Topical Collection "microRNA Omnibus"

A topical collection in Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This collection belongs to the section "Molecular Genetics and Genomics".

Editors

Prof. Dr. Clifford J. Steer
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Departments of Medicine and Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Interests: receptor-mediated delivery; liver regeneration; microRNA biogenesis; genome editing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Subree Subramanian
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Interests: colorectal cancer; sarcoma; osteosarcoma; immune response; exosomes; extra cellular vesicles; tumor immunology; microRNAs; gene regulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Tilman Sanchez-Elsner
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Sir Henry Wellcome Laboratories, Centre for Cancer Immunology, Faculty of Medicine University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
Interests: macrophages; microRNAs; epigenetics; transcription; cancer immunology; asthma; inflammatory bowel disease

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the early 90s, this ~ 22-nucleotide long RNA molecule has been placed in numerous biological contexts, where it conducts post-transcriptional, and perhaps even transcriptional regulation of gene expression and RNA silencing. miRNAs are present in mammals, plants and some viruses, and their function is based on the resemblance that they share with mRNAs, which allows them to bind those molecules and modulate their expression through different mechanisms such as elongation inhibition, cap initiation inhibition and mRNA decay.

The number of publications including miRNAs has grown exponentially since their first definition. Most notably, many findings have established that miRNAs are conserved through evolution, regulate the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cancer or other diseases and influence the epigenome. It is estimated that the human genome may encode over 2,000 miRNAs, and as more research is done on this topic, we keep finding novel circumstances where miRNAs play a significant role, such as in obesity, homeostasis, alcoholism and kidney disease, to name a few.

The increasing interest in miRNAs has encouraged us to prepare this topical collection, where we intend to publish new findings on miRNA research and create a collection that tracks the different progresses made in the field over the years. We invite interested authors to submit original research articles, reviews, concept papers and commentaries to this topical collection.

Prof. Clifford J. Steer
Dr. Subree Subramanian
Dr. Tilman Sanchez-Elsner
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Genes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microRNAs
  • gene expression
  • RNA silencing
  • post-transcriptional regulation
  • epigenetics

Published Papers (5 papers)

