Special Issue "Perspectives in Wine Microbiology"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. José Juan Mateo
Website
Guest Editor
Departament de Microbiologia i Ecologia, Universitat de València, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
Interests: yeasts; enzymes; molecullar characterization; non-Saccjaromyces; molds; mycotoxins
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There has been, in the last few years, an increase in the knowledge of the biochemical changes occurring during winemaking. However, there is still much room for improvement.

Starter cultures will have a higher value for the wine industry in the coming years. Solutions may include autochthonous microorganisms selected to express the “terroir” characteristics and to offer biotechnological solutions to cope with local oenological issues and multi-strain starters, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, to improve organoleptic properties and strains for biocontrol, avoiding contamination and reducing the inputs to the winemaking process.

Similarly, the production of healthier wines will be pursued by increasing the knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that give rise to the different compounds of a wine responsible for its organoleptic and biological characteristics and health-related quality.

The use of enzymes from microbial origins in winemaking have been proven to be highly beneficial in various aspects and has caused great advances in the quality of wine. However, some aspects of their use remain in the “dark zone” for their application. An understanding of the interactions between enzymes is needed to explore the diverse advantages this technology holds.  Unusual microorganisms must be explored as source of enzymes with oenological use.

Finally, it is noteworthy that in the food industry there will be a predictably greater development of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) to improve industrial biochemical processes. Therefore, new strategies will be required to ensure that the genetically modified strains fulfil the strict statutory regulations and are accepted by the consumer.

Dr. José Juan Mateo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • yeasts
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • enzymes
  • fermentation
  • GMOs

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Qualitative Factor-Based Comparison of NMR, Targeted and Untargeted GC-MS and LC-MS on the Metabolomic Profiles of Rioja and Priorat Red Wines
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101381 - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
Wine origin and ageing are two factors related to wine quality which in turn is associated to wine metabolome. Currently, new metabolomic techniques and proper statistics procedures allow accurate profiling of wine metabolome. Thus, the main goal was to evaluate different metabolomic methodologies [...] Read more.
Wine origin and ageing are two factors related to wine quality which in turn is associated to wine metabolome. Currently, new metabolomic techniques and proper statistics procedures allow accurate profiling of wine metabolome. Thus, the main goal was to evaluate different metabolomic methodologies on their ability to provide patterns on the wine metabolome based on selected factors, such as ageing of barrel-aged wine (factor time), prior usage of the barrels (factor barrel-type), and differences between wine ageing in barrels or glass bottles (factor bottled-wine). In the current study, we implement NMR, targeted and untargeted GC-MS and LC-MS metabolomic analytical techniques so as to gain insights into the volatile and nonvolatile wine metabolome composition of red wines from two cellars located in the only two Spanish Qualified Appellations of Origin; DOQ Priorat and DOCa Rioja regions. Overall, 95 differentially significant metabolites were identified facilitating the evaluation of the analytical methodologies performance and finding common trends of those metabolites depending on the considered factor. The results did not favor NMR as an effective technique on the current dataset whereas suggested LC-MS as an adequate technique for revealing differences based on the factor time, targeted GC-MS on the factor barrel-type, and untargeted GC-MS on the factor bottled-wine. Thus, a combination of different metabolomic techniques is necessary for a complete overview of the metabolome changes. These results ease the selection of the correct methodology depending on the specific factor investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives in Wine Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Viability-PCR Allows Monitoring Yeast Population Dynamics in Mixed Fermentations Including Viable but Non-Culturable Yeasts
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101373 - 27 Sep 2020
Abstract
The use of controlled mixed inocula of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is a common practice in winemaking, with Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima being the most commonly used non-Saccharomyces species. Although S. cerevisiae is usually the dominant [...] Read more.
The use of controlled mixed inocula of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is a common practice in winemaking, with Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima being the most commonly used non-Saccharomyces species. Although S. cerevisiae is usually the dominant yeast at the end of mixed fermentations, some non-Saccharomyces species are also able to reach the late stages; such species may not grow in culture media, which is a status known as viable but non-culturable (VBNC). Thus, an accurate methodology to properly monitor viable yeast population dynamics during alcoholic fermentation is required to understand microbial interactions and the contribution of each species to the final product. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been found to be a good and sensitive method for determining the identity of the cell population, but it cannot distinguish the DNA from living and dead cells, which can overestimate the final population results. To address this shortcoming, viability dyes can be used to avoid the amplification and, therefore, the quantification of DNA from non-viable cells. In this study, we validated the use of PMAxx dye (an optimized version of propidium monoazide (PMA) dye) coupled with qPCR (PMAxx-qPCR), as a tool to monitor the viable population dynamics of the most common yeast species used in wine mixed fermentations (S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii, L. thermotolerans and M. pulcherrima), comparing the results with non-dyed qPCR and colony counting on differential medium. Our results showed that the PMAxx-qPCR assay used in this study is a reliable, specific and fast method for quantifying these four yeast species during the alcoholic fermentation process, being able to distinguish between living and dead yeast populations. Moreover, the entry into VBNC status was observed for the first time in L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Further studies are needed to unravel which compounds trigger this VBNC state during alcoholic fermentation in these species, which would help to better understand yeast interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives in Wine Microbiology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Important Contribution of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts to the Aroma Complexity of Wine: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010013 - 23 Dec 2020
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces yeast plays an important role in the initial stages of a wild ferment, as they are found in higher abundance in the vineyard than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As such, there has been a focus in recent years to isolate these yeast [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces yeast plays an important role in the initial stages of a wild ferment, as they are found in higher abundance in the vineyard than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As such, there has been a focus in recent years to isolate these yeast species and characterize their effect on wine fermentation and subsequent aroma. This effect on wine aroma is often species and strain dependent, as the enzymatic profile of each yeast will determine which aroma compounds are formed as secondary metabolites. Semi-fermentative yeast, such as Hanseniaspora spp., Candida spp. and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, are commonly in high abundance in fresh grape must and have diverse enzymatic profiles, however they show a weak tolerance to ethanol, limiting their impact to the initial stages of fermentation. Fully fermentative non-Saccharomyces yeast, characterized by high ethanol tolerance, are often found at low abundance in fresh grape must, similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their ability to influence the aroma profile of wine remains high, however, due to their presence into the final stages of fermentation. Some fermentative yeasts also have unique oenological properties, such as Lanchancea thermotolerans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, highlighting the potential of these yeast as inoculants for specific wine styles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives in Wine Microbiology)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity produced by Quambalaria cyanescens isolated from unripened grapes
Authors: José Juan Mateo; Olga Campos.
Affiliation: University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Abstract: Quambalaria cyanescens was positively identified on the surface of unripened grapes by physiological and molecular techniques from immature grapes from the D. O. Manchuela (Spain); its behaviour against some bacteria has been analysed. To do this, the active compounds of each fungal strain were isolated and faced with various bacteria; the presence of inhibition zones and, therefore, the presence of secondary metabolites that inhibit bacterial growth were determined. This capacity has been different according to the culture medium in which the different fungal strains have been cultivated, and it has been observed varying inhibition zones in the different bacteria used. However, the cultivation temperature does not seem to affect this activity.

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