Non-Chemical Strategies for IPM in Horticulture

A topical collection in Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Pest Management".

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Editor


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Collection Editor
Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Plant Protection Department, Ctra. La Coruña Km. 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: agricultural entomology; sustainable pest control in mediterranean crops; biological pest control; side-effects on non-target arthropod fauna

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agriculture has undergone a deep transformation in recent times. Consumers are increasingly concerned about healthy diets and demand products free of pesticide residues. Likewise, regulations for pest management in many countries tend to restrict the use of chemically synthesized pesticides and establish the practice of IPM as mandatory, as a way to protect consumers and the environment. IPM principles establish preventive strategies as priorities, accepting control methods only when the profitability of the crop is at risk. In addition, within the control measures, biological, biotechnical, and physical methods must be preferred to the application of chemical pesticides if they provide satisfactory control. For all these reasons, in current horticulture, it is necessary to promote research for the development of preventive measures and non-chemical control methods for pest management. On the other hand, a wide dissemination of the results of these investigations to farmers, advisers, and researchers is essential for the adoption and development of these methods.

This Topical Collection will gather recent research advances in those preventive measures and non-chemical control tools (cultural practices, resistant or tolerant varieties, biological control, botanical and mineral products, repellents, and attractants, among others) that may be useful to protect fruits and vegetables against insects and mites.

Dr. Manuel González-Núñez
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • IPM in horticulture
  • insect pest 
  • mites
  • non-chemical pest control
  • biological control
  • cultural methods

Published Papers (7 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

14 pages, 1463 KiB  
Article
The Application of Entomophagous and Acariphagous Species in Biological Protection Systems of an Apple Orchard (Malus domestica Borkh)
by Vladimir Ismailov, Irina Agasyeva, Anton Nastasy, Maria Nefedova, Ekaterina Besedina and Alexandr Komantsev
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030379 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
The systematic and long-term use of pesticides in fruit plantations leads to the formation of resistant pest populations. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of entomophages and acariphages for the protection of apple orchards. Against the [...] Read more.
The systematic and long-term use of pesticides in fruit plantations leads to the formation of resistant pest populations. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of entomophages and acariphages for the protection of apple orchards. Against the dominant pest Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), Habrobracon hebetor (Say) was used, which was caught in the Krasnodar Territory using cassettes with caterpillars attractive to H. hebetor. To determine the most genetically high-quality population, an RAPD analysis was carried out from three Russian (Krasnodar, Stavropol, and Belgorod) and one Kazakh (Shymkent) populations of H. hebetor, which revealed a high level of DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity in the studied geographical populations of the cities of Krasnodar and Stavropol. The efficiency of the captured Krasnodar population of H. hebetor against C. pomonella was about 75%. To regulate the number of aphids Aphis pomi De Geer and Tetraneura caerulescens (Pass.), breeding reserves of the aphidophages Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Leis dimidiata Fabr., Cycloneda sangvinea L., and Aphidius colemani Vier. were established. The biological efficiency of the developed technique was 82.8–88.6%. The release of the acariphages Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesb.) on the apple tree showed effectiveness from 80 to 90% against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi (Koch). To study the possibility of simultaneous use of entomophages and insecticides, experiments were carried out to study the sensitivity of H. hebetor and H. axiridis to insecticides. When H. hebetor cocoons were treated with Insegar® and Atabron®, the ectoparasitoid emergence values were 98.4% and 100%, respectively. The survival of adult H. axiridis treated with Madex twin®, Atabron®, and Koragen® on the fifth day was 97.3%, 89.6%, and 81.9%, respectively. Based on the data obtained, it can be argued that it is possible to create favorable conditions for entomophages, which effectively regulate pest numbers in apple orchards. Full article
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15 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
The Parasitoid Hyposoter didymator Can Transmit a Broad Host Range Baculovirus in a Two Host System
by Ariel Morel, Brendan Leigh, Delia Muñoz, Primitivo Caballero, Pilar Medina and Beatriz Dáder
Horticulturae 2023, 9(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9020170 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and baculovirus (BV) might be used jointly to provide effective control of the Spodoptera genus. The literature has mostly covered the safe compatibility between natural enemies and BV-based insecticides, but research on the potential dispersal of BV by [...] Read more.
Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and baculovirus (BV) might be used jointly to provide effective control of the Spodoptera genus. The literature has mostly covered the safe compatibility between natural enemies and BV-based insecticides, but research on the potential dispersal of BV by natural enemies is lacking. Thus, the goal of this manuscript was to ascertain if H. didymator was able to disperse the broad host range of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) to Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera exigua in choice and non-choice conditions and whether the preference of the parasitoid by one of these noctuids could mediate this dispersion. It was previously needed to improve the rearing of the parasitoid in the laboratory, concerning the optimal host age and length of parasitization, parasitoid competition, and influence of parasitization on the longevity of females. The best rearing conditions for S. littoralis are collective parasitization of mature L3 larvae for 24 h, after at least one day of copulation. Hyposoter didymator transmits AcMNPV to both lepidopterans, but its efficiency is mediated by host preference and the pathogenicity of the BV in each host. In this particular case, H. didymator as well as AcMNPV showed a clear preference towards S. exigua. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023

