation of preventive interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Black–White and Country of Birth Disparities in Retention in HIV Care and Viral Suppression among Latinos with HIV in Florida, 2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020120 - 27 Jan 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
The study’s purpose was to identify HIV, Black–White race, and birth country disparities in retention in HIV care and HIV viral load (VL) suppression among Latinos, in 2015. Florida’s surveillance data for Latinos diagnosed with HIV (2000–2014) were merged with American Community Survey [...] Read more.
The study’s purpose was to identify HIV, Black–White race, and birth country disparities in retention in HIV care and HIV viral load (VL) suppression among Latinos, in 2015. Florida’s surveillance data for Latinos diagnosed with HIV (2000–2014) were merged with American Community Survey data. Multi-level (random effects) models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for non-retention in care and non-viral load suppression. Blacks and Whites experienced similar odds of non–retention in care. Racial differences in VL suppression disappeared after controlling for neighborhood factors. Compared to U.S.–born Latinos, those born in Mexico (retention aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.70–2.36; VL 1.85, 95% CI 1.57–2.17) and Central America (retention aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.16–1.53; VL 1.28, 95% CI 1.12–2.47) were at an increased risk after controlling for individual and neighborhood factors. Among Central Americans, those born in Guatemala (retention aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.80–3.18; VL 2.20, 95% CI 1.66–2.92) and Honduras (retention aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13–1.72; VL 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74) experienced the largest disparities, when compared to U.S.-born Latinos. Disparities in care and treatment exist within the Latino population. Cultural and other factors, unique to Latino Black-White racial and birth country subgroups, should be further studied and considered for intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
A Brief Report: Lessons Learned and Preliminary Findings of Progreso en Salud, an HIV Risk Reduction Intervention for Latina Seasonal Farmworkers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14010032 - 30 Dec 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida—particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work—have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV [...] Read more.
Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida—particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work—have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV prevention intervention Progreso en Salud (Progress in Health). Among the 114 Latina seasonal farmworker participants, there were significant increases from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the percentages of overall condom use, HIV testing, HIV/AIDS-related communications with friends, HIV knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and correct use of condoms. Lessons learned from this study can be used to inform future HIV intervention strategies to improve the adoption and maintenance of HIV risk reduction behaviors among high-risk Latina seasonal workers and other high-risk underserved populations. Future research is needed to support our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of a Culturally-Tailored Sexual Health Education Program for African American Youth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14010014 - 24 Dec 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence [...] Read more.
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12–18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008–2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention (n = 651) and comparison (n = 112) groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent (p = 0.0005). Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60). Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Sociocultural Determinants of Risky Sexual Behaviors among Adult Latinas: A Longitudinal Study of a Community-Based Sample
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111164 - 23 Nov 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year [...] Read more.
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U.S. culture; (e) interpersonal support; (f) relationship stress; (g) mother-daughter attachment; (h) intimate partner violence; (i) religious involvement; and (j) criminal justice involvement. Results indicate the following factors are negatively associated with risky sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, treating a physical problem with prescription drugs, religious involvement, and mother–daughter attachment. The following factors are positively associated with risky sexual behavior: higher number of mental health symptoms, being U.S.-born, and criminal justice involvement. We discuss implications for the future development of culturally relevant interventions based on the study findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Trends in HIV Testing among Adults in Georgia: Analysis of the 2011–2015 BRFSS Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111126 - 11 Nov 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Georgia is ranked fifth highest among states for rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis. About 4% of persons living with HIV infection in the United States reside in Georgia, and almost 19% of these people do not know their HIV status. The [...] Read more.
Georgia is ranked fifth highest among states for rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis. About 4% of persons living with HIV infection in the United States reside in Georgia, and almost 19% of these people do not know their HIV status. The present study examined the trends and associated factors of HIV testing among adults in Georgia between 2011 and 2015 by analyzing data of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). A total of 31,094 persons aged ≥18 years were identified who responded to the question “Have you ever been tested for HIV?” Overall, there were 11,286 (44.2%) respondents who had been tested for HIV, compared to 19,808 (55.8%) who had not. There was a slight decrease in the percentage of respondents who have ever tested for HIV, from 45.6% in 2011 to 43.7% in 2015 (APC (annual percent change) = −0.98, not significant). Factors associated with HIV testing were being female (p = 0.004), black (p < 0.001), younger than 55 years (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), attaining education level above high school (p < 0.001), and earning annual income of $50,000 or less (p = 0.028). Overall in Georgia, there has been a slight decline in the temporal trend of HIV testing, and more than half of adults have never been tested for HIV. For reducing HIV transmission in Georgia, enhancing access and utilization of HIV testing should be a public health priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
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Open AccessArticle
Drinking and Driving among Recent Latino Immigrants: The Impact of Neighborhoods and Social Support
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111055 - 28 Oct 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity [...] Read more.
Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a) How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b) Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital) have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL) Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13100948 - 24 Sep 2016
Abstract
African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease [...] Read more.
African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010. A single group repeated measures study design was employed and consisted of a pre-test (n = 355) group, an immediate post-test (n = 228) group with a response rate of 64%, and a six-month follow up (n = 110) group with response rate of 48%, completing a 135-item survey. Paired-sample t-tests, McNemar tests, and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to compare survey results. Participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in hepatitis B and C knowledge over time (p < 0.001). Statistically significant decreases were also reported for unprotected sex in exchange for money, drugs or shelter (p = 0.008), and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p < 0.001). Reported substance use decreased with statistical significance for alcohol (p = 0.011), marijuana (p = 0.011), illegal drugs (p = 0.002), and crack/cocaine (p = 0.003). Findings broaden the evidence base related to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis risk reduction interventions designed for homeless and previously incarcerated African American women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Increasing HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jiangsu Province, China: Results from Five Consecutive Surveys, 2011–2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080795 - 06 Aug 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Epidemics of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) are major public health concerns in most parts of China. This study examined the trends in HIV incidence and associated factors among MSM in Jiangsu Province. Five consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted [...] Read more.
Epidemics of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) are major public health concerns in most parts of China. This study examined the trends in HIV incidence and associated factors among MSM in Jiangsu Province. Five consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among MSM from 2011 to 2015 in eight cities throughout Jiangsu Province. Participants were recruited from MSM venues or via the internet. Demographic and behavioral data were collected through HIV bio-behavioral surveys. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis. HIV incidence was estimated by the IgG-capture BED-EIA (BED) method and a chi-square trend test was used to compare differences over the years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with recent infection. A total of 2433, 2678, 2591, 2610 and 2541 participants were enrolled in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. HIV incidence increased from 5.10% in 2011 to 6.62% in 2015 (p = 0.025). MSM who had an education level of junior high school or less (aOR = 1.472, p = 0.018), engaged in condomless anal sex in the past 6 months (aOR = 2.389, p < 0.001), did not have an HIV test in the past 12 months (aOR = 3.215, p < 0.001), and were currently infected with syphilis (aOR = 2.025, p = 0.001) were likely to be recently infected with HIV. HIV incidence is increasing among MSM in Jiangsu Province, China. Condom usage and HIV testing promotion should be prioritized when attempting to reduce HIV transmission among MSM in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)

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Open AccessFeature PaperProject Report
Similarities and Differences Matter: Considering the Influence of Gender on HIV Prevention Programs for Young Adults in an Urban HBCU
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020133 - 29 Jan 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) disproportionately burdens African American youth and young adults. In studies conducted in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) settings, African American youth generally perceive themselves as having a low risk of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted [...] Read more.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) disproportionately burdens African American youth and young adults. In studies conducted in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) settings, African American youth generally perceive themselves as having a low risk of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) despite having higher rates of unprotected sexual encounters, multiple sex partners, and particularly low rates of HIV testing and awareness of HIV status. These findings position HBCUs in a pivotal role for theory-based research and practice to modify behaviors in order to decrease HIV acquisition risk. Get Students Mobilized and Retooled to Transform (SMART) is an interventional research project in an urban HBCU in a northeastern metropolitan area in the US. The project is designed to assess and then address irresponsible behavior among students on college campuses that leads to illicit drug use, excessive alcohol consumption and underage drinking, and risky sexual behaviors that increase the likelihood of acquiring HIV and STDs. As gender plays a critical role in interventions, this article explores gender similarities and differences to inform the planning and implementation of Get SMART and any subsequent projects that address substance and alcohol use and HIV in an HBCU setting. Survey research was conducted to find similar and different factors that may be valuable in implementing and tailoring evidence-based interventions in a predominantly African American campus setting. Survey results revealed that more young adult women consume alcohol and use marijuana than young adult men. Young adult men were also more likely to be tested for HIV when compared to young adult women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
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