Special Issue "Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Susanne Iwarsson
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
Interests: academic leadership; activity; ageing; assistive technology; cross-national research; environments; gerontology; graduate education; health promotion; housing; instrument development; interdisciplinary research; knowledge translation; mixed methods; mobility devices; nursing; occupational therapy; Parkinson’s disease; participation; physiotherapy; prevention; public health; public transport; rehabilitation; spinal cord injury; stroke; user participation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increased life expectancy brings challenges, not only at the individual level, but also for healthcare and society more generally, and research on ageing and health is a priority, worldwide. While we usually refer to ‘older’ people as those over 65 years old, the definition, being based simply on chronological age, accommodates marked individual variations. The proportion of the population that is ageing with chronic disease and disability is increasing, and this deserves attention. While age is the prime risk factor for many diseases, overall in clinical research specific diagnoses constitute the focus of research, often with scare attention to the process of ageing. On the other hand, in ageing research less attention is being paid to the consequences of specific diagnoses and how they impact on the process of ageing. Observing this situation with obviously interrelated research fields acting in isolation, there is new knowledge to be gained by interdisciplinary research involving ageing researchers, as well as clinical researchers and health scientists. For this Special Issue we invite submissions representing such research. Studies representing quantitative, qualitative, as well as mixed methods paradigms, are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Susanne Iwarsson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • active ageing
  • epidemiology
  • frailty
  • geriatric rehabilitation
  • gerontology
  • life course
  • neurodegenerative disorders
  • stroke, participation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
“To Work Just Like Anyone Else”—A Narrative from a Man Aging with Spinal Cord Injury
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040087 - 09 Nov 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
People aging with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop medical problems commonly associated with the aging process at a younger age than the general population. However, research about how the life story changes and how meaning will be experienced in occupations is lacking. The [...] Read more.
People aging with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop medical problems commonly associated with the aging process at a younger age than the general population. However, research about how the life story changes and how meaning will be experienced in occupations is lacking. The aim was to describe and offer an explanation of how a man experienced meaning in everyday occupations while aging with an SCI. Four narrative interviews were performed over a four-year period, with a man in his fifties, who lived with SCI for 39 years. The narrative analysis generated an overall plot, named “To Work Just Like Anyone Else,” and gives a picture of his experiences, thoughts, and reflections about meaning in occupations, from when he became injured to the present, and in relation to his future. His life story is characterized by secondary health complications, and his experiences of negotiating with the aging body and making choices to continue working. Further, how occupational risk factors, e.g., imbalance, alienation, and deprivation, occur as a result of lack of rehabilitation and support from social systems is addressed. Future research should explore how rehabilitation and social systems can support people aging with SCI to experience meaning in everyday occupations and to have balance in everyday life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
Open AccessArticle
Falls and Fear of Falling among Persons Who Receive Housing Adaptations—Results from a Quasi-Experimental Study in Sweden
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040066 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
While health might deteriorate through the ageing and disablement process, the impacts of disability can be reduced by adapting the environment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of applying a standardized research-based strategy to housing adaptation as compared to ordinary practice with [...] Read more.
While health might deteriorate through the ageing and disablement process, the impacts of disability can be reduced by adapting the environment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of applying a standardized research-based strategy to housing adaptation as compared to ordinary practice with respect to falls and fear of falling. Another aim was to investigate the overall effects of housing adaptations on fall-related outcomes over time. In total, 196 clients were included at baseline, with follow-up at 3 and 6 months after the housing adaptation was implemented. The only significant difference between the two approaches was identified with respect to fear of falling at 3 months after the housing adaptation, but not after 6 months. The number of clients reporting actual falls increased over time in both sites, whereas the number of reported near-falls decreased most in the intervention site, but without significant differences. Thus, the patterns of differences between the sites are inconsistent, as are the patterns of change in fall-related outcomes. An overall conclusion is that if the goal is to improve fall-related outcomes, housing adaptation should be complemented with other interventions preventing falls and explicitly address the clients’ activity limitations. In addition, longer follow-up times are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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Open AccessArticle
Satisfaction with Daily Occupations for Elderly People (SDO-E)—Adaptation and Psychometric Testing
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040061 - 25 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Satisfaction with everyday occupations has been shown to be important for health and well-being in various populations. Research into satisfaction with everyday occupations among elderly persons is, however, lacking. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of an adapted test version of [...] Read more.