13 pages, 1241 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Mass Trapping Devices for the Control of the European Cherry Fruit Fly [Rhagoletis cerasi (L.)]
by Manuel González-Núñez, Guillermo Cobos and Ismael Sánchez-Ramos
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100869 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) is the most damaging pest of cherries in Europe and Western Asia and it has been recently introduced in North America. Females sting the ripening cherries and tolerance of damaged fruit is very low (<2%). The management of this pest [...] Read more.
Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) is the most damaging pest of cherries in Europe and Western Asia and it has been recently introduced in North America. Females sting the ripening cherries and tolerance of damaged fruit is very low (<2%). The management of this pest is mainly based on insecticide applications near harvest. Only a few insecticides are authorized for this use in Europe, and repeated use of them likely entails environmental risks, resistance to insecticides and residues in the fruit. Therefore, alternative tools are needed. Trap-attractant combinations were compared on searching an efficient and economical device for a viable mass trapping method against R. cerasi on a large-scale use. A folded yellow sticky trap with a homemade ammonium acetate dispenser was the most efficient and also the cheapest one. The efficacy of mass trapping using this device was evaluated in farm-scale trials. With low pest pressure, mass trapping was sufficient to obtain commercially acceptable fruit. With high pest pressure, mass trapping reduced the number of insecticide (spinosad) applications while keeping damage below the economic threshold. Therefore, mass trapping can be a useful tool for managing R. cerasi and reducing insecticide application. Full article
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13 pages, 8812 KiB  
Article
Unattended Trapping of Whiteflies Driven out of Tomato Plants onto a Yellow-Colored Double-Charged Dipolar Electric Field Screen
by Yoshihiro Takikawa, Yoshinori Matsuda, Koji Kakutani, Teruo Nonomura and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Horticulturae 2022, 8(9), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8090764 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
An unattended pest control system was developed to eliminate whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) that settled on greenhouse tomato plants. The system exploited the whitefly’s habit of flying up from a plant that was mechanically tapped and then heading toward yellow objects. Remote-controlled [...] Read more.
An unattended pest control system was developed to eliminate whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) that settled on greenhouse tomato plants. The system exploited the whitefly’s habit of flying up from a plant that was mechanically tapped and then heading toward yellow objects. Remote-controlled dollies with arms that tapped plants and yellow-colored double-charged dipolar electric field screens (YDD-EFSs) (oppositely electrified transparent insulator tubes filled with yellow-colored water) attracted and trapped the whiteflies. The whiteflies flew up when the plants were mechanically tapped with the dolly’s arms during reciprocating movements and were subsequently trapped by YDD-EFSs that were automatically translocated to the target plants. The system was applied to rows of whitefly-infested tomato plants. Almost all whiteflies transferred to plants were successfully recovered by two dollies moving on either side of the plants, approaching all plants individually (via programmed movement). In summary, we present an efficient unattended method for controlling whiteflies on tomato plants in greenhouses. Full article
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20 pages, 5953 KiB  
Review
An Electrostatic Pest Exclusion Strategy for Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation
by Koji Kakutani, Yoshinori Matsuda, Teruo Nonomura and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Horticulturae 2022, 8(6), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8060543 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Electrostatic devices generating an electric field (EF) are promising tools for greenhouse tomato cultivation. In these devices, an EF is generated in the space surrounding an insulated conductor (IC) that is charged by a voltage generator. Thus, a physical force is exerted on [...] Read more.
Electrostatic devices generating an electric field (EF) are promising tools for greenhouse tomato cultivation. In these devices, an EF is generated in the space surrounding an insulated conductor (IC) that is charged by a voltage generator. Thus, a physical force is exerted on any insect that enters the EF, as a negatively charged IC (NC-IC) pushes a negative charge (free electrons) out of the insect body. The insect is polarized positively to be attracted to the NC-IC, and a grounded metal net (G-MN) repels the insect. This dual function of the apparatus (insect capture and repulsion) is the core of the electrostatic pest-exclusion strategy. In this study, we applied various innovative EF-based devices to evaluate their efficacy in greenhouse tomato cultivation. Our objective was to determine the optimal apparatus for simple, inexpensive construction by greenhouse workers. The results of this study will contribute to the development of sustainable pest-management protocols in greenhouse horticulture. Full article
