Novel Gels for Food Product Development

A special issue of Gels (ISSN 2310-2861). This special issue belongs to the section "Gel Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 23923

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Technology and Assessment, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland
Interests: functional food; gels; prebiotic; pro-healthy food ingredients
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Technology and Assessment, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland
Interests: food gels, meat; functional meat products; pork
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Interests: food science; rheology; self-assembled nanoparticles; polymer behavior
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Gels under the heading “Novel Gels for Food Product Development” is dedicated to providing a comprehensive collection of recent advances in the field of food gels. Gels, being a semi-solid colloidal or polymer network, have various applications in food. Their properties and the various possibilities and options for their usage depend on the interactions between their components, mechanisms or conditions of gelation. The properties of gels can also be modified by polymer concentration, temperature, pH or iconic strength. The fact that many factors influence the characteristics of gels in food systems makes it possible to adapt their properties to the type of food product. The recent researches on food gels focus on the application of natural plant-origin polysaccharides or proteins as polymer components, the investigation of the gel formation mechanism, their properties and stability. New analytical methods are also being developed to study gels in food systems. By the act of creating new food products, producers are attempting to fulfill consumers’ requests and requirements. Thanks to their ability to immobilize large amounts of water, their low calorie density, appealing taste, and society-enhancing properties, gels are good materials for novel, functional food production. They can be some of the most in-demand low calorie, pro-healthy, sustainable and zero-waste foods. Therefore, in the field of new product development, gels can play the following important roles: they are novel, biocompatible, biodegradable edible encapsulation materials, delivery agents for bioactive compounds, products that control digestive or retention properties and are even substrates for 3D printing. Edible gels also have a potential application in smart packaging, including biosensor-based packaging.

This Special Issue aims to present the research on the recent advances in novel food gels created by using novel ingredients and innovative methods of gel induction, as well as new methods for analyzing the properties of gels or products made with food gels.

Dr. Anna Florowska
Dr. Tomasz Florowski
Prof. Dr. Osvaldo H. Campanella
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food gels
  • hydrogels
  • emulgels
  • oleogels
  • aerogels
  • natural biopolymers
  • food gel product design
  • functional food
  • control digestive or retention
  • gel property analysis
  • textural stability and sensory properties
  • smart packaging

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 210 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial on the Special Issue “Novel Gels for Food Product Development”
by Anna Florowska, Tomasz Florowski and Osvaldo H. Campanella
Gels 2023, 9(7), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9070520 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Recently gels have gained significant attention in the food industry due to their unique properties and potential applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)

Research

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15 pages, 2585 KiB  
Article
The Rheological Properties and Texture of Agar Gels with Canola Oil—Effect of Mixing Rate and Addition of Lecithin
by Ewa Jakubczyk, Anna Kamińska-Dwórznicka and Anna Kot
Gels 2022, 8(11), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8110738 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effect of different mixing rates and the addition of lecithin on the rheological mechanical, and acoustic properties of agar gels with the addition of canola oil. The mixing rate of the agar–oil mixture was changed from 10,000 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effect of different mixing rates and the addition of lecithin on the rheological mechanical, and acoustic properties of agar gels with the addition of canola oil. The mixing rate of the agar–oil mixture was changed from 10,000 to 13,000 rpm. Additionally, agar gels with the addition of lecithin from 1 to 5% were prepared. The frequency sweep test was used (at 4 and 50 °C) within the linear viscoelastic region (LVR) in oscillatory measurement. The agar–oil mixture was cooled from 80 to 10 °C, enabling the obtainment of the gelling temperature. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and compression tests, as well as the acoustic emission method, were applied to analyse the texture of the gels. The syneresis and stability of gels during storage were also measure. The increase in mixing rate in the case of agar gel with canola oil causes an increase in the elastic component of materials as well hardness and gumminess. Also, samples prepared with the higher mixing rate have more uniform and stable structures, with small bubbles. The increase in the concentration of lecithin is ineffective due to the formation of gels with a weak matrix and low hardness, gumminess, and stability during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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13 pages, 1727 KiB  
Article
Chemical Modifications of Normal and Waxy Potato Starches Affect Functional Properties of Aerogels
by Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz, Jacek Lewandowicz, Zuzanna Małyszek, Hanna Maria Baranowska and Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski
Gels 2022, 8(11), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8110720 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Aerogels are of increasing interest because of their exceptionally large surface area, porous structure, and low weight. Despite the significant increase in interest in the subject of starch-based aerogels, the number of detailed studies is rather scarce, which is especially evident in the [...] Read more.
