Infant milk formula (IMF) is designed to mimic the composition of human milk (9–11 g protein/L); however, the standard protein content of IMF (15 g/L) is still a matter of controversy. In contrast to breastfed infants, excessive protein in IMF is associated with overweight and symptoms of metabolic syndrome in formula-fed infants. Moreover, the beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) content in cow milk is 3–4 g/L, whereas it is not present in human milk. It is considered to be a major reason for cow milk allergy in infants. In this respect, to modify protein composition, increasing the ratio of alpha-lactalbumin (α-Lac) to β-Lg would be a pragmatic approach to develop a hypoallergenic IMF with low protein content. Such a formula would ensure the necessary balance of essential amino acids, as 123 and 162 amino acid residues are available in α-Lac and β-Lg, respectively. Hence, in this study, a pasteurized form of hypoallergenic and low-protein ready-to-feed (RTF) formula, a new product, is developed to retain heat-sensitive bioactives and other components. Therefore, the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) under 300–600 MPa at approximately 20–40 °C and HTST pasteurization (72 °C for 15 and 30 s) were investigated and compared. The highest ratio of α-Lac to β-Lg was achieved after HPP (600 MPa for 5 min applied at 40.4 °C), which potentially explains the synergistic effect of HPP and heat on substantial denaturation of β-Lg, with significant retention of α-Lac in reconstituted IMF. Industrial relevance
: This investigation showed the potential production of a pasteurized RTF formula, a niche product, with a reduced amount of allergenic β-Lg.
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