Plant-Derived Dietary Fiber and Gut Microbiota Regulation

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 4679

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China
Interests: food nutrition; food toxicology; bioactive compounds; dietary fiber; cognitive function; intestinal health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary fibers are mainly found in plants and plant-derived foods, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and cereals. Dietary fibers include various types of carbohydrate polymers that cannot be digested nor absorbed by the human small intestine. They can be subdivided into insoluble and soluble forms. Most insoluble forms have a fecal bulking effect, and most soluble fibres give rise to viscous gels in the gastrointestinal tract. Both of their presence have major impacts on gut microbiota composition, diversity, and richness. Gut microbiota constitutes a complex community that interacts with each other and with the host to regulate many key biological processes essential for health. In recent decades, epidemiological evidence demonstrated the low intake of dietary fibers and the increased amounts of fat and sugar in Western-style diets, may partially contribute to the depletion of specific bacterial taxa, which disturb gut microbiota balance, and may result in dysfunctions, leading to the increase in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, intestinal bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), allergies, and autoimmune diseases. Nowadays, although the fact that physicochemical properties of various dietary fibers differ greatly depending on their origin and processing has been uncovered, it is essential to screen novel plant-derived fibres aiming at replenishing the gut microbiome and understand their potential mechanisms on gut microbiota-associated human diseases.

Dr. Chunxia Xiao
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • dietary fiber
  • soluble dietary fiber
  • insoluble dietary fiber
  • gut microbiota
  • prebiotic
  • SCFAs
  • butyrate
  • nutrition
  • gut health
  • inflammation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 1072 KiB  
Article
Composition and Functional Properties of the Edible Spear and By-Products from Asparagus officinalis L. and Their Potential Prebiotic Effect
by Isabel Goñi, Alejandra García-Alonso, Claudio Alba, Juan Miguel Rodríguez, María Cortes Sánchez-Mata, Rafael Guillén-Bejarano and Araceli Redondo-Cuenca
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081154 - 10 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Asparagus is a healthy food appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics, nutritional composition and physiological properties. During its industrial processing, a large amount of by-products are generated, since only the apical part of the vegetable is considered edible and a large amount of by-products [...] Read more.
Asparagus is a healthy food appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics, nutritional composition and physiological properties. During its industrial processing, a large amount of by-products are generated, since only the apical part of the vegetable is considered edible and a large amount of by-products are generated that could be of nutritional interest. Therefore, the nutritional composition of the edible part and the two by-products of the plant (root and stem) was evaluated, including dietary fiber, inulin, low-molecular-weight carbohydrates, low-molecular-weight polyphenols and macromolecular polyphenols. The hydration properties, oil retention capacity, glucose retardation index and impact on bacterial growth of both probiotic bacteria and pathogenic strains were determined. All samples were high in fiber (>22 g/100 g dw), fructans (>1.5 g/100 g dw) and polyphenolic compounds (>3 g/100 g dw) and had good water-, oil- and glucose-binding capacity. In addition, they promoted the growth of probiotic strains but not pathogenic ones. The effects were more pronounced in the spear by-product samples and appear to be related to the components of dietary fiber. The results indicate that edible spear has potential beneficial effects on host health and microbiota when ingested as part of a healthy diet, while the by-products could be used as supplements and/or as natural ingredients in fiber-enriched foods that require emulsification and are intended to achieve a prebiotic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Dietary Fiber and Gut Microbiota Regulation)
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20 pages, 3374 KiB  
Article
Potential of Modification of Techno-Functional Properties and Structural Characteristics of Citrus, Apple, Oat, and Pea Dietary Fiber by High-Intensity Ultrasound
by Ann-Marie Kalla-Bertholdt, Anne Kathrin Baier and Cornelia Rauh
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193663 - 4 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Plant fibers are rich in dietary fiber and micronutrients but often exhibit poor functionality. Ultrasonication can affect the particle size of plant fiber, thereby influencing other techno-functional properties. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of high-intensity ultrasound on citrus, apple, oat, [...] Read more.
Plant fibers are rich in dietary fiber and micronutrients but often exhibit poor functionality. Ultrasonication can affect the particle size of plant fiber, thereby influencing other techno-functional properties. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of high-intensity ultrasound on citrus, apple, oat, and pea fiber. Initially, solutions containing 1 wt% of plant fiber were homogenized using ultrasonication (amplitude 116 µm, t = 150 s, energy density = 225 kJ/L, P¯ = 325 W). Due to cavitation effects induced by ultrasound, differences in particle size and a shift in the ratio of insoluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions for dietary fiber were observed. Additionally, viscosities for citrus and apple fiber increased from 1.4 Pa·s to 84.4 Pa·s and from 1.34 Pa·s to 31.7 Pa·s, respectively, at shear rates of 100 1s. This was attributed to observed differences in the microstructure. Freeze-dried samples of purified citrus and apple fiber revealed thin and nearly transparent layers, possibly contributing to enhanced water binding capacity and, therefore, increased viscosity. Water binding capacity for citrus fiber increased from 18.2 g/g to 41.8 g/g, and a 40% increase was observed for apple fiber. Finally, ultrasound demonstrated itself be an effective technology for modifying the techno-functional properties of plant fiber, such as water binding capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Dietary Fiber and Gut Microbiota Regulation)
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12 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Effect of Adding Fermented Proso Millet Bran Dietary Fiber on Micro-Structural, Physicochemical, and Digestive Properties of Gluten-Free Proso Millet-Based Dough and Cake
by Jing Xiao, Yinxia Li, Li Niu, Ronghui Chen, Jiayu Tang, Zongbo Tong and Chunxia Xiao
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2964; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152964 - 5 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
The increasing demand for functional foods has pushed the food industry to produce fiber-enriched products. In this study, rheological, microstructural, physicochemical, and functional characteristics were investigated for whole proso millet dough and cake, fortified with fermented proso millet bran dietary fiber flour (F-DF). [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for functional foods has pushed the food industry to produce fiber-enriched products. In this study, rheological, microstructural, physicochemical, and functional characteristics were investigated for whole proso millet dough and cake, fortified with fermented proso millet bran dietary fiber flour (F-DF). Results showed that proso millet flour is less absorbent and stable than the control group. Adding proso millet flour and F-DF reduced the elasticity of the dough and increased its hardness, but had no significant effect on viscosity, cohesion, and resilience. The microstructure analysis exhibited an unformed continuous network formation in proso millet dough. Analyses suggested that proso millet flour combined with the fermented dietary fiber group had significantly higher total phenol content (0.46 GAE mg/g), DPPH• scavenging activity (66.84%), and ABTS•+ scavenging activity (87.01%) than did the other group. In addition, F-DF led to a significant reduction in the predicted released glucose contents of reformulated cakes. In summary, cakes prepared with the involvement of whole proso millet flour and F-DF exhibited less adverse sensory impact and possessed the potential to decrease postprandial blood glucose levels resulting purely from cake consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Dietary Fiber and Gut Microbiota Regulation)
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