Special Issue "Valorization of Biogenic and Not Biogenic Residuals/Byproducts from Thermochemical Processes: Diagnostic, Product Characterization, and Emissions Control"

A special issue of Fuels (ISSN 2673-3994).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2022 | Viewed by 3681

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Barbara Apicella
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie per l'Energia e la Mobilità Sostenibili (STEMS)– CNR – P.le V. Tecchio, 80 – 80125 Napoli, Italy
Interests: development and application of advanced diagnostic techniques for conventional and non-conventional pollutants; detection of combustion-generated fine and ultra-fine particulate from combustion systems and study of its formation mechanism and chemical-physical structure, strictly linked to its environmental and; characterization of heavy fossil fuels in terms of structure and pollutant emission in order to set-up chemical procedures for obtaining cleaner fuels; restructuring of carbon materials with thermal annealing by furnace and laser heating, and study of the heating-induced structural changes; relation between nanostructural properties and physico-chemical properties of nanocarbons
Dr. Giovanna Ruoppolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie per l'Energia e la Mobilità Sostenibili (STEMS)– CNR – P.le V. Tecchio, 80 – 80125 Napoli, Italy
Interests: catalyst; biomasses; torrefaction; gasification and co-gasification; pyrolysis; combustion; fluidized ad fixed bed reactor; tar abatement; pollution abatement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy transition and decarbonization toward cleaner energy require the utilization of new technologies and energy sources. Key issues are diversifying fuels, combining renewable with fossil sources, abatement and/or recovery and valorization of pollutant by-products. 

Thermochemical processes are well assessed approaches for biomass, waste and byproducts valorization, even if formation mechanisms of pollutants in combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis are still open concerns.  

Contributions regarding diagnostics for the study of pollutants formation in thermochemical processes of biogenic and not biogenic residuals/byproducts valorization (combustion, gasification), characterization of process products, strategies for the reduction of emissions as well as integrations of multiple processes or the enhancement of co-processes are issues closely linked to the focus of this Special Issue. The congress ECM 2021, organized by the Italian Section of Combustion Meeting, will provide the opportunity for academic and industrial combustion experts to meet and discuss on all these topics. Therefore, this Special Issue welcomes, but is not limited to, contributions from ECM congress. 

For any further information and updates:

http://www.ecm2021napoli.eu/

Dr. Barbara Apicella
Dr. Giovanna Ruoppolo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fuels is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Characterization Techniques Coupled with Mathematical Tools for Deepening Asphaltene Structure
Fuels 2022, 3(1), 75-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels3010005 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Asphaltenes are the heavy fraction of fossil fuels, whose characterization remains a very difficult and challenging issue due to the still-persisting uncertainties about their structure and/or composition and molecular weight. Asphaltene components are highly condensed aromatic molecules having some heteroatoms and aliphatic functionalities. [...] Read more.
Asphaltenes are the heavy fraction of fossil fuels, whose characterization remains a very difficult and challenging issue due to the still-persisting uncertainties about their structure and/or composition and molecular weight. Asphaltene components are highly condensed aromatic molecules having some heteroatoms and aliphatic functionalities. Their molecular weights distribution spans in a wide range, from hundreds to millions of mass units, depending on the diagnostic used, which is mainly due to the occurrence of self-aggregation. In the present work, mass spectrometry along with size exclusion chromatography and X-ray diffraction analysis have been applied to asphaltenes for giving some further insights into their molecular weight distribution and structural characteristics. Relatively small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with a significant degree of aliphaticity were individuated by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) and double bond equivalent (DBE) number analysis to the mass spectra. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed some aliphaticity, showing peaks specific of aliphatic functionalities. Size exclusion chromatography indicated higher molecular weight, probably due to the aliphatic substituents. Mass spectrometry at high laser power enabled observing a downward shift of molecular masses corresponding to the loss of about 10 carbon atoms, suggesting the occurrence of aryl-linked core structures assumed to feature asphaltenes along with island and archipelago structures. Full article
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Article
Towards Biomass Gasification Enhanced by Structured Iron-Based Catalysts
Fuels 2021, 2(4), 546-555; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2040032 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 768
Abstract
The main drawback for the development of biomass gasification technology is tar conversion. Among the various methods for tar abatement, the use of catalysts has been proposed in the literature. Most of the works reported in the literature on catalytic systems for biomass [...] Read more.
The main drawback for the development of biomass gasification technology is tar conversion. Among the various methods for tar abatement, the use of catalysts has been proposed in the literature. Most of the works reported in the literature on catalytic systems for biomass tar conversion refers to catalysts in the form of powder; however, deactivation occurs by fast clogging with particulates deriving from biomass gasification. The integration of catalytic filter element for particle and tar removal directly integrated into the freeboard of the reactor is a new concept recently proposed and patented. In this context, this paper evaluates the possibility to integrate a structured iron-based catalytic monolith in the freeboard of a fluidized bed gasifier to enhance biomass gasification. The effectiveness of using a monolith for gas conditioning has been preliminarily verified. The limited effect on the gas production and composition seems to be related to the limited range of operating conditions explored in this work rather than to the low activity of the iron-based catalyst. Further studies to optimize the performance and to assess the possible deactivation of the catalyst due to coke deposition must be carried out. Full article
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Article
Quantitative and Sensitive Mid-Infrared Frequency Modulation Detection of HCN behind Shock Waves
Fuels 2021, 2(4), 437-447; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2040025 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
Despite its key role for the study and modeling of nitrogen chemistry and NOx formation in combustion processes, HCN has only rarely been detected under high-temperature conditions. Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of HCN behind incident and reflected shock waves using a [...] Read more.
Despite its key role for the study and modeling of nitrogen chemistry and NOx formation in combustion processes, HCN has only rarely been detected under high-temperature conditions. Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of HCN behind incident and reflected shock waves using a novel sensitive single-tone mid-infrared frequency modulation (mid-IR-FM) detection scheme. The temperature-dependent pressure broadening of the P(26) line in the fundamental CH stretch vibration band was investigated in the temperature range 670KT1460K, yielding a pressure broadening coefficient for argon of 2γAr296K=(0.093±0.007)cm1atm1 and a temperature exponent of nAr=0.67±0.07. The sensitivity of the detection scheme was characterized by means of an Allan analysis, showing that HCN detection on the ppm mixing ratio level is possible at typical shock wave conditions. In order to demonstrate the capability of mid-IR-FM spectroscopy for future high-temperature reaction kinetic studies, we also report the first successful measurement of a reactive HCN decay profile induced by its reaction with oxygen atoms. Full article
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Article
On the Application of Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy for Investigating Nanostructure of Soot from Different Fuels
Fuels 2021, 2(3), 367-375; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2030021 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Soot is characterized by a multiscale structural organization; the only diagnostic tool that can give access to it is the transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, as it is a diffraction-based technique, TEM images only conjugate aromatic systems and, thus, it is particularly useful [...] Read more.
Soot is characterized by a multiscale structural organization; the only diagnostic tool that can give access to it is the transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, as it is a diffraction-based technique, TEM images only conjugate aromatic systems and, thus, it is particularly useful to combine it with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), which is able to provide quantitative information about the relative abundance of sp3 and sp2 hybridized carbon. In this paper, a method for the EELS spectrum analysis of carbonaceous materials, recently developed for electron-irradiated graphite and glassy carbon composition analysis, has been applied for the first time on soot samples, in order to test its performance in soot nanostructure study in combination with TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). Soot samples analyzed were collected in the soot inception region of premixed flames of different hydrocarbon fuels. EELS, in agreement with TEM and HRTEM, showed a quite disordered and heterogeneous structure for young soot, with a relatively low sp2 content and slight presence of fullerene-like structures, more evident in the case of methane soot hinting to the effect of more saturated aliphatic fuels on soot characteristics at soot inception. Full article
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