Special Issue "Obesity—a Hot Topic in Modern Medicine—a Multidisciplinary Challenge"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 60136

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Edyta Mądry
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznan, Poland
Interests: obesity; body composition; fat tissue compartments; physical activities; resistance trening; endurance trening; metabolic health
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The obesity epidemic, apart from the pandemic of SARS-Cov2, remains today a major challenge for modern medicine. It concerns all generations, races, and regions of the Earth. Even in those countries where the problem of malnutrition is still alive, the number of obese people drastically raises similarly to the developed countries.

Obese people often suffer from comorbidities that can be both the result and the cause of excessive caloric intake.

Therefore, the aim of this special issue is a multidisciplinary approach to obesity.

We would like to bring together researchers and clinicians involved in the care of obese people and their many comorbidities.

This Special Issue of the Healthcare Journal will cover the following general aspects of obesity:

  • Pathophysiology of obesity ( endocrine mechanisms, gut microbiota changes, stress, and emotion)
  • Obesity- genetic and epigenetic factors
  • Metabolomic characteristic of healthy and unhealthy obese individuals
  • Obesity Management ( pharmacological, dietary, behavioral, lifestyle interventions)
  • Chronic diseases linked to obesity ( atherosclerosis, dyslipidemias, cardiovascular diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, osteoarticular problems)

Obesity in children and during pregnancy ( nutritional programming)

Dr. Edyta Mądry
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • pathomechanisms
  • endothelium
  • gut microbiota
  • bone health
  • inflammation
  • appetite regulation
  • stress
  • management
  • immunity
  • chronic diseases
  • pregnancy
  • nutritional programming
  • metabolomics
  • proteomics
  • genetic factors
  • epigenetics
  • visceral adipose tissue
  • healthy obesity
  • dyslipidemia
  • atherosclerosis
  • non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • dietary interventions behavioural interventions
  • lifestyle interventions