Aerogels are of increasing interest because of their exceptionally large surface area, porous structure, and low weight. Despite the significant increase in interest in the subject of starch-based aerogels, the number of detailed studies is rather scarce, which is especially evident in the case of chemically modified derivatives. Therefore, the study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties of aerogels from chemically modified potato starch preparations (E 1422 and E 1450) obtained both from normal and waxy starches. Aerogels were prepared through the retrogradation of starch pastes followed by the gradual replacement of water with ethyl alcohol. The obtained preparations were characterized in terms of their bulk density, oil-binding capacity, as well as the texture and rheological properties of the formed pastes. Moreover, their usefulness was evaluated in an emulsion system employing rheological and low-field NMR methods. The obtained aerogels were characterized by a lower bulk density of 0.18–0.59 g/cm3 and 5.4–6.6 times higher oil-binding capacity compared to native potato starch. The chemical modification of starch helped to further alter the functional properties of the obtained aerogels, making them more effective oil binders, emulsifiers, and stabilizers (increasing the stability from 55 to 90%), which was especially evident for E 1450 preparation. Amylose content improved the aerogel properties, as waxy preparations were characterized by worse functional properties with the only exception of improved thickening ability. The most beneficial properties for the preparation of emulsions were observed for the aerogel obtained based on E 1450 normal potato starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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15 pages, 882 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Composition of Tonka Bean (Dipteryx odorata) and Its Application as an Elder-Friendly Food with Gelling Agent
by Dah-Sol Kim and Fumiko Iida
Gels 2022, 8(11), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8110704 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional characteristics of Tonka beans according to the cooking method and to prove the feasibility of application as an elder-friendly food. (2) Methods: After analyzing the nutritive components, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional characteristics of Tonka beans according to the cooking method and to prove the feasibility of application as an elder-friendly food. (2) Methods: After analyzing the nutritive components, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic activity of raw, boiled, and roasted Tonka beans, custards, to which roasted Tonka beans were added, were prepared using a gelling agent to meet the KS viscosity standards (≤1500 mPa.s). (3) Results: The cooking methods decreased the nutritive factors in Tonka beans. However, while boiling caused significant losses, roasting led to minor losses. However, because the elderly should avoid eating uncooked foods for safety reasons, semi-solid elder-friendly food was manufactured with roasted Tonka beans, which caused minor losses compared to boiling. The concentration of each gelling agent satisfying the KS viscosity was less than 0.745% of locust bean gum, 0.734% of κ-carrageenan, and 1.094% of agar. (4) Conclusions: Roasted Tonka beans are suitable for use as an elder-friendly food for the health and safety of the elderly, and it will be possible to promote balanced food intake through the use of gelling agents for the elderly who have difficulty swallowing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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10 pages, 814 KiB  
Article
Influence of Casein Hydrolysates and Yeast on the Rheological Properties of Wheat Dough
by Ricardo Troncoso Recio, Nelson Pérez Guerra, Ana Torrado Agrasar and Clara Asunción Tovar Rodríguez
Gels 2022, 8(11), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8110689 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
The influence of casein hydrolysates (CHs) and yeast on the viscoelasticity of wheat dough at 25 °C were analysed. Three wheat doughs were studied: the unyeasted dough (UYD), the unyeasted dough with CHs (UYD-C) and the yeasted dough (YD). The characteristic parameters in [...] Read more.