Satisfaction with everyday occupations has been shown to be important for health and well-being in various populations. Research into satisfaction with everyday occupations among elderly persons is, however, lacking. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of an adapted test version of the Satisfaction with Daily Occupations instrument (SDO) for elderly people, called SDO-E. Five hospital-based occupational therapists working with elderly people evaluated the content validity and usability of the SDO-E. The elderly participants consisted of 50 people from outside of the health services and 42 inpatients at an internal medicine clinic. They completed the SDO-E and rated their perceived health, activity level, and general satisfaction with daily occupations. The SDO-E showed fair content validity and utility, acceptable internal consistency, good preliminary construct validity and relevant known-groups validity. The SDO-E thus appears to be a useful screening tool for assessing activity level and satisfaction with daily occupations among elderly people, and a complement to other self-report instruments concerning factors connected with health and well-being. Future research should further explore the content validity of the SDO-E, particularly the views of the elderly themselves, and investigate the SDO-E in terms of sensitivity to change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
Open AccessArticle
Healthy Ageing in People with Intellectual Disabilities from Managers’ Perspective: A Qualitative Study
Healthcare 2017, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5030045 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
An increasing number of people with intellectual disability (ID) are reaching older ages today although they experience more health problems than the older population without ID. Leaders in intellectual disability services can greatly influence the conditions for a healthy ageing, and the aim [...] Read more.
An increasing number of people with intellectual disability (ID) are reaching older ages today although they experience more health problems than the older population without ID. Leaders in intellectual disability services can greatly influence the conditions for a healthy ageing, and the aim of the present study was to explore healthy ageing in this group from the perspective of the leaders. Interviews with 20 leaders were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The findings gave rise to the overall theme ageing in dependence, which emerged from the following six categories: Supporting self-determination; Inaccessible activities after retirement; Signs of decline; Increased and specific needs for support and care; A non-question of gender; Aspects concerning the end of life and death. A prerequisite for healthy ageing in the case of people with ID is, according to the leaders, that they can live the life according to their preferences and make independent choices whilst at the same time receiving adequate support. With the shrinking of their social network after retirement, they become increasingly dependent on staff and leaders in the group home, who need to know what healthy ageing implies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
Open AccessArticle
Chronic Respiratory Disorders and Their Treatment among Older People with Intellectual Disability and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder in Comparison with the General Population
Healthcare 2017, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5030040 - 01 Aug 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Respiratory disorders are common among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, few studies have investigated these disorders among older people with ID. We identified 7936 people, aged 55+ years, with ID and a reference cohort from the general population. Data on diagnoses of [...] Read more.
Respiratory disorders are common among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, few studies have investigated these disorders among older people with ID. We identified 7936 people, aged 55+ years, with ID and a reference cohort from the general population. Data on diagnoses of chronic respiratory disorders, with a focus on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), were collected, as was information on health care visits due to such disorders. We also added data on the prescription of drugs for obstructive airway diseases. Whereas the risk of having at least one diagnosis of asthma during the study period was similar in the two cohorts, people with ID were less likely than the general population to have been diagnosed with COPD. The same was found for health care visits due to asthma and COPD, respectively. The patterns of drug prescription were similar among people with ID and the general population, with the exception of adrenergics for systemic use, which were more commonly prescribed to people with ID. Thus, older people with ID do not seem to have an increased risk of asthma or COPD. Moreover, the indications are that when diagnosed with any of these disorders, they receive treatment adapted to their particular needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Adult Day Services in Supporting the Occupational Participation of People with Dementia and Their Carers: An Integrative Review
Healthcare 2018, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6020043 - 08 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The increasing numbers of people with dementia places considerable stress on health and aged care services and has resulted in the development of community adult day services. Aim: The aim of this integrative review is to determine the extent to which these [...] Read more.
The increasing numbers of people with dementia places considerable stress on health and aged care services and has resulted in the development of community adult day services. Aim: The aim of this integrative review is to determine the extent to which these services support the occupational participation of people with dementia, and how they impact their primary carers. Method: The mixed-methods appraisal tool (MMAT) was used to identify relevant studies in the period 2011–2016. Results: Nine databases were searched and yielded 16 articles with a variety of research designs for inclusion in the review. Conclusions: Findings indicate that adult day services use a range of approaches to support attendees and their carers. In spite of these efforts, there appears to be a lack of interest in utilizing these services while a person is in the early stages of dementia. This suggests that policies in aged care, such as aging-in-place, need to consider the pressure and stress they exert on carer’s quality of life. Another consideration is to better promote the benefits of participating in adult day services in the early stages of dementia for both the attendees and their carers, thereby delaying the tendency towards early institutionalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
Open AccessReview
Ageing with HIV
Healthcare 2018, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6010017 - 14 Feb 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The population of people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing older with an estimated 4 million over the age of 50 years, a figure which has doubled since the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and which is increasing globally. Despite effective ART, [...] Read more.
