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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the Malolactic Fermentation in Model Wine

1
Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences (DiAAA), University of Molise, via De Sanctis snc, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Grape and Wine Science Division, University of Naples “Federico II”, Viale Italia, 83100 Avellino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060797
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
Biofilm life-style of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strains was evaluated in vitro as a new and suitable biotechnological strategy to assure L-malic acid conversion in wine stress conditions. Sixty-eight L. plantarum strains isolated from diverse sources were assessed for their ability to form biofilm in acid (pH 3.5 or 3.2) or in ethanol (12% or 14%) stress conditions. The effect of incubation times (24 and 72 h) on the biofilm formation was evaluated. The study highlighted that, regardless of isolation source and stress conditions, the ability to form biofilm was strain-dependent. Specifically, two clusters, formed by high and low biofilm producer strains, were identified. Among high producer strains, L. plantarum Lpls22 was chosen as the highest producer strain and cultivated in planktonic form or in biofilm using oak supports. Model wines at 12% of ethanol and pH 3.5 or 3.2 were used to assess planktonic and biofilm cells survival and to evaluate the effect of biofilm on L-malic acid conversion. For cells in planktonic form, a strong survival decay was detected. In contrast, cells in biofilm life-style showed high resistance, assuring a prompt and complete L-malic acid conversion. View Full-Text
Keywords: acid stress; ethanol stress; biological decarboxylation; wood attached cells acid stress; ethanol stress; biological decarboxylation; wood attached cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pannella, G.; Lombardi, S.J.; Coppola, F.; Vergalito, F.; Iorizzo, M.; Succi, M.; Tremonte, P.; Iannini, C.; Sorrentino, E.; Coppola, R. Effect of Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the Malolactic Fermentation in Model Wine. Foods 2020, 9, 797.

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