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
The Effect of Endurance and Endurance-Strength Training on Bone Health and Body Composition in Centrally Obese Women—A Randomised Pilot Trial
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050821 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 905
Abstract
There is no consensus exercise programme to reduce body weight and improve body composition simultaneously preventing bone loss or stimulating osteogenesis. This pilot study compared the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on body composition and bone metabolism in centrally obese women. Recruited [...] Read more.
There is no consensus exercise programme to reduce body weight and improve body composition simultaneously preventing bone loss or stimulating osteogenesis. This pilot study compared the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on body composition and bone metabolism in centrally obese women. Recruited subjects were randomly assigned to three-month endurance (n = 22) or endurance-strength training (n = 22). Body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were assessed before and after the intervention and markers of bone formation and resorption were measured. Both training significantly decreased fat mass; however, endurance-strength training had a more favourable effect on lean mass for the gynoid area (p = 0.0211) and legs (p = 0.0381). Endurance training significantly decreased total body BMC and BMD (p = 0.0440 and p = 0.0300), whereas endurance-strength training only reduced BMD (p = 0.0063). Changes in densitometric parameters did not differ between the groups but endurance training increased osteocalcin levels (p = 0.04845), while endurance-strength training increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b concentrations (p = 0.00145). In conclusion, both training programmes were effective in the reduction of fat mass simultaneously negatively affecting bone health. However, endurance-strength training seemed to be more effective in increasing lean mass. The study protocol was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database under the number NCT03444207, date of registration: 23 February 2018 (retrospective registration). Full article
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Article
Regional Adolescent Obesity and Overweight Status in Korea from 2018–2019: Comparison between Two Data Sources
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121751 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Difference in the regional adolescent obesity level may cause a notable health inequality between regions since it significantly affects adulthood health status. This study examined 2018 and 2019 regional obesity and overweight status of adolescents aged 12 to 18 by comparing two cross [...] Read more.
Difference in the regional adolescent obesity level may cause a notable health inequality between regions since it significantly affects adulthood health status. This study examined 2018 and 2019 regional obesity and overweight status of adolescents aged 12 to 18 by comparing two cross sectional population-based data sources, the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) and the National Student Health Examination (NSHE). Prevalence was estimated by calculating weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals. Correlations in the relative rankings of each municipality were determined by computing Spearman correlation coefficients (rs), and prevalence discrepancies between the data sources were visualized by simple correlation graphs. The geographical distributions of adolescent obesity and overweight status showed no perfect concordances between the data sources regardless of sexes and survey years. For adolescent obesity status, there were significant difference between the least and the most obese regions and rs levels were fair to good with p-values less than 0.05, but the correlation graphs indicated body mass index (BMI) underreporting in the KYRBS. For adolescent overweight status, no significant similarities were defined between the data. These results can be used as a basis for the establishment of related policies. Full article
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Article
Novel Adiposity and Biochemical–Anthropometric Indices to Identify Cardiometabolic Risk and Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican Adults
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111561 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Although several indices used in clinical practice identify cardiometabolic risk (CR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), it is imperative to develop indices for specific populations. Therefore, we proposed and validated sex-specific indices to identify CR associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation or MetS [...] Read more.
Although several indices used in clinical practice identify cardiometabolic risk (CR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), it is imperative to develop indices for specific populations. Therefore, we proposed and validated sex-specific indices to identify CR associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation or MetS in Mexican adults. Additionally, a cut-off value for the visceral fat area (VFA) to identify CR was proposed. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and body composition variables were evaluated in 904 subjects (25–45 years old) (84.4% men). Multiple and logistic regressions were used to model the indices and ROC curve analysis to determine predictive performance. An additional cohort (n = 186) was used for indices validation, and Cohen’s kappa coefficient was employed for agreement analysis. The proposed sex-specific indices, called Mexican adiposity indices (MAIs) and biochemical–anthropometric indices (BAIs), were good predictors for CR and MetS. The kappa coefficients showed a moderate agreement level. The VFA cut-off value chosen to identify CR was 100.3 cm2 because it had the best combination of sensitivity (66.8%) and specificity (64.4%). MAIs and BAIs could be clinical tools to identify either CR associated to VAT accumulation or MetS, respectively. A VFA cut-off value of 100.3 cm2 could identify CR in Mexican men. Full article
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Article
Effects of a Randomized Home-Based Quality of Movement Protocol on Function, Posture and Strength in Outpatients with Obesity
