Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 238-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020021 - 12 May 2021
Small bowel evaluation is warranted in all newly diagnosed cases of Crohn’s disease (CD) as small bowel is involved in two-thirds of CD patients at diagnosis and the involvement can be discontinuous. Endoscopic evaluation of the small bowel in suspected or established CD [...] Read more.
Small bowel evaluation is warranted in all newly diagnosed cases of Crohn’s disease (CD) as small bowel is involved in two-thirds of CD patients at diagnosis and the involvement can be discontinuous. Endoscopic evaluation of the small bowel in suspected or established CD can be done by video capsule endoscopy (VCE), device assisted enteroscopy (DAE) (which includes single and double balloon enteroscopy, novel motorized spiral enteroscopy (NMSE) and balloon guided endoscopy (BGE)) and intra-operative enteroscopy (IOE). In suspected CD with a negative ileo-colonoscopy, VCE is the preferred initial diagnostic modality in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis. VCE should be preceded by cross-sectional imaging or patency capsule testing if obstruction is suspected given with high retention risk. In established cases, small bowel cross-sectional imaging (magnetic resonance or computed tomography enterography) is preferred over VCE as it can assess transmural and extra-luminal involvement. VCE is indicated subsequently if necessary to assess disease extent, unexplained symptoms (e.g., anemia, malnutrition) or mucosal healing. Pan-enteric capsule endoscopy (PCE) and the use of artificial intelligence are the recent developments with VCE. DAE with small bowel biopsy can provide definitive evidence of CD including the extent and severity. A final diagnosis of CD is based on the constellation of clinical, radiologic, histologic and endoscopic features. Newer technologies like NMSE and BGE can help with deeper and faster small bowel evaluation. DAE has also allowed endoscopic treatment of small bowel strictures, small bowel bleeding and retrieval of retained capsule or foreign bodies. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD), endoscopic electro-incision, strictureplasty and stenting have shown promising results in CD related small bowel strictures. In conclusion, endoscopic evaluation of the small bowel is rapidly evolving field that has a major role in diagnosis and management of small bowel CD and can alter treatment outcomes in properly selected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)►▼ Show Figures