The influence of casein hydrolysates (CHs) and yeast on the viscoelasticity of wheat dough at 25 °C were analysed. Three wheat doughs were studied: the unyeasted dough (UYD), the unyeasted dough with CHs (UYD-C) and the yeasted dough (YD). The characteristic parameters in the linear viscoelastic range (LVER) were analysed by stress sweep at 6.3 rad/s: UYD-C dough exhibited higher values of stress (σmax) and strain (γmax) amplitudes, and softer gel network (lower complex modulus, G*) comparing with UYD dough. The oscillatory data suggest that CHs would work as (energy and time) stabilising-agents based on the greatest reticular energy (E parameter) and the lowest frequency dependence of phase angle (δ) at the low frequency range. The rotatory tests show that CHs may act as shear thinning agents in the gluten-starch network, facilitating the solid-fluid transition at the yield point (UYD-C dough). The yeasted dough (YD) exhibited a more shear sensitive structure, evidenced in the highest influence of frequency on the elastic (G′) and viscous (G″) parameters, and gel to sol transition at 0.23 rad/s was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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14 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
An Insight into Pasting and Rheological Behavior of Potato Starch Pastes and Gels with Whole and Ground Chia Seeds
by Greta Adamczyk, Magdalena Krystyjan, Piotr Kuźniar, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski and Inna Bobel
Gels 2022, 8(9), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8090598 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
With regard to technological innovations, we applied chia (oilseeds) as a stabilizer additive in a normal and waxy potato starch sample to obtain stable starch-based gels during 20 days of storage. The aim of this study was to investigate the 5% w/ [...] Read more.
With regard to technological innovations, we applied chia (oilseeds) as a stabilizer additive in a normal and waxy potato starch sample to obtain stable starch-based gels during 20 days of storage. The aim of this study was to investigate the 5% w/w normal and waxy potato starch pastes (hot samples) and gels (cold samples) with the addition of 1% w/w whole and ground chia seeds properties as pasting and flow properties of pastes and textural properties of gels. The pasting process using a viscograph showed that normal and waxy potato starch with the addition of chia had a different pasting characteristic. The addition of chia seeds had a greater effect on the properties of normal potato starch than waxy potato starch. From a rheological point of view, starch pastes without chia were less theologically stable as they showed bigger areas of hysteresis loops. Minor changes in the hardness of gels were obtained in normal starch gels with chia seeds during 20 days of storing compared to the samples without chia seeds, whereas in the waxy starch gels, the effect was the opposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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17 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical, Morphological, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Native Starches Isolated from Four Cultivars of Anchote (Coccinia abyssinica (Lam.) Cogn.) Tuber
by Yohannes Tolesa Wolde, Shimelis Admassu Emire, Workineh Abebe and Felicidad Ronda
Gels 2022, 8(9), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8090591 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
Anchote (Coccinia abyssinica (Lam.) Cogn) is a potentially important source of starch and an underutilized root and tuber crop indigenous to Ethiopia. In this study, the physicochemical, morphological, thermal, and rheological properties of native starches isolated from four cultivars [...] Read more.
Anchote (Coccinia abyssinica (Lam.) Cogn) is a potentially important source of starch and an underutilized root and tuber crop indigenous to Ethiopia. In this study, the physicochemical, morphological, thermal, and rheological properties of native starches isolated from four cultivars of anchote tubers were studied and compared to potato and cassava starches, which were considered as references. The amylose content of anchote starches varied from 15.8–22.3%. The anchote cultivars showed different granule sizes, but all revealed a B-type crystalline structure, identical to potato starch. The phosphorus content of anchote starches ranged from 82–93 mg/100 g and was much higher than that of potato and cassava (60.3 and 5.8 mg/100 g, respectively). This characteristic could govern several functional properties of anchote starches, making them suitable for applications in different types of noodles, glucose syrups, and viscous products. The gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of anchote starches, which ranged from 60.97 °C to 69.33 °C and 16.87 to 18.38 J/g, respectively, were considerably different compared to potato and cassava starches. Significant variations were also observed among the pasting properties of starches from anchote cultivars. They showed a higher stability to heating and shearing, having higher TV (2046 to 2280 mPa·s) and lower BV (248 to 487 mPa·s) values, and a higher final viscosity (3409 to 3686 mPa·s) than potato and cassava, which are important characteristics in food processing and when high gel viscosity is required after cooling. Anchote starch gels exhibited rheological characteristics of true gels, showing much lower (tan δ)1 values and significantly higher viscoelastic moduli than those found in cassava and potato gels. The present study revealed significant differences among the physicochemical properties of anchote starches, depending on the cultivar, and demonstrated their promising potential in food product development and other industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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20 pages, 2335 KiB  
Article
Transglutaminase-Induced Free-Fat Yogurt Gels Supplemented with Tarragon Essential Oil-Loaded Nanoemulsions: Development, Optimization, Characterization, Bioactivity, and Storability
by Seyed Mohammad Taghi Gharibzahedi and Zeynep Altintas
Gels 2022, 8(9), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8090551 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
There is a high demand for designing healthy-functional dairy gels with a newly structured protein network in the food industry. Non-fat yogurt gels enriched with stable tarragon essential oil-nanoemulsions (TEO-NEs) using crosslinking of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) were developed. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis [...] Read more.