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111451 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two different home-based training interventions on functional parameters and body composition in obese patients. Sixty-four obese patients were recruited at the IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano and randomly assigned into a movement quality [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two different home-based training interventions on functional parameters and body composition in obese patients. Sixty-four obese patients were recruited at the IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano and randomly assigned into a movement quality group (MQ) and a conventional training group (CT). In the MQ, the training protocol combined various stimuli based on whole-body movement patterns, mobility, motor control and diaphragmatic breathing. The CT included traditional bodyweight resistance-training exercises. All patients were tested for movement efficiency (Functional Movement Screen, FMS), postural control (Modified Balance Error Scoring System, M-BESS), breathing pattern (Total Faulty Breathing Scale, TFBS), muscular strength (Handgrip Strength Test, HST and Five Repetition Sit to Stand, FRSTS) and body composition (Waist Circumference, WC, Body Mass Index, BMI, Body fat mass percentage, Fat Mass) before and after a 6-week period of training. Significant interactions and main effects of time (p < 0.0001) were found in MQ compared to CT in the FMS, M-BESS and TFBS parameters, while muscular strength (HST, FRSTS) and body composition parameters improved similarly in both groups with a main effect of time (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that a 6-week movement quality training is effective in ameliorating postural control and movement efficiency with similar improvements in muscular strength and body composition compared with a mere traditional home-based training. Fitness coaches and practitioners might consider the MQ intervention as a valuable alternative to conventional training when treating obesity. Full article
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Article
Impact of Bariatric Surgery on the Healthy Eating Index, Binge Eating Behavior and Food Craving in a Middle Eastern Population: A Lebanese Experience
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111416 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4391
Abstract
Even though bariatric surgeries (BS) are on the rise in Lebanon and the Middle East, the changes in diet quality, binge eating, and food cravings in this region are poorly studied peri-operatively. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess binge eating behaviors, food craving [...] Read more.
Even though bariatric surgeries (BS) are on the rise in Lebanon and the Middle East, the changes in diet quality, binge eating, and food cravings in this region are poorly studied peri-operatively. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess binge eating behaviors, food craving and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) in Lebanese patients who underwent BS in a duration that exceeds 6 months. Evaluation included a dietary assessment of usual diet preoperatively and postoperatively. It included the collection of information on sociodemographic, anthropometric and surgical variables, as well as the administration of dietary recalls and questionnaires to calculate the HEI score, the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Food Craving Inventory (FCI). Participants (n = 60) were mostly females (85%) who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy (90%), with a mean duration since BS of 2.4 ± 1.8 years. Despite improvements in their HEI scores, 97% of the participants remained in the worst category. The frequency of participants in the severe BES category dropped markedly postoperatively from 78% to 5% (p < 0.01). Food craving followed a similar trend, with scores dropping from 50 ± 36 pre-surgery to 30 ± 25 post surgery (p < 0.01). Weight regain, prevalent among 40% of participants, was predicted by BES. Despite the improvement in BES and FCI, HEI improvement remained shy. Future interventions should validate findings in other countries and assess means for optimizing HEI scores among BS patients in the Middle East region. Full article
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Article
Association between Subjective Body Image, Body Mass Index and Psychological Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101299 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
Background: Conflicting findings were reported about the associations between subjective body image (SBI), body mass index (BMI) and psychological symptoms in China and other countries in the world. In this study, we aim to explore the associations between SBI, BMI, and psychological symptoms [...] Read more.
Background: Conflicting findings were reported about the associations between subjective body image (SBI), body mass index (BMI) and psychological symptoms in China and other countries in the world. In this study, we aim to explore the associations between SBI, BMI, and psychological symptoms based on a large-scale, national wide survey among Chinese adolescents. Methods: The 2014–2015 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) database, with 8134 middle school students (4137 boys and 3997 girls), was analyzed to explore the association between SBI, BMI and psychological symptoms. SBI was assessed by one question about the perception of own body shape with options “very thin”, “slightly thin”, “average”, “weak heavy”, and “very heavy”. BMI was calculated by the self-reported body weight and height. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by 10 items involving both aspects of depression and anxiety. Results: The results indicated that both boys and girls who perceived weak or very heavy weight were positively associated with psychological symptoms (p < 0.05). For boys, perceiving very thin body image was also in higher risk of psychological symptoms (p < 0.05), after controlling social-demographic variables and BMI. Comparing with normal weight boys or girls, obese boys (β = −2.22, 95% CI −3.37~−1.07) and overweight girls (β = −1.03, 95% CI −2.01~−0.06) were in lower levels of psychological symptoms after controlling for SBI. Other factors associated with psychological symptoms were family economic status, academic performance, and self-rated health status. Conclusions: A deviation from an “average” SBI was positively associated with psychological symptoms, which should be scanned when evaluating the Chinese adolescents’ mental health. These findings provide epidemiological evidence for the association between SBI and psychological symptoms in non-western social contexts. Full article
Article
Personalized Diet in Obesity: A Quasi-Experimental Study on Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass Changes
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091101 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Considering that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Southeast of Spain is high, the aim of this work was to analyze the relation between the adherence to a personalized diet and the effectiveness of changes in the body composition in overweight and [...] Read more.
Considering that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Southeast of Spain is high, the aim of this work was to analyze the relation between the adherence to a personalized diet and the effectiveness of changes in the body composition in overweight and obese adults in this region. This quasi-experimental study presents the following selection criteria: attendance at the consultation between 2006 and 2012, subjects ≥ 19 years of age with overweight or obesity. In total, 591 overweight or obese individuals were involved in this study, attending 4091 clinic consultations in total. Most of the sample consisted of subjects who attended >3 consultations (>1.5 months), and were females aged 19–64 years who obtained clinically significant changes in fat mass (FM, ≥5%) and recommended changes in fat-free mass (FFM, ≥0%). Based on the results obtained and the experience gained from this research, the following recommendations are established: (i) record fat mass and fat-free mass index as a complement to body mass index; (ii) use FM and FFM to evaluate effectiveness of interventions with the aim of obtaining body composition changes; (iii) use personalized diet to achieve significant changes in FM and avoid non-recommended changes in FFM. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Endurance and Endurance-Strength Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in Abdominally Obese Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Trial
