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Open AccessArticle

Identification and Characterization of Non-Saccharomyces Species Isolated from Port Wine Spontaneous Fermentations

1
Genomics Unit, Biocant—Biotechnology Innovation Center, Biocant Park, Núcleo 04 Lote 3, 3060-197 Cantanhede, Portugal
2
Ângelo Coimbra, S.A., Zona Industrial Maia, Sector IV Moreira, 4470-460 Maia, Portugal
3
Symington Family Estates, Vinhos S.A. Travessa Barão de Forrester 86, Apartado 26, 4431-901 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020120
Received: 6 December 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2020 / Accepted: 21 January 2020 / Published: 23 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
In winemaking, non-Saccharomyces yeast species contribute important organoleptic complexity. Current interest focuses on abundant and dominant strains characteristically present in the early phase of spontaneous alcoholic fermentations. Non-Saccharomyces species are particularly relevant in Port wine production such that the fermentation is prematurely stopped, after the metabolism of only one half of the available sugar, through fortification with aguardente. This work aimed to isolate, identify and characterize non-Saccharomyces species present in spontaneously fermenting Port. To accomplish these goals, yeasts were isolated from a selection of frozen must samples (2012–2016 harvests), using a pre-screening process choosing only the best candidates based on the organoleptic quality of the corresponding fortified wine. From five hundred non-Saccharomyces isolates, twelve species were identified. The three most abundant species, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, representing 89% of the isolates, exhibited particularly high diversity with high growth performance variability when exposed to typical stress conditions associated with common enological parameters. Less abundant species included Issatchenkia orientalis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Hanseniaspora vineae, Hanseniaspora osmophila, Candida zemplinina, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Issatchenkia occidentalis, and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus. This is the first study providing insights into the identification and characterization of non-Saccharomyces species responsible for spontaneous Port wine production.
Keywords: non-Saccharomyces; wine yeasts; Port wine; native yeasts; strain characterization non-Saccharomyces; wine yeasts; Port wine; native yeasts; strain characterization
MDPI and ACS Style

Mateus, D.; Sousa, S.; Coimbra, C.; S. Rogerson, F.; Simões, J. Identification and Characterization of Non-Saccharomyces Species Isolated from Port Wine Spontaneous Fermentations. Foods 2020, 9, 120.

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