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11 pages, 1343 KiB  
Article
Web Architecture Affects the Functional Response of the Space Web-Builder Kochiura aulica against Trioza erytreae in the Laboratory
by Diogo Félix-Oliveira, José Alberto Pereira and Jacinto Benhadi-Marín
Horticulturae 2022, 8(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8030192 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
The “citrus greening disease” or huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the Gram-negative bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp. One vector of HLB, the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae (del Guercio, 1918), was recorded for the first time in 2014, in mainland Spain, and since then, [...] Read more.
The “citrus greening disease” or huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the Gram-negative bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp. One vector of HLB, the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae (del Guercio, 1918), was recorded for the first time in 2014, in mainland Spain, and since then, it has spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Spiders could be natural enemies of T. erytreae. In this work, we assessed the potential of a model spider species, selected according to the most abundant guild in the field, as a natural enemy of T. erytreae. Theridiidae was the most successful family, capturing adults of T. erytreae in the field. Kochiura aulica (Theridiidae) was selected as a model for functional response assays in the laboratory. The effect of web-building plasticity on the functional response of K. aulica was investigated using two types of arena. The spiders developed tubular-like or branch-like webs according to the spatial constraints. The web architecture significantly shifted the trapping efficiency of K. aulica. Functional responses for tubular and branch webs were both Type-II, but more psyllid prey were captured and killed in the tubular webs than in branch webs. In addition, significantly more psyllids survived in branch-like webs. Our results suggest that web architecture is a key factor driving the number of captured adults of the psyllid. Space web builders could be successful natural enemies of T. erytreae, although further research is needed to clarify the influence of web-building plasticity on the functional response and trapping efficiency of spiders. Full article
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16 pages, 3767 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Thrips Species Assessment for Eco-Consistent Management of Infestations in Mediterranean Citrus Crops
by Gregorio Vono, Carmelo Peter Bonsignore and Rita Marullo
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020137 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4761
Abstract
Insects belonging to the Thysanoptera order are an important group of insect pests that require phytosanitary interventions for the protection of citrus crops. This study provides a general and complete overview on the thrips pest species present in citrus orchards in the main [...] Read more.
Insects belonging to the Thysanoptera order are an important group of insect pests that require phytosanitary interventions for the protection of citrus crops. This study provides a general and complete overview on the thrips pest species present in citrus orchards in the main countries of the Mediterranean basin. For most species, the distribution areas, host plants, and IPM control methods are provided. The study also presents new data on the status of thrips infestations in three main crops in southern Italy (Calabria), including lemon, bergamot, and orange. The results concern the abundance and the co-occurrence of thrips species in the investigated area. Statistical analysis showed that there were differences between citrus species, canopy exposure, and monitoring period in thrips abundance. In particular, orange species showed the lowest density of thrips present on the plant. Three species, namely Pezothrips kellyanus, Frankliniella occidentalis, and Thrips major, were the most abundant in the monitored area with a marked seasonal increase, especially for the highest density species, P. kellyanus, between March and June. Moreover, for F. occidentalis, the close relationship between its presence on herbaceous flora inside crops and in citrus flowers confirms a thrips interaction with no crops and herbaceous plants and the numerical response of the thrips species. These latest results suggest that wild plants constantly host thrips and therefore an alternative ground cover could be an ecological tool to limit or mitigate the density and damaging activity of thrips populations in citrus crops. Full article
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