One World, One Health: Zoonotic Diseases, Parasitic Diseases and Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Factors and Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 4575

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Hygiene and Infection Control Unit, Università degli Studi di Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Interests: public health; health organization; health management; vaccination; epidemiology; preventive medicine; health education
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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Hygiene and Preventive Medicine Section, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Interests: epidemiology; public health; vaccines; vaccine hesitancy; health communication; community outrage; meningococcal disease; infectious diseases; environmental health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to a Special Issue entitled “One World, One Health: Zoonotic Diseases, Parasitic Diseases and Infectious Diseases” in the journal Healthcare, which is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed, open access journal on public health. More information about the journal can be found at https://www.mdpi.com/journal/healthcare

One Health identifies a systematic and integrated approach to health, based on the awareness that human, animal, and environmental health are inextricably interconnected, generating global health vulnerabilities, as demonstrated by the COVID-19 pandemic. One Health is an approach that needs now more than ever to be urgently put into practice through governance for the protection and promotion of health that can no longer be confined exclusively to that of humankind. 

Although the concept of One Health is not new and has been the subject of interdisciplinary and multisectoral discussions for years, in recent years, there has been growing interest in the implementation of this approach, reinforcing a vision of health as the result of a harmonious development of human beings, nature, and the environment. The One Health approach makes it possible to address the transversal issue of biodiversity and human health, as well as to effectively counteract antimicrobial resistance or the emergence of epidemics and pandemics originating from tampering and degradation of ecosystems with consequent transfer of pathogens from wildlife to domestic fauna, with subsequent transmission to humans. 

This Special Issue aims to publish evidence and observations in the field, also considering that the One Health approach does not focus only on zoonotic diseases or antimicrobial resistance but can address the entire spectrum from the prevention, improvement, and promotion of health to the detection, preparation, response, and overcoming of health crises. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Giovanna Deiana
Prof. Dr. Paolo Castiglia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • one health
  • infectious diseases
  • zoonotic diseases
  • parasitic diseases

Published Papers (4 papers)