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081074 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
The optimal type of exercise that simultaneously decreases body weight and preserves bone health in people with obesity is unknown. This parallel randomized trial aimed to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in [...] Read more.
The optimal type of exercise that simultaneously decreases body weight and preserves bone health in people with obesity is unknown. This parallel randomized trial aimed to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in abdominally obese postmenopausal women. A total of 101 women were recruited and randomly assigned to endurance or endurance-strength training groups. Participants trained for 60 min per day, three times per week for 12 weeks. The endurance exercises were performed at an intensity of 50–75% of the maximum heart rate, whereas the strength exercises were at 50–60% of the one-repetition maximum. Pre- and post-intervention BMD and BMC of the total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck and physical capacity were measured. There were no differences among the densitometric parameters in the endurance group, but a significant increase in whole-body BMD in the endurance-strength group was found. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the groups in the changes in the lumbar spine BMC. Furthermore, both training programs significantly improved physical capacity with no differences between groups. Endurance training was more effective in maintaining BMC at the lumbar spine. However, both groups did not differ in effect on BMD. Further studies with a long-term follow-up should be considered to confirm these findings. The study was registered with the German Clinical Trials Register within the number DRKS00019832, and the date of registration was 26 February 2020 (retrospective registration). Full article
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Article
Effect of Physical Activity on Adolescent Obesity Status over Time: A Latent Growth Modeling Approach
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081018 - 07 Aug 2021
Viewed by 996
Abstract
This study aims to examine the longitudinal influence of physical activity (PA) on obesity among normal-weight adolescents in South Korea. A total of 1347 data samples from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey from 2011 to 2014 were used. Latent growth modeling [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the longitudinal influence of physical activity (PA) on obesity among normal-weight adolescents in South Korea. A total of 1347 data samples from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey from 2011 to 2014 were used. Latent growth modeling was applied. PA was assessed by the hours spent on PA during physical education (PE) classes in the last week. Body mass index for age was considered to determine obesity status. PA during PE positively predicted the intercept of obesity status, but it was not associated with the slope of obesity status. Although a longitudinal effect of PA was not identified, PA could influence the initial status of obesity. Because obesity in early years could steadily influence future obesity status, early detection and intervention for adolescent obesity are necessary. Moreover, more studies examining the effect of PA during PE on obesity status among adolescents should be conducted to identify the association between PA during PE and obesity status over time. Full article
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Article
Factors Associated with Medication Non-Adherence in Patients with Dyslipidemia
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070813 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Lack of medication adherence among patients with dyslipidemia negatively affects health-related outcomes. This study aims to evaluate medication adherence; we also aim to investigate the predictors of non-adherence among patients with dyslipidemia in Jordan. Medication adherence was evaluated in a total of 228 [...] Read more.
Lack of medication adherence among patients with dyslipidemia negatively affects health-related outcomes. This study aims to evaluate medication adherence; we also aim to investigate the predictors of non-adherence among patients with dyslipidemia in Jordan. Medication adherence was evaluated in a total of 228 dyslipidemia patients. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire was also used to assess patients’ beliefs about medications. The majority of the current study participants (73.2%) reported non-adherence to the prescribed medications. There were significant negative associations between medication adherence and concerns of prescription drug use (B = −0.41, p-value < 0.01), duration of dyslipidemia (B = −0.22, p-value < 0.01), and the number of medications (B = −0.64, p-value < 0.01). Positive associations were found between medication adherence and the necessity of prescription drug use (B = 0.43, p-value < 0.01), taking statin and fibrate (B = 2.04, p-value < 0.01), and moderate-intensity statin (B = 2.34, p-value < 0.01). As for patients’ beliefs about medications, the item “My medicine to lower my cholesterol disrupted my life” had the highest mean (3.50 ± 0.99). This study revealed a low adherence rate to medication among patients with dyslipidemia. It also demonstrates modifiable factors such as beliefs regarding perceived risk, medication harms, treatment duration, and the number of medications associated with poor adherence in patients with dyslipidemia. Full article
Article
Obesity in Saudi Arabia in 2020: Prevalence, Distribution, and Its Current Association with Various Health Conditions
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030311 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 36112
Abstract
The global prevalence of obesity is increasing. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases and health conditions. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of obesity in Saudi Arabia and described the current national-level status of the association between obesity and various [...] Read more.
