Special Issue "Advances in Fundamental Physics"

A special issue of Foundations (ISSN 2673-9321). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Eugene Oks
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5319, USA
Interests: atomic, molecular and optical Physics; laser physics; plasma physics; astrophysics; nonlinear dynamics; fundamentals of quantum mechanics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue celebrates the opening of a new section of the journal Foundation: Physical Sciences. We invite theoretical and experimental studies related to all areas of fundamental physics. We welcome reviews and regular research papers without imposing any restrictions on the length of the paper. We also welcome short communications. These are expected to contain a preliminary presentation of interesting, potentially important ideas. Papers submitted before 1 January 2022 would be published free of charge (if accepted).

Best,

Prof. Dr. Eugene Oks
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foundations is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Classical mechanics
  • Quantum mechanics
  • Atomic, molecular, and optical physics
  • Physics of plasmas and gases (including plasma spectroscopy)
  • Astronomy and astrophysics (including cosmology)
  • Condensed matter physics
  • Nuclear physics
  • Physics of elementary particles and fields
  • Interdisciplinary physics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Communication
Analysis of Experimental Cross-Sections of Charge Exchange between Hydrogen Atoms and Protons Yields More Evidence of the Existence of the Second Flavor of Hydrogen Atoms
Foundations 2021, 1(2), 265-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1020019 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Measurements of cross-sections of charge exchange between hydrogen atoms and low energy protons (down to the energy ~10 eV) revealed a noticeable discrepancy with previous theories. The experimental cross-sections were systematically slightly higher—beyond the error margins—than the theoretical predictions. In the present paper, [...] Read more.
Measurements of cross-sections of charge exchange between hydrogen atoms and low energy protons (down to the energy ~10 eV) revealed a noticeable discrepancy with previous theories. The experimental cross-sections were systematically slightly higher—beyond the error margins—than the theoretical predictions. In the present paper, we study whether this discrepancy can be eliminated or at least reduced by using the Second Flavor of Hydrogen Atoms (SFHA) in calculations. We show that for the SFHA, the corresponding cross-section is noticeably larger than for the usual hydrogen atoms. We demonstrate that the allowance for the SFHA does bring the theoretical cross-sections in a noticeably better agreement with the corresponding experiments within the experimental error margins. This seems to constitute yet another evidence from atomic experiments that the SFHA is present within the mixture of hydrogen atoms. In combination with the first corresponding piece of evidence from the analysis of atomic experiments (concerning the distribution of the linear momentum in the ground state of hydrogen atoms), as well as with the astrophysical evidence from two different kinds of observations (the anomalous absorption of the redshifted 21 cm radio line from the early universe and the smoother distribution of dark matter than that predicted by the standard cosmology), the results of the present paper reinforce the status of the SFHA as the candidate for dark matter, or at least for a part of it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Article
The Frequency Fluctuation Model for the van der Waals Broadening
Foundations 2021, 1(2), 200-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1020015 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 210
Abstract
The effect of atomic and molecular microfield dynamics on spectral line shapes is under consideration. This problem is treated in the framework of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). For the first time, the FFM is tested for the broadening of a spectral line [...] Read more.
The effect of atomic and molecular microfield dynamics on spectral line shapes is under consideration. This problem is treated in the framework of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). For the first time, the FFM is tested for the broadening of a spectral line by neutral particles. The usage of the FFM allows one to derive simple analytical expressions and perform fast calculations of the intensity profile. The obtained results are compared with Chen and Takeo’s theory (CT), which is in good agreement with experimental data. It is demonstrated that, for moderate values of temperature and density, the FFM successfully describes the effect of the microfield dynamics on a spectral line shape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Article
Greenhouse Effect in the Standard Atmosphere
Foundations 2021, 1(2), 184-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1020014 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 958
Abstract
The “line-by-line” method is used for the evaluation of thermal emission of the standard atmosphere toward the Earth. Accounting for thermodynamic equilibrium of the radiation field with air molecules and considering the atmosphere as a weakly nonuniform layer, we reduce the emission at [...] Read more.
The “line-by-line” method is used for the evaluation of thermal emission of the standard atmosphere toward the Earth. Accounting for thermodynamic equilibrium of the radiation field with air molecules and considering the atmosphere as a weakly nonuniform layer, we reduce the emission at a given frequency for this layer containing molecules of various types to that of a uniform layer, which is characterized by a certain radiative temperature Tω, an optical thickness uω and an opaque factor g(uω). Radiative parameters of molecules are taken from the HITRAN database, and an altitude of cloud location is taken from the energetic balance of the Earth. Within the framework of this model, we calculate the parameters of the greenhouse effect, including the partial radiative fluxes due to different greenhouse components in the frequency range up to 2600 cm1. In addition, the derivations are determined from the radiative flux from the atmosphere to the Earth over the concentration logarithm of greenhouse components. From this, it follows that the observed rate of growth of the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide accounts for a contribution of approximately 30% to the observed increase in the global atmosphere during recent decades. If we assume that the basic part of the greenhouse effect is determined by an increase in the concentration c(H2O) of water atmospheric molecules, it is approximately dlnc(H2O/dt)=0.003 yr1. This corresponds to an increase in the average moisture of the atmosphere of 0.2%/yr. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Article
Free Space Strange and Unipolar EM Pulses: Yes or No?
Foundations 2021, 1(2), 169-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1020012 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 140
Abstract
E.G. Bessonov suggested the time integrated strength of an electric field E(r,t)dt=SE(r) as a parameter to classify electromagnetic (EM) waves. Since then, this parameter has been [...] Read more.
E.G. Bessonov suggested the time integrated strength of an electric field E(r,t)dt=SE(r) as a parameter to classify electromagnetic (EM) waves. Since then, this parameter has been studied and used in many works on microwave and laser physics, especially when it comes to unipolar, bipolar and few cycle EM pulses. In this paper, it is shown that SE(r)=0 is an identity for a wide class of free space pulses of finite total energy. This property can be useful in various applications of few cycle radiation and as a benchmark in EM and QED computations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
Article
Geometric State Sum Models from Quasicrystals
Foundations 2021, 1(2), 155-168; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1020011 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 386
Abstract
In light of the self-simulation hypothesis, a simple form of implementation of the principle of efficient language is discussed in a self-referential geometric quasicrystalline state sum model in three dimensions. Emergence is discussed in the context of geometric state sum models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Review