There is a high demand for designing healthy-functional dairy gels with a newly structured protein network in the food industry. Non-fat yogurt gels enriched with stable tarragon essential oil-nanoemulsions (TEO-NEs) using crosslinking of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) were developed. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that methyl chavicol (85.66%) was the major component in TEO extracted by the hydrodistillation process. The storage-dependent droplet size and physicochemical stability data of samples at room temperature for 30 days revealed that the TEO-NE containing 0.5% tween-80 and 1:2 TEO/sunflower oil had the lowest peroxide value and droplet growth ratio. The response surface methodology-based formulation optimization of free-fat yogurt gels using MTGase (0.15–0.85 U/g) and the best TEO-NE (0.5–3.02%) using the fitted second-order polynomial models proved that the combination of 0.87% TEO-NE and 0.70 U/g MTGase led to the desired pH (4.569) and acidity (88.3% lactic acid), minimum syneresis (27.03 mL/100 g), and maximum viscosity (6.93 Pa s) and firmness (0.207 N) responses. Scanning electron microscopy images visualized that the MTGase-induced crosslinks improved the gel structure to increase the firmness and viscosity with a reduction in the syneresis rate. The optimal yogurt gel as a nutritious diet not only provided the highest organoleptic scores but also maintained its storage-related quality with the lowest mold/yeast growth and free-radical oxidation changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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15 pages, 5000 KiB  
Article
High-Protein Foods for Dysphagia: Manipulation of Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Whey Protein Gels Using De-Structured Starch and Salts
by Cai Ling Ang, Kelvin Kim Tha Goh, Kaiyang Lim and Lara Matia-Merino
Gels 2022, 8(7), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8070399 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
This study focuses on understanding the effect of ionic strength on the mechanical and microstructural properties of novel composite gels containing 13% whey protein isolate (WPI) and 4% de-structured waxy potato starch (DWPS). The DWPS is a physically modified waxy potato starch treated [...] Read more.
This study focuses on understanding the effect of ionic strength on the mechanical and microstructural properties of novel composite gels containing 13% whey protein isolate (WPI) and 4% de-structured waxy potato starch (DWPS). The DWPS is a physically modified waxy potato starch treated at 140 °C for 30 min under constant shear. Thermodynamic incompatibility between WPI and DWPS was observed upon the addition of NaCl (~75 mM) or CaCl2 (10–75 mM). The combined effects of such thermodynamic incompatibility with the changes in protein connectivity induced by varied ionic strength led to the formation of distinctive gel structures (inhomogeneous self-supporting gels with a liquid centre and weak gels with paste-like consistency) that were different from thermodynamic compatible homogeneous self-supporting gels (pure WPI and WPI + maltodextrin gels). At ≥ 250 mM NaCl, instead of a paste-like texture, a recovered soft and creamy self-supporting gel structure was observed when using DWPS. The ability to generate a range of textures in WPI gelation-based foods by using DWPS under different ionic conditions, is a feasible strategy for formulating high-protein foods for dysphagia—aimed to be either thickened fluids or soft solids. Additionally, this acquired knowledge is also relevant when formulating food gels for 3-D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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14 pages, 1799 KiB  
Article
Development of β-Cyclodextrin/Konjac-Based Emulsion Gel for a Pork Backfat Substitute in Emulsion-Type Sausage
by Yea-Ji Kim, Dong-Min Shin, Jong-Hyeok Yune, Hyun-Su Jung, Hyuk-Cheol Kwon, Kyung-Woo Lee, Jae-Wook Oh, Beob-Gyun Kim and Sung-Gu Han
Gels 2022, 8(6), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8060369 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Emulsion gel has been used to replace animal fats in meat products. Konjac is a widely used gelling agent; however, its low emulsion stability limits its use in meat products. This study aimed to examine the quality characteristics of β-cyclodextrin (CD)-supplemented konjac-based emulsion [...] Read more.
