Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Temporal Drivers of Liking Based on Functional Data Analysis and Non-Additive Models for Multi-Attribute Time-Intensity Data of Fruit Chews
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of β-Lactams and Chloramphenicol Residues in Raw Milk—Development and Application of an HPLC-DAD Method in Comparison with Microbial Inhibition Assays
Previous Article in Special Issue
What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Foods 2018, 7(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7060083

What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment

1
University of Applied Sciences Albstadt-Sigmaringen, Department Life Sciences, Anton-Günther-Str. 51, 72488 Sigmaringen, Germany
2
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 26 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4232 KB, uploaded 1 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A method for sensory analysis of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally increased in temperature during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated in the form of a pilot study using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; hot beverages; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study coffee; hot beverages; temperature; esophageal cancer; thermosensing; sensory thresholds; methodological study
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dirler, J.; Winkler, G.; Lachenmeier, D.W. What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment. Foods 2018, 7, 83.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top