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Review
Neutron Stars and Gravitational Waves: The Key Role of Nuclear Equation of State
Foundations 2021, 1(2), 217-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1020017 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Neutron stars are the densest known objects in the universe and an ideal laboratory for the strange physics of super-condensed matter. Theoretical studies in connection with recent observational data of isolated neutron stars, as well as binary neutron stars systems, offer an excellent [...] Read more.
Neutron stars are the densest known objects in the universe and an ideal laboratory for the strange physics of super-condensed matter. Theoretical studies in connection with recent observational data of isolated neutron stars, as well as binary neutron stars systems, offer an excellent opportunity to provide robust solutions on the dense nuclear problem. In the present work, we review recent studies concerning the applications of various theoretical nuclear models on a few recent observations of binary neutron stars or neutron-star–black-hole systems. In particular, using a simple and well-established model, we parametrize the stiffness of the equation of state with the help of the speed of sound. Moreover, in comparison to the recent observations of two events by LIGO/VIRGO collaboration, GW170817 and GW190425, we suggest possible robust constraints. We also concentrate our theoretical study on the resent observation of a compact object with mass ∼2.590.09+0.08M (GW190814 event), as a component of a system where the main companion was a black hole with mass ∼23M. There is scientific debate concerning the identification of the low mass component, as it falls into the neutron-star–black-hole mass gap. This is an important issue since understanding the nature of GW190814 event will offer rich information concerning the upper limit of the speed of sound in dense matter and the possible phase transition into other degrees of freedom. We systematically study the tidal deformability of a possible high-mass candidate existing as an individual star or as a component in a binary neutron star system. Finally, we provide some applications of equations of state of hot, dense nuclear matter in hot neutron stars (nonrotating and rapidly rotating with the Kepler frequency neutron stars), protoneutron stars, and binary neutron star merger remnants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Review
Fundamentals of Diatomic Molecular Spectroscopy
Foundations 2021, 1(2), 208-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1020016 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
The interpretation of optical spectra requires thorough comprehension of quantum mechanics, especially understanding the concept of angular momentum operators. Suppose now that a transformation from laboratory-fixed to molecule-attached coordinates, by invoking the correspondence principle, induces reversed angular momentum operator identities. However, the foundations [...] Read more.
The interpretation of optical spectra requires thorough comprehension of quantum mechanics, especially understanding the concept of angular momentum operators. Suppose now that a transformation from laboratory-fixed to molecule-attached coordinates, by invoking the correspondence principle, induces reversed angular momentum operator identities. However, the foundations of quantum mechanics and the mathematical implementation of specific symmetries assert that reversal of motion or time reversal includes complex conjugation as part of anti-unitary operation. Quantum theory contraindicates sign changes of the fundamental angular momentum algebra. Reversed angular momentum sign changes are of a heuristic nature and are actually not needed in analysis of diatomic spectra. This review addresses sustenance of usual angular momentum theory, including presentation of straightforward proofs leading to falsification of the occurrence of reversed angular momentum identities. This review also summarizes aspects of a consistent implementation of quantum mechanics for spectroscopy with selected diatomic molecules of interest in astrophysics and in engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Review
Information Geometric Measures of Complexity with Applications to Classical and Quantum Physical Settings
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 45-62; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1010006 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
We discuss the fundamental theoretical framework together with numerous results obtained by the authors and colleagues over an extended period of investigation on the Information Geometric Approach to Chaos (IGAC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Geometric State Sum Models from Quasicrystals
Authors: Marcelo Amaral; Fang Fang; Dugan Hammock; Klee Irwin
Affiliation: Quantum Gravity Research
Abstract: In light of the self-simulation hypothesis, a simple form of implementation of the principle of efficient language is discussed in a self-referential geometric quasicrystalline state sum model in three dimensions. Emergence is discussed in the context of geometric state sum models.