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19 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Clostridioides difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients—A Retrospective Epidemiological Study
by Frederico Fonseca, Mario Forrester, Ana Margarida Advinha, Adriana Coutinho, Nuno Landeira and Maria Pereira
Healthcare 2024, 12(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12010076 - 29 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the main source of healthcare and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospital context and long-term care units, showing significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological context, describing the severity and outcomes of this event in patients [...] Read more.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the main source of healthcare and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospital context and long-term care units, showing significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological context, describing the severity and outcomes of this event in patients admitted to our hospital, thus confirming the changing global epidemiological trends in comparison with other cohorts. We conducted a single-center, observational, and retrospective study at the Hospital do Espírito Santo (HESE), Évora, in Portugal, analyzing the incidence of CDI in patients meeting eligibility criteria from January to December 2018. During this period, an annual incidence rate of 20.7 cases per 10,000 patients was documented. The studied population average age was 76.4 ± 12.9 years, 83.3% over 65. Most episodes were healthcare-acquired, all occurring in patients presenting multiple risk factors, with recent antibiotic consumption being the most common. Regarding severity, 23.3% of cases were classified as severe episodes. Recurrences affected 16.7% of participants, predominantly female patients over 80 years old, all of whom were healthcare-acquired. Mortality rate was disproportionately high among the older population. Our investigation documented an overall incidence rate of over 10.4-fold the number of cases identified in the year 2000 at the same hospital, more recently and drastically, in community-associated episodes. Full article
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11 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Monitoring of Toxocara spp. in Various Children’s Play Facilities in the Republic of Korea (2016–2021)
by Young-Hwan Oh, Hae-Jin Sohn, Mi-Yeon Choi, Min-Woo Hyun, Seok-Ho Hong, Ji-Su Lee, Ah-Reum Ryu, Jong-Hyun Kim and Ho-Joon Shin
Healthcare 2023, 11(21), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11212839 - 27 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Toxocara spp. is a zoonotic soil-transmitted parasite that infects canids and felids, which causes toxocariasis in humans, migrating to organ systems, including the lungs, the ocular system, and the central nervous system. Since Toxocara spp. is usually transmitted through soil, children tend to [...] Read more.
Toxocara spp. is a zoonotic soil-transmitted parasite that infects canids and felids, which causes toxocariasis in humans, migrating to organ systems, including the lungs, the ocular system, and the central nervous system. Since Toxocara spp. is usually transmitted through soil, children tend to be more susceptible to infection. In order to monitor contamination with Toxocara spp. in children’s play facilities in the Republic of Korea, we investigated 11,429 samples of soil from daycare centers, kindergartens, elementary schools, and parks across the country from January 2016 to December 2021. Since the Environmental Health Act in the Republic of Korea was enacted in March 2008, there have been sporadic reports of contamination by Toxocara spp. in children’s activity zones. In this study, soil from children’s play facilities in regions across the Republic of Korea was monitored according to the Korean standardized procedure to use it as basic data for preventive management and public health promotion. The national average positive rate was 0.16% (18/11,429), and Seoul showed a higher rate of 0.63% (2/318) than any other regions while Incheon, Daegu, Ulsan, Kangwon-do, Jeollabuk-do, and Jeollanam-do were negative (p < 0.05). The positive rates were as follows: 0.37% (4/1089) in daycare centers, 0.13% (3/2365) in kindergartens, 0.2% (7/4193) in elementary schools, 0.09% (1/1143) in apartments, and 0.14% (3/2198) in parks. In addition, it was confirmed that 0.2% (1/498) of elementary schools and 1.17% (2/171) of parks were re-contaminated among play facilities managed with the establishment of a regular inspection cycle. Consequently, there is an essential need for continuous monitoring of Toxocara spp. contamination and regular education for preschool and school children in order to prevent soil-borne parasite infections. Full article
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8 pages, 268 KiB  
Case Report
Infection Prevention Control Strategies of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae
by Narcisa Muresu, Giovanna Deiana, Marco Dettori, Alessandra Palmieri, Maria Dolores Masia, Andrea Cossu, Cristina D’Avino, Illari Sechi, Arcadia Del Rio, Andrea Piana and Paolo Castiglia
Healthcare 2023, 11(18), 2592; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11182592 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 928
Abstract
The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Among these, Carbapenemase-producing New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) poses a significant clinical threat, and appropriate measures must be taken to prevent or limit its penetration into still-free territories. The present [...] Read more.
The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Among these, Carbapenemase-producing New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) poses a significant clinical threat, and appropriate measures must be taken to prevent or limit its penetration into still-free territories. The present report describes two independent cases of patients from Ukraine colonized by NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and admitted to two separate wards of an acute university hospital in a territory not yet affected by Carbapenemase producers of this class. Moreover, this report illustrates the infection prevention control (IPC) strategies promptly implemented by the IPC operational team to verify the possible spread of the microorganism in the ward and avoid any possible further contamination. The identification of genes coding for Carbapenemases, performed using real-time PCR, revealed no other cases within the wards involved. These cases emphasize the importance of early case recognition of multidrug-resistant bacteria, the necessity of effective inter-hospital communication, the need for effective antimicrobial stewardship protocol, and the importance of adequate IPC policies. Additionally, we highlight the need to improve screening procedures in the case of patients from countries with a high prevalence of MDRO, as essential measures to prevent potential nosocomial outbreaks and/or endemization. Full article
11 pages, 1577 KiB  
Case Report
Diagnosis and Management of a Triple Infection with Leptospira spp., Hepatitis A Virus, and Epstein–Barr Virus: A Rare Occurrence with High Hepatotoxic Effect
by Norberth-Istvan Varga, Diana-Maria Mateescu, Rodica Anamaria Negrean, Florin George Horhat, Iulia-Cristina Bagiu, Shiva Charana Kodimala, Satya Sai Sri Bandi, Razvan Mihai Horhat, Delia Ioana Horhat, Ion Cristian Mot and Bogdan Miutescu
Healthcare 2023, 11(4), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11040597 - 17 Feb 2023
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Abstract
The etiology of acute hepatic cytolysis is complex, and a thorough laboratory investigation is needed to find the causative agent and guide the clinician toward a specific treatment. Viral hepatitis A is a well-known cause of acute hepatitis, but other viruses and bacteria [...] Read more.
The etiology of acute hepatic cytolysis is complex, and a thorough laboratory investigation is needed to find the causative agent and guide the clinician toward a specific treatment. Viral hepatitis A is a well-known cause of acute hepatitis, but other viruses and bacteria can lead to or contribute to liver damage. We report the case of a young male patient with triple infection with hepatitis A virus, Epstein–Barr virus, and Leptospira spp. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an HAV, EBV, and Leptospira triple infection, and it aims to bring awareness about the possibility of double or triple infection with such pathogens that are highly cytotoxic for the liver tissue since all three pathogens are known to cause or contribute to the onset of acute hepatitis. It was deduced that the source of the infection likely happened during a two-week visit to the countryside in Romania, returning 16 days before the onset of symptoms. The evolution was favorable receiving treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1200 mg/8 h); glucose 5% 500 mL/day; 0.9% saline 500 mL/day; phenobarbital 1 tablet/day (200 mg); vitamins B1 and B6 and a complex of vitamin C and D3 and zinc. Lactulose syrup was also administered when the patient had no bowel movement for more than 24 h to prevent the onset of hepatic encephalopathy, and the patient was discharged after 20 days. This case suggests that a detailed anamnesis can raise suspicion about more uncommon causes of hepatic cytolysis and lead to a broader and more complex laboratory investigation, thus improving the quality of patient care. Yet, this is the only case previously reported to compare different management options and patient outcomes. Full article
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