The global prevalence of obesity is increasing. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases and health conditions. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of obesity in Saudi Arabia and described the current national-level status of the association between obesity and various health conditions. This study is a nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted over phone-interviews in June 2020. In this study, a proportional quota-sampling technique was used to obtain equal distributions of participants, stratified by age and gender, across the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Weight and height were self-reported, and the obesity was determined as BMI ≥ 30. Logistic regression adjusted for age and gender was used for exploring current associations between obesity and health conditions. Of the 6239 participants contacted, 4709 participants responded and completed the interview with a response rate of 75.48%. Of them, 50.1% were female, the mean age was 36.4 ± 13.5 (Range: 18–90), and the median age was 36. The national weighted prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was 24.7%, and the prevalence in the sample (unweighted) was 21.7%. Obesity was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes [Odd ratio, (OR) = 1.52], hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.69), hypertension (OR = 1.61), lung diseases (OR = 1.69), rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.57), sleep apnea (OR = 1.82), colon diseases (OR = 1.31), and thyroid disorders (OR = 1.8). This study provides an update on the recent prevalence of obesity in Saudi Arabia. It also shows the variation in prevalence rates between different regions, which might be explored further. Although obesity shows a decreasing trend, almost one-quarter of this study sample were obese. Obesity is currently associated with many health conditions that can affect the individuals’ quality of life, impose stress on the healthcare system and impose an economic burden on the country. This evidence highlights the need for action to focus more on obesity in Saudi Arabia. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Comparison of the Effect of Endurance, Strength, and Endurance-Strength Training on Inflammatory Markers and Adipokines Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Trials
Healthcare 2022, 10(6), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061098 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effects of endurance, strength, and combined training on inflammatory markers and adipokine concentrations in overweight and obese adults. We performed a literature search of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases [...] Read more.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effects of endurance, strength, and combined training on inflammatory markers and adipokine concentrations in overweight and obese adults. We performed a literature search of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and identified 24 randomised control trials published prior to June 2021. Our findings indicate that endurance training was significantly more beneficial than strength training in reducing C-reactive protein (CRP) (standard mean difference (SMD): −1.317, 95% confidence intervals (CI): −2.565, −0.070, p = 0.0385), interleukin 6 (IL-6) (SMD: −0.363, 95% CI: −0.648, −0.078, p = 0.0126), and visfatin (SMD: −0.618, 95% CI: −1.015, −0.222, p = 0.0023) concentrations. Moreover, combined training was more beneficial than strength training alone in lowering tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels (SMD: 0.890, 95% CI: −0.301, 1.478, p = 0.0030). There were no differences between the effects of different types of training programmes on adiponectin and leptin concentrations. In conclusion, compared with strength training, endurance training is more effective in lowering CRP, IL-6, and visfatin concentrations, while combined training is more beneficial in reducing TNF-α levels in overweight and obese adults. Further studies are needed to determine which type of training has a better effect on adiponectin and leptin concentrations in this population. Full article
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Review
Self-Reported Eating Speed Is Associated with Indicators of Obesity in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111559 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Eating speed (ES) as a dietary behaviour has become a widely discussed factor for weight management and obesity. This study analysed the relationship between ES and anthropometric indicators of obesity, including BMI and waist circumference (WC) in adults. A search conducted of PubMed, [...] Read more.
Eating speed (ES) as a dietary behaviour has become a widely discussed factor for weight management and obesity. This study analysed the relationship between ES and anthropometric indicators of obesity, including BMI and waist circumference (WC) in adults. A search conducted of PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Scopus found six longitudinal studies and fifteen cross-sectional studies published for further analysis. A quality assessment was performed with the MINORS checklist. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis and almost all reviewed studies showed that ES was associated with BMI, and non-fast eaters had significantly lower BMI than fast eaters. Therefore, it was assumed that slowing down the ES may be an effective strategy for weight management and lowering obesity risk. There was also an association between WC and ES. Assessment of eating speed can be included in nutrition surveys to analyse obesity risk. More broadly, research is also needed to establish a validated and standardised methodology to determine eating speed. Further research needs to examine the links between eating speed, obesity, ethnicity, sex, food culture and chronic diseases. Full article
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Review
Intermittent Energy Restriction, Weight Loss and Cardiometabolic Risk: A Critical Appraisal of Evidence in Humans
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050495 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3388
Abstract
Dietary patterns with intermittent energy restriction (IER) have been proposed as an attractive alternative to continuous energy restriction (CER) for the management of obesity and its associated comorbidities. The most widely studied regimens of IER comprise energy restriction on two days per week [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns with intermittent energy restriction (IER) have been proposed as an attractive alternative to continuous energy restriction (CER) for the management of obesity and its associated comorbidities. The most widely studied regimens of IER comprise energy restriction on two days per week (5:2), alternate-day energy restriction by 60–70% (ADF), and timely restriction of energy intake during a specific time window within the day (TRF; time-restricted feeding). Although there is some evidence to suggest that IER can exert beneficial effects on human cardiometabolic health, yet is apparently not superior compared to CER, there are still some critical issues/questions that warrant further investigation: (i) high-quality robust scientific evidence regarding the long-term effects of IER (safety, efficacy, compliance) is limited since the vast majority of intervention studies had a duration of less than 6 months; (ii) whether the positive effects of IER are independent of or actually mediated by weight loss remains elusive; (iii) it remains unknown whether IER protocols are a safe recommendation for the general population; (iv) data concerning the impact of IER on ectopic fat stores, fat-free mass, insulin resistance and metabolic flexibility are inconclusive; (v) the cost-effectiveness of IER dietary regimens has not been adequately addressed; (vi) direct head-to-head studies comparing different IER patterns with variable macronutrient composition in terms of safety and efficacy are scarce; and (vii) evidence is limited with regard to the efficacy of IER in specific populations, including males, the elderly and patients with morbid obesity and diabetes mellitus. Until more solid evidence is available, individualization and critical perspective are definitely warranted to determine which patients might benefit the most from an IER intervention, depending on their personality traits and most importantly comorbid health conditions. Full article
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