Title: Frequency Fluctuation Model for Van-der-Vaals Broadening
Authors: V.S. Lisitsa
Affiliation: Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 141700 Dolgoprudnyi, Russia

Title: Applications of the Classical Two-Coulomb-Center Systems to Atomic and Molecular Physics
Authors: Nikolay Kryukov; Eugene Oks
Affiliation: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Auburn University

Title: Divergence in the Relativistic Mean Field Formalism: A Case Study of the Ground State Properties of the Decay Chain of 214,216,218U Isotopes
Authors: M. Bhuyan
Affiliation: Univ Malaya, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia

Title: Analytical Calculation of the Degree of the Linear Polarization of the Radiation of the Red Line OI 6300 А0 in the Earth Ionosphere Excited by Electrons
Authors: M.B. Shapochkin
Affiliation: Moscow Physical Society, Moscow, Russia

Title: Axions in Dispersive Media
Authors: V.E. Ogluzdin
Affiliation: Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Title: Big Rip Scenario in Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravitation
Authors: M. Bhuyan
Affiliation: Univ Malaya, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia

Title: Fundamentals of Diatomic Molecular Spectroscopy
Authors: C.G. Parigger
Affiliation: Center for Laser Applications, The University of Tennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, TN 37388-8897, USA

 

Title: Greenhouse effect in the standardatmosphere.
Authors: Boris Michailovich Smirnov; Dmitri Alexandrovich Zhilyaev
Affiliation: Joint Institute for High Temperatures
Abstract: The ”line-by-line” method is used for evaluation of thermal emission of the standard atmosphere toward the Earth. Accounting for thermodynamic equilibrium of the radiation field with air molecules and considering the atmosphere as a weakly nonuniform layer, we reduce emission at a given frequency for this layer contained molecules of various types to that of a uniform layer which is characterized by a certain radiative temperature T!, an optical thickness u! and an opaque factor g(u!). Radiative parameters of molecules are taken from the HITRAN data base, and an altitude of cloud location is taken from the energetic balance of the Earth. Within the framework of this model, we calculate the parameters of the greenhouse effect including the partial radiative fluxes due to different greenhouse components in the frequency range up to 2600cm−1. In addition, the derivations are determined from the radiative flux from the atmosphere to the Earth over the concentration logarithm of greenhouse components. From this it follows as early that the observed rate of growth of the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide gives the contribution approximately 30% to the observed increase of the global atmosphere during last decades. If we assume that the basic part of the greenhouse effect is determined by an increase of the concentration c(H2O of water atmospheric molecules is approximately d ln c(H2O/dt = 0.003yr−1. This corresponds to an increase of the average moisture of the atmosphere as 0.2%/yr.

Title: Cosmoparticle physics - fundamental relationship of the extremes of the fundamental physics
Authors: M.Yu. Khlopov
Affiliation: Center for Cosmopartilce Physics "Cosmion" (National Research Nuclear University ”Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow, Russia, and Virtual Institute of Astroparticle Physics (Universit ́e de Paris, CNRS), Paris, France

Title: Brief Exploration of Kaluza-Klein-like Cyclicality for a Putative Finite Radius Manifold of Uncertainty Embedded Within the Dirac Electron Hypertube
Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Affiliation: Noetic Advanced Studies Institute, Escalante Desert Research Station, Beryl, Utah USA
Abstract: The cylinder condition for Kaluza-Klein-like cyclicality is explored for a putative finiteradius Manifold of Uncertainty (MOU) as an inherent extension of Dirac’s electron hypertube model as manifest for a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum. The domain of the quantum uncertainty principle has been described as: a discrete point, on the real line, unit circle, sphere and as Riemannian manifolds. We utilize a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer-like de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier Causal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) because it describes a present instant as a hyperspherical standing-wave of the future-past. Current thinking professes QM as the basement of reality and as so, if additional dimensions (XD) exist they must be curled up microscopically at the Planck scale because they are unobserved. Under this panoply a duality between ‘local infinitesimal quantum structures embedded in a nonlocal topological manifold’ (with dual Dirac hypertube parameters) mapping to a finite radius KK-like dimensional cycle of continuously compactifying M-theoretic-like dimensions with an asymptotic limit in the neighborhood of the Lamour radius of the hydrogen atom. Meaning: Reality is a duality of local infinite size Euclidean dimensions and nonlocal M-theoretic-like infinite size dimensions separated by dynamic parameters of the finite-radius MOU. We discuss empirical tests for supervening the quantum uncertainty principle achieved utilizing a seminal model of Tight Bound States (TBS) below the lowest Bohr orbit in hydrogen extended to XD nonlocal hyperspherical cavities defined in conjunction with the MOU up to a semi-quantum limit domain wall, predicting, within the TBS domain, additional spectral lines in Hydrogen.

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