The population of people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing older with an estimated 4 million over the age of 50 years, a figure which has doubled since the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and which is increasing globally. Despite effective ART, PLWH still experience excess morbidity and mortality compared to the general population with increased prevalence of age-related, non-AIDS illnesses (NAI) such as cardiovascular disease, malignancies, cognitive impairment and reduced bone mineral density, which impact disability and everyday functioning. This review will discuss the challenges presented by comorbidities in ageing PLWH and discuss the aetiology and management of age-related illnesses in this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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Open AccessReview
Prescribing Physical Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Older Adults
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040085 - 06 Nov 2017
Cited by 21
Abstract
Osteoporosis is an age-related disease, characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone geometry and microarchitecture, leading to reduced bone strength. Physical activity (PA) has potential as a therapy for osteoporosis, yet different modalities of PA have varying influences on bone [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is an age-related disease, characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone geometry and microarchitecture, leading to reduced bone strength. Physical activity (PA) has potential as a therapy for osteoporosis, yet different modalities of PA have varying influences on bone health. This review explores current evidence for the benefits of PA, and targeted exercise regimes for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in older adults. In particular, the outcomes of interventions involving resistance training, low- and high-impact weight bearing activities, and whole-body vibration therapy are discussed. Finally, we present recommendations for future research that may maximise the potential of exercise in primary and secondary prevention of osteoporosis in the ageing population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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Open AccessReview
Reducing the Shared Burden of Chronic Conditions among Persons Aging with Disability and Older Adults in the United States through Bridging Aging and Disability
Healthcare 2017, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5030056 - 12 Sep 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Persons aging with long-term disabilities such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis and older adults share similar chronic conditions in mid and later life in the United States. The rising general interest and more prevalent federal requirements for use of evidence-based practices [...] Read more.
Persons aging with long-term disabilities such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis and older adults share similar chronic conditions in mid and later life in the United States. The rising general interest and more prevalent federal requirements for use of evidence-based practices (EBP) in health promotion and chronic condition interventions highlight the gap between demand and the availability of EBPs for persons aging with disability in particular. Addressing this gap will require focused efforts that will benefit substantially by bridging the fields of aging and disability/rehabilitation to develop new EBPs, translate existing EBPs across populations, and borrow best practices across fields where there are few current EBPs. Understanding distinctions between disability-related secondary conditions and age-related chronic conditions is a first step in identifying shared conditions that are important to address for both mid-life and older adults with disabilities. This review articulates these distinctions, describes shared conditions, and discusses the current lack of EBPs for both populations. It also provides recommendations for bridging activities in the United States by researchers, professionals, and consumer advocates. We argue that these can more efficiently move research and practice than if activities were undertaken separately in each field (aging and disability/rehabilitation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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Open AccessReview
Nature Versus Nurture: Does Proteostasis Imbalance Underlie the Genetic, Environmental, and Age-Related Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease?
Healthcare 2017, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5030046 - 22 Aug 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aging is a risk factor for a number of “age-related diseases”, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD affects more than a third of all people over the age of 85, and is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Symptoms include forgetfulness, memory loss, and [...] Read more.
Aging is a risk factor for a number of “age-related diseases”, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD affects more than a third of all people over the age of 85, and is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Symptoms include forgetfulness, memory loss, and cognitive decline, ultimately resulting in the need for full-time care. While there is no cure for AD, pharmacological approaches to alleviate symptoms and target underlying causes of the disease have been developed, albeit with limited success. This review presents the age-related, genetic, and environmental risk factors for AD and proposes a hypothesis for the mechanistic link between genetics and the environment. In short, much is known about the genetics of early-onset familial AD (EO-FAD) and the central role played by the Aβ peptide and protein misfolding, but late-onset AD (LOAD) is not thought to have direct genetic causes. Nonetheless, genetic risk factors such as isoforms of the protein ApoE have been identified. Additional findings suggest that air pollution caused by the combustion of fossil fuels may be an important environmental risk factor for AD. A hypothesis suggesting that poor air quality might act by disrupting protein folding homeostasis (proteostasis) is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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