Special Issue "Traffic Injuries and Prevention"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Forensic Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Masahito Hitosugi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Legal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
Interests: injury prevention; injury biomechanics; forensic medicine; analysis of motor vehicle collision

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. According to the World Health Organization, 1.35 million people die annually in road collisions worldwide. An overwhelming majority of traffic deaths and injuries involve vulnerable road users, such as pedestrians and bicyclists.

To lessen the fatalities and casualties, road crash data are analyzed throughout the world. Because some interventions based on analyses in one area might be effective for other regions, an epidemiological approach is indispensable. A subsequent global traffic safety network would improve road safety in both developed and developing countries.

Improvements in medical techniques and prehospital care have, of course, reduced the fatality of traffic collisions. Deep analyses of traffic injuries have helped clinicians to consider the mechanism of injury when attending to a patient and making an initial diagnosis. As the trends of traffic collisions may change in accordance with the development of traffic in society, further knowledge about traffic injuries may be required.

The recent development of vehicle safety systems has greatly contributed to decreases in fatality and injury severity. For passenger safety, most vehicles are equipped with three-point seatbelt systems and airbags. Furthermore, as predicting a collision before it happens helps to reduce the damage caused, pre-crash safety technologies have been developed. Pre-crash brake assist may decrease the impact speed, and pre-crash seatbelt retraction may reduce the severity of passenger injuries. However, both the effects and limitations of these systems must be confirmed to further develop safety systems.

In traffic collisions, because the kinematics of the person involved differs depending on the collision velocity, type of vehicle, and the person’s age and size, the analyses are varied. Crash tests using several types of dummy models and computer simulations with finite element models have been applied to the investigation of the kinematics of the person involved and the prediction of injuries. Further research may elucidate the thresholds of human injuries, which may provide basic knowledge for developing next-stage safety systems.

Various potential technological solutions for automated driving have been developed in recent years. The obtainment of new information regarding automated driving through this Special Issue is expected. The impact of advancements in mobility with the introduction of autonomous vehicles would be visible on highways connecting urban areas; however, this system would not be beneficial in rural areas, in which irregular roads and circumstances that may confound the sensing techniques of automated vehicles are prevalent. Furthermore, when overtaking is required, the driver must drive the vehicle manually. There are still many problems to be solved in the introduction of self-driving vehicles. Therefore, despite developments in automated vehicle technology and systems, human drivers must still be responsible for safe vehicle driving for the next several years.

As road traffic injury is now the leading cause of death for children and young adults aged 5–29 years worldwide, this Special Issue will focus on vulnerable road users, e.g., children, pregnant women, elderly people, pedestrians, and bicyclists. There has been some progress in the planning, design, and operation of road environments. The enforcement of the law and safety standards have also contributed to safety promotion. Education on a wide variety of these issues is indispensable for road users.

This Special Issue aims to gather manuscripts that will contribute to the development of traffic injury research and injury prevention in the following fields:

  • Epidemiology;
  • Biomechanics;
  • Traumatology;
  • Psychology;
  • Forensic Medicine and Legal Science;
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Health Science.

Prof. Masahito Hitosugi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fatality, casualty
  • Safety system (seatbelt, airbag)
  • Pedestrian, bicyclist, motorcyclist
  • Vehicle driver, passenger
  • Frontal collision, side collision, rear-end collision
  • Injuries (head, neck, face, chest, abdomen, extremities)
  • Pre-crash safety
  • Automated driving
  • Fetus, child, adolescent, elderly person
  • Simulation, FE model
  • Crash test
  • Law, safety standards
  • Environment
  • Education

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Pregnant Women’s Injuries and Fetal Loss Due to Motor Vehicle Collisions: A National Crash Data-Based Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030273 - 03 Mar 2021
Abstract
To examine the factors that influence substantial injuries for pregnant women and negative fetal outcomes in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), a retrospective analysis using the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System was performed in Shiga University of Medical Science. We analyzed data from [...] Read more.
To examine the factors that influence substantial injuries for pregnant women and negative fetal outcomes in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), a retrospective analysis using the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System was performed in Shiga University of Medical Science. We analyzed data from 736 pregnant women who, between 2001 and 2015, had injuries that were an abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score of one or more. The mean age was 25.9 ± 6.4 years and the mean gestational age was 26.2 ± 8.2 weeks. Additionally, 568 pregnant women had mild injuries and 168 had moderate to severe injuries. Logistic regression analysis revealed that seatbelt use (odds ratio (OR), 0.30), airbag deployment (OR, 2.00), and changes in velocity (21–40 km/h: OR, 3.03; 41–60 km/h: OR, 13.47; ≥61 km/h: OR, 44.56) were identified as independent predictors of having a moderate to severe injury. The positive and negative outcome groups included 231 and 12 pregnant women, respectively. Injury severity in pregnant women was identified as an independent predictor of a negative outcome (OR, 2.79). Avoiding moderate to severe maternal injuries is a high priority for saving the fetus, and education on appropriate seatbelt use and limiting vehicle speed for pregnant women is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Injuries and Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanisms of Negative Fetal Outcome in Frontal Vehicle Collisions Involving Unbelted Pregnant Drivers
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010025 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 339
Abstract
To determine the cause of negative fetal outcomes and the causative mechanism in a frontal collision, we analyzed the kinematics and mechanisms of injuries using an unbelted pregnant dummy, the Maternal Anthropometric Measurement Apparatus dummy, version 2B. Sled tests were performed to recreate [...] Read more.
To determine the cause of negative fetal outcomes and the causative mechanism in a frontal collision, we analyzed the kinematics and mechanisms of injuries using an unbelted pregnant dummy, the Maternal Anthropometric Measurement Apparatus dummy, version 2B. Sled tests were performed to recreate frontal impact situations with impact speeds of 13, 26, and 40 km/h. Overall kinematics of the dummy were examined through high-speed video imaging. Quantitative dummy responses—such as time courses of the abdominal pressure, chest deflection, neck injury criteria (Nij), and displacement of the pelvis during impact—were also measured. The maximum abdominal pressure of 103.3 kPa was obtained at an impact speed of 13 km/h. The maximum chest deflection of 38.5 mm and Nij of 0.36 were obtained at an impact speed of 26 km/h. The highest maximum chest deflection of >40.9 mm, Nij of 0.61, and forward pelvis displacement of 478 mm were obtained at an impact speed of 40 km/h. Although the kinematics and mechanism of injuries of the dummy were different for different collision speeds, we found that unbelted pregnant drivers suffer severe or fatal injuries to the fetus even in low-speed collisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Injuries and Prevention)
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