Emulsion gel has been used to replace animal fats in meat products. Konjac is a widely used gelling agent; however, its low emulsion stability limits its use in meat products. This study aimed to examine the quality characteristics of β-cyclodextrin (CD)-supplemented konjac-based emulsion gel (KEG) (CD-KEG) and its application as a fat substitute in emulsion-type sausages. The supplementation of CD increased hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with konjac and oil in the gels, respectively. Additionally, CD increased the structural complexity and strength of KEG. Since adding more than 6% of CD to KEG did not increase the gel strength, 6% CD-added KEG was adopted to substitute for pork backfat in manufacturing low-fat emulsion-type sausages. The following formulations of the sausages were prepared: pork backfat 20% (PF20); pork backfat 10% + KEG 10% (KEG10); KEG 20% (KEG20); pork backfat 10% + CD-KEG 10% (CD-KEG10); CD-KEG 20% (CD-KEG20); and pork backfat 5% (PF5). The CD-KEG20 formulation exhibited higher viscosity and viscoelasticity than KEG20, which suggested that CD improves the rheological properties and the thermal stability of meat batter. Additionally, CD-KEG20 showed similar emulsion stability, cooking yield and texture parameters compared with PF20. Therefore, 6% CD-added KEG is a suitable fat substitute for preparing low-fat emulsion-type sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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14 pages, 2001 KiB  
Article
The Characteristic of Insect Oil for a Potential Component of Oleogel and Its Application as a Solid Fat Replacer in Cookies
by Doyoung Kim and Imkyung Oh
Gels 2022, 8(6), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8060355 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3195
Abstract
The larvae of Tenebrio molitor, an edible insect, have recently attracted attention in the food industry as a protein supplement or future food material. However, despite more than 30% of the total weight being fat content, few studies have been conducted on [...] Read more.
The larvae of Tenebrio molitor, an edible insect, have recently attracted attention in the food industry as a protein supplement or future food material. However, despite more than 30% of the total weight being fat content, few studies have been conducted on the fat (oil) derived from Tenebrio molitor larvae (TM oil) and its food utilization. In this study, TM oil was extracted and its fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity were investigated. Then, the oleogels were prepared with TM oil and oleogelators (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) and their rheological and thermal properties were evaluated to elucidate their utilization as a solid fat replacer in cookies. In the results, TM oil contained 73.6% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a lower antioxidant activity than olive oil. Although the highest hardness was shown in oleogel with candelilla wax, the highest viscoelasticity above 50 °C was observed for oleogel with carnauba wax. The highest melting point was observed in carnauba oleogel. Lower peroxide values were observed in the oleogel samples than for TM oil, indicating that oleogelation of structuring oil improved the oxidative stability of TM oil. In addition, the shortening replacement with carnauba wax oleogel showed a desirable cookie quality in terms of spreadability and texture properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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Review

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26 pages, 4986 KiB  
Review
Binary Hydrogels: Induction Methods and Recent Application Progress as Food Matrices for Bioactive Compounds Delivery—A Bibliometric Review
by Adonis Hilal, Anna Florowska and Małgorzata Wroniak
Gels 2023, 9(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9010068 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Food hydrogels are biopolymeric materials made from food-grade biopolymers with gelling properties (proteins and polysaccharides) and a 3D network capable of incorporating large amounts of water. They have sparked considerable interest because of their potential and broad application range in the biomedical and [...] Read more.
Food hydrogels are biopolymeric materials made from food-grade biopolymers with gelling properties (proteins and polysaccharides) and a 3D network capable of incorporating large amounts of water. They have sparked considerable interest because of their potential and broad application range in the biomedical and pharmaceutical sectors. However, hydrogel research in the field of food science is still limited. This knowledge gap provides numerous opportunities for implementing their unique properties, such as high water-holding capacity, moderated texture, compatibility with other substances, cell biocompatibility, biodegradability, and high resemblance to living tissues, for the development of novel, functional food matrices. For that reason, this article includes a bibliometric analysis characterizing research trends in food protein–polysaccharide hydrogels (over the last ten years). Additionally, it characterizes the most recent developments in hydrogel induction methods and the most recent application progress of hydrogels as food matrices as carriers for the targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. Finally, this article provides a future perspective on the need to evaluate the feasibility of using plant-based proteins and polysaccharides to develop food matrices that protect nutrients, including bioactive substances, throughout processing, storage, and digestion until they reach the specific targeted area of the digestive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Gels for Food Product Development)
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