2020

Open AccessReview
The Role of MicroRNAs in Muscle Tissue Development in Beef Cattle
Genes 2020, 11(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030295 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
In this review, we highlight information on microRNA (miRNA) identification and functional characterization in the beef for muscle and carcass composition traits, with an emphasis on Qinchuan beef cattle, and discuss the current challenges and future directions for the use of miRNA as [...] Read more.
In this review, we highlight information on microRNA (miRNA) identification and functional characterization in the beef for muscle and carcass composition traits, with an emphasis on Qinchuan beef cattle, and discuss the current challenges and future directions for the use of miRNA as a biomarker in cattle for breeding programs to improve meat quality and carcass traits. MicroRNAs are endogenous and non-coding RNA that have the function of making post-transcriptional modifications during the process of preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Many studies claim that diverse miRNAs have an impact on adipogenesis. Furthermore, their target genes are associated with every phase of adipocyte differentiation. It has been confirmed that, during adipogenesis, several miRNAs are differentially expressed, including miR-204, miR-224, and miR-33. The development of mammalian skeletal muscle is sequentially controlled by somite commitment into progenitor cells, followed by their fusion and migration, the proliferation of myoblasts, and final modification into fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers. It has been reported that miRNA in the bovine MEG3-DIO3 locus has a regulatory function for myoblast differentiation. Likewise, miR-224 has been associated with controlling the differentiation of bovine adipocytes by targeting lipoprotein lipase. Through the posttranscriptional downregulation of KLF6, miR-148a-3p disrupts the proliferation of bovine myoblasts and stimulates apoptosis while the miR-23a~27a~24-2 cluster represses adipogenesis. Additional to influences on muscle and fat, bta-mir-182, bta-mir-183, and bta-mir-338 represent regulators of proteolysis in muscle, which influences meat tenderness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential Role of Selected miRNA in Uveal Melanoma Primary Tumors as Early Biomarkers of Disease Progression
Genes 2020, 11(3), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030271 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary tumor of the eye diagnosed in adults, associated with a high risk of metastasis and thereby, poor prognosis. Among known risk factors for the development of metastatic disease is the loss of BAP1 expression and [...] Read more.
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary tumor of the eye diagnosed in adults, associated with a high risk of metastasis and thereby, poor prognosis. Among known risk factors for the development of metastatic disease is the loss of BAP1 expression and chromosome 3 monosomy in the primary tumor. However, the expression levels of specific micro RNAs (miRNA) in tumor tissue may also serve as a valuable marker for determining the risk of metastatic disease in patients with primary uveal melanoma. In our study, we analyzed the miRNA expression data of cases selected from The Cancer Genome Atlas study on uveal melanoma, and determined a panel of 15 miRNAs differentially expressed between patients with primary and metastatic disease. Next, 6 miRNAs were validated on a group of 46 tumor samples from primary and metastatic patients. We have shown, that expression of hsa-miR-592, hsa-miR-346, and hsa-miR-1247 was significantly increased, while hsa-miR-506 and hsa-miR-513c were decreased in the tumors of patients with metastatic disease. Hsa-miR-196b expression did not differ between the two subgroups, however, we showed significant correlation with BAP1 expression. Moreover, hsa-miR-592 also showed correlation with monosomy 3 tumors. Gene ontology analysis revealed involvement of those miRNAs with cellular processes mediating the metastatic process. Our results showed that miRNAs play an important role in the deregulation of several oncogenic pathways in UM and can, thereby, promote metastatic spread to distant organs. Moreover, differentially expressed miRNAs may be used as an interesting biomarker for the assessment of metastatic risk in uveal melanoma patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis by Mitigating DPP-4 Level and Restoring Antifibrotic MicroRNAs
Genes 2020, 11(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11020211 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Two class of drugs 1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and 2) angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are well-known conventional drugs that can retard the progression of chronic nephropathies to end-stage renal disease. However, there is a lack of comparative studies on the effects [...] Read more.
Two class of drugs 1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and 2) angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are well-known conventional drugs that can retard the progression of chronic nephropathies to end-stage renal disease. However, there is a lack of comparative studies on the effects of ACEi versus ARB on renal fibrosis. Here, we observed that ACEi ameliorated renal fibrosis by mitigating DPP-4 and TGFβ signaling, whereas, ARB did not show. Moreover, the combination of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP), one of the substrates of ACE, with ACEi slightly enhanced the inhibitory effects of ACEi on DPP-4 and associated-TGFβ signaling. Further, the comprehensive miRome analysis in kidneys of ACEi+AcSDKP (combination) treatment revealed the emergence of miR-29s and miR-let-7s as key antifibrotic players. Treatment of cultured cells with ACEi alone or in combination with AcSDKP prevented the downregulated expression of miR-29s and miR-let-7s induced by TGFβ stimulation. Interestingly, ACEi also restored miR-29 and miR-let-7 family cross-talk in endothelial cells, an effect that is shared by AcSDKP suggesting that AcSDKP may be partially involved in the anti-mesenchymal action of ACEi. The results of the present study promise to advance our understanding of how ACEi regulates antifibrotic microRNAs crosstalk and DPP-4 associated-fibrogenic processes which is a critical event in the development of diabetic kidney disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PRL/microRNA-183/IRS1 Pathway Regulates Milk Fat Metabolism in Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells
Genes 2020, 11(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11020196 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
The aim of the study was to understand the internal relationship between milk quality and lipid metabolism in cow mammary glands. A serial of studies was conducted to assess the molecular mechanism of PRL/microRNA-183/IRS1 (Insulin receptor substrate) pathway, which regulates milk fat metabolism [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to understand the internal relationship between milk quality and lipid metabolism in cow mammary glands. A serial of studies was conducted to assess the molecular mechanism of PRL/microRNA-183/IRS1 (Insulin receptor substrate) pathway, which regulates milk fat metabolism in dairy cows. microRNA-183 (miR-183) was overexpressed and inhibited in cow mammary epithelial cells (CMECs), and its function was detected. The function of miR-183 in inhibiting milk fat metabolism was clarified by triglycerides (TAG), cholesterol and marker genes. There is a CpG island in the 5′-flanking promoter area of miR-183, which may inhibit the expression of miR-183 after methylation. Our results showed that prolactin (PRL) inhibited the expression of miR-183 by methylating the 5′ terminal CpG island of miR-183. The upstream regulation of PRL on miR-183 was demonstrated, and construction of the lipid metabolism regulation network of microRNA-183 and target gene IRS1 was performed. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PRL/miR-183/IRS1 pathway regulating milk fat metabolism in dairy cows, thus providing an experimental basis for the improvement of milk quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Circulatory miR-133b and miR-21 as Novel Biomarkers in Early Prediction and Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease
Genes 2020, 11(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11020164 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
While coronary artery disease (CAD) has become a major threat worldwide, the timely biomarker-based early diagnosis of CAD remains a major unmet clinical challenge. We aimed towards assessing the level of circulatory microRNAs as candidates of novel biomarkers in patients with CAD. A [...] Read more.
While coronary artery disease (CAD) has become a major threat worldwide, the timely biomarker-based early diagnosis of CAD remains a major unmet clinical challenge. We aimed towards assessing the level of circulatory microRNAs as candidates of novel biomarkers in patients with CAD. A total of 147 subjects were recruited which includes 78 subjects with angiographically proven CAD, 15 pre-atherosclerotic normal coronary artery (NCA) subjects and 54 healthy individuals. Quantitative real-time PCR assays were performed. MiR-133b was downregulated by 4.6 fold (p < 0.0001) whereas miR-21 was upregulated by ~2 fold (p < 0.0001) in plasma samples of CAD patients. Importantly, both the miRNAs showed association with disease severity as miR-133b was downregulated by 8.45 fold in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 3.38 fold in Stable angina (SA) and 2.08 fold in NCA. MiR-21 was upregulated by 2.46 fold in ACS, 1.90 fold in SA and 1.12 fold in NCA. Moreover, miR-133b could significantly differentiate subjects with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from Non-STEMI. Area under the curve (AUC) for miR-133b was 0.80 with >75.6% sensitivity and specificity, AUC for miR-21 was 0.79 with >69.4% sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that miR-133b and miR-21 could be possible candidates of novel biomarkers in early prediction of CAD. Full article
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