Special Issue "Barley and Oats: Chemistry, Health Benefits, Processing and Utilizations"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Keshun Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
USDA ARS Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research Unit
Interests: grains

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Barley and oats have been domesticated since ancient times. At present, they are less widely used as human food compared to rice and wheat. However, researchers and product developers around the world are increasingly interested in exploring the two ancient grains. This renewed interest has been driven by the unique composition of the two grains, the discovery of the cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan (a soluble fiber that has earned an authorized health claim for the effect), and the public awareness of general wellness when consuming multi-grain food. In addition, unique to oats is the natural presence of a group of phenolic alkaloids known as avenanthramides. For food uses, oats are consumed as oatmeal or processed into bran, flour, and other ingredients for incorporating into various food products. Barley can be made into pearled barley, barley grits, flakes, and flour, but a major portion of the annual production is made into malted barley for brewing. One major strategy for expanding the food utilization of the two grains has been to fractionate them into protein concentrates, beta-glucan concentrates, starch, and other valuable ingredients.

This Special Issue aims to cover broad aspects relating to barley and oats with respect to the extraction, identification, characterization, and analysis of major or minor components, bioactive compounds, nutritional values, health benefits, analytical methodology, and the effect of processing.  This Special Issue on barley and oats also covers original research relating to quality improvement and value-added utilization by breading/genetic modifications and advanced processing, product features and applications (food, bioethanol, etc.), and malting barley and its effect on beer making. Up-to-date reviews on barley or oats are also welcome.

I am looking forward to your interesting and innovative work.

Dr. Keshun Liu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Barley
  • oat
  • quality
  • protein
  • starch
  • beta-gluten
  • soluble fiber
  • avenanthramide
  • bioactive compound
  • functional ingredient
  • nutritional value
  • health benefit
  • quality improvement
  • analysis
  • method
  • processing
  • fractionation
  • extraction
  • concentration
  • property
  • application
  • utilization
  • bioethanol
  • malting
  • and brewing

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Genetic Architecture of Milling Quality in Spring Oat Lines of the Collaborative Oat Research Enterprise
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102479 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Most oat grains destined for human consumption must possess the ability to pass through an industrial de-hulling process with minimal breakage and waste. Uniform grain size and a high groat to hull ratio are desirable traits related to milling performance. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Most oat grains destined for human consumption must possess the ability to pass through an industrial de-hulling process with minimal breakage and waste. Uniform grain size and a high groat to hull ratio are desirable traits related to milling performance. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic architecture of traits related to milling quality by identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to variation among a diverse collection of elite and foundational spring oat lines important to North American oat breeding programs. A total of 501 lines from the Collaborative Oat Research Enterprise (CORE) panel were evaluated for genome-wide association with 6 key milling traits. Traits were evaluated in 13 location years. Associations for 36,315 markers were evaluated for trait means across and within location years, as well as trait variance across location years, which was used to assess trait stability. Fifty-seven QTL influencing one or more of the milling quality related traits were identified, with fourteen QTL mapped influencing mean and variance across location years. The most prominent QTL was Qkernel.CORE.4D on chromosome 4D at approximately 212 cM, which influenced the mean levels of all traits. QTL were identified that influenced trait variance but not mean, trait mean only and both. Full article
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Article
Genotype and Environment Affect the Grain Quality and Yield of Winter Oats (Avena sativa L.)
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102356 - 03 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
The extent to which the quality and yield of plant varieties are influenced by the environment is important for their successful uptake by end users particularly as climatic fluctuations are resulting in environments that are highly variable from one growing season to another. [...] Read more.
The extent to which the quality and yield of plant varieties are influenced by the environment is important for their successful uptake by end users particularly as climatic fluctuations are resulting in environments that are highly variable from one growing season to another. The genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) of milling quality and yield was studied using four winter oat varieties in multi-locational trials over 4 years in the U.K. Significant differences across the 22 environments were found between physical grain quality and composition as well as grain yield, with the environment having a significant effect on all of the traits measured. Grain yield was closely related to grain number m−2 whereas milling quality traits were related to grain size attributes. Considerable genotype by environment interaction was obtained for all grain quality traits and stability analysis revealed that the variety Mascani was the least sensitive to the environment for all milling quality traits measured whereas the variety Balado was the most sensitive. Examination of environmental conditions at specific within-year stages of crop development indicated that both temperature and rainfall during grain development were correlated with grain yield and β-glucan content and with the ease of removing the hull (hullability). Full article
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Article
Predicting the Properties of Industrially Produced Oat Flours by the Characteristics of Native Oat Grains or Non-Heat-Treated Groats
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071552 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of the native oat grain or non-heat-treated groats (laboratory-scale dehulling) can be used to predict the quality of the industrially produced oat flour produced from heat-treated groats. Quality properties such as the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of the native oat grain or non-heat-treated groats (laboratory-scale dehulling) can be used to predict the quality of the industrially produced oat flour produced from heat-treated groats. Quality properties such as the color, hectoliter weight, thousand seed weight and hull content of Finnish native grains (n = 30) were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between the properties of the native grains and the chemical composition of the raw oat materials before and after the milling process were studied. A significant relationship (p < 0.01) was observed between the thousand seed weight of the native oat groats and the chemical composition of the industrially produced oat flour. Furthermore, the protein content of the native grains measured by NIT correlated with the chemical composition of the oat flours. These results suggest that the properties of oat flour produced on an industrial scale, including heat treatment, could be predicted based on the properties of native oat grains. Full article
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Review

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Review
Oat-Based Foods: Chemical Constituents, Glycemic Index, and the Effect of Processing
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061304 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
The desire for foods with lower glycemic indices has led to the exploration of functional ingredients and novel food processing techniques. The glycemic index (GI) is a well-recognized tool to assess the capacity of foods to raise blood glucose levels. Among cereal crops, [...] Read more.
The desire for foods with lower glycemic indices has led to the exploration of functional ingredients and novel food processing techniques. The glycemic index (GI) is a well-recognized tool to assess the capacity of foods to raise blood glucose levels. Among cereal crops, oats have shown the greatest promise for mitigating glycemic response. This review evaluated decades of research on the effects of oat components on the GI level of oat-based foods with specific emphasis on oat starch, β-glucans, proteins, and phenolics. The effects of commonly used processing techniques in oats on GI level, including heating, cooling, and germination were also discussed. In addition, the GI of oat-based foods in various physical formats such as whole grain, flakes, and flour was systematically summarized. The aim of this review was to synthesize knowledge of the field and to provide a deeper understanding of how the chemical composition and processing of oats affect GI, thereby further benefiting the development of low-GI oat foods. Full article
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