Special Issue "Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Santiago Benito
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Food Technology, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last few years, industrial fermentation technologies have advanced in order to improve the quality of the final product. Some examples of those modern technologies are the biotechnology developments of microbial materials, such as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts or lactic bacteria from different genera. Other technologies are related to the use of additives and adjuvants, such as nutrients, enzymes, fining agents, or preservatives and their management, which directly influence the quality and reduce the risks in final fermentation products. Other technologies are based on the management of thermal treatments, filtrations, pressure applications, ultrasounds, UV, and so on, which have also led to improvements in fermentation quality in recent years.

The aim of the issue is to study new technologies able to improve the quality parameters of fermentation products, such as aroma, color, turbidity, acidity, or any other parameters related to improving sensory perception by the consumers. Food safety parameters are also included.

Prof. Dr. Santiago Benito
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Saccharomyces
  • non-Saccharomyces
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • fermentation technology
  • color
  • aroma
  • acidity
  • quality parameters
  • fermentation
  • food safety

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Native Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” in the Volatile Profile of White Wines
Fermentation 2019, 5(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5040094 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
Yeasts during alcoholic fermentation form a vast number of volatile compounds that significantly influence wine character and quality. It is well known that the capacity to form aromatic compounds is dependent on the yeast strain. Thus, the use of native yeast strains, besides [...] Read more.
Yeasts during alcoholic fermentation form a vast number of volatile compounds that significantly influence wine character and quality. It is well known that the capacity to form aromatic compounds is dependent on the yeast strain. Thus, the use of native yeast strains, besides promoting biodiversity, encourages the conservation of regional sensory properties. In this work, we studied the volatile profile of Malvar wines fermented with 102 Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, isolated from vineyards and cellars belonging to the D.O. “Vinos de Madrid”. The wines elaborated with different S. cerevisiae showed a good classification by cellar of origin. Additionally, seven sensory descriptors have helped to classify the wines depending on their predominant aromatic character. Twenty-nine Saccharomyces strains, belonging to five of six cellars in the study, were characterized by producing wines with a fruity/sweet character. Floral, solvent, and herbaceous descriptors are more related to wines elaborated with Saccharomyces strains from organic cellars A, E, and F. Based on these findings, winemakers may use their best native S. cerevisiae strains, which add personality to their wine. Therefore, this study contributes to promoting the use of native Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Must Replacement and Hot Pre-Fermentative Maceration on the Color of Uruguayan Tannat Red Wines
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030080 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the impact of different options for winemaking on the color composition of Uruguayan Tannat red wines. The techniques evaluated were the substitution of ripe grape juice with immature grape juice and the heating of the crushed grapes before [...] Read more.
This research aimed to evaluate the impact of different options for winemaking on the color composition of Uruguayan Tannat red wines. The techniques evaluated were the substitution of ripe grape juice with immature grape juice and the heating of the crushed grapes before fermentation, called must replacement and hot pre-fermentative maceration, respectively. These procedures were proposed to reduce the alcohol content and increase the phenolic composition of the wine, according to the expected effects of climate change and current trends in consumer preferences. The investigation was made over three consecutive years (2016, 2017, and 2018). Both winemaking techniques allow the enhancement of the chromatic characteristics of wines via the modification of the phenolic composition. Additionally, such techniques allow the overcoming of the well-known limitations in the extractability of anthocyanins presented by the Tannat cultivar. Hot pre-fermentative maceration increases the proportion of the most oxidizable molecules delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-glucoside, suggesting heat inactivation of polyphenoloxidases enzymes. Must replacement and hot pre-fermentative maceration are technological alternatives that could significantly improve the intensity and chromatic characteristics of red wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sequential Inoculation with Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces Yeasts on Riesling Wine Chemical Composition
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030079 - 01 Sep 2019
Abstract
In recent years, studies have reported the positive influence of non-Saccharomyces yeast on wine quality. Many grape varieties under mixed or sequential inoculation show an overall positive effect on aroma enhancement. A potential impact by non-Saccharomyces yeast on volatile and non-volatile [...] Read more.
In recent years, studies have reported the positive influence of non-Saccharomyces yeast on wine quality. Many grape varieties under mixed or sequential inoculation show an overall positive effect on aroma enhancement. A potential impact by non-Saccharomyces yeast on volatile and non-volatile compounds should benefit the flavor of Riesling wines. Following this trend, four separate sequential fermentations (using the non-Saccharomyces yeasts Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, and Lachancea thermotolerans with Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were carried out on Riesling must and compared to a pure culture of S. cerevisiae. Sequential fermentations influenced the final wine aroma. Significant differences were found in esters, acetates, higher alcohols, fatty acids, and low volatile sulfur compounds between the different trials. Other parameters, including the production of non-volatile compounds, showed significant differences. This fermentation process not only allows the modulation of wine aroma but also chemical parameters such as glycerol, ethanol, alcohol, acidity, or fermentation by-products. These potential benefits of wine diversity should be beneficial to the wine industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Looking at the Origin: Some Insights into the General and Fermentative Microbiota of Vineyard Soils
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030078 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
In winemaking processes, there is a current tendency to develop spontaneous fermentations taking advantage of the metabolic diversity of derived from the great microbial diversity present in grape musts. This enological practice enhances wine complexity, but undesirable consequences or deviations could appear on [...] Read more.
In winemaking processes, there is a current tendency to develop spontaneous fermentations taking advantage of the metabolic diversity of derived from the great microbial diversity present in grape musts. This enological practice enhances wine complexity, but undesirable consequences or deviations could appear on wine quality. Soil is a reservoir of important microorganisms for different beneficial processes, especially for plant nutrition, but it is also the origin of many of the phytopathogenic microorganisms that affect vines. In this study, a meta-taxonomic analysis of the microbial communities inhabiting vineyard soils was realized. A significant impact of the soil type and climate aspects (seasonal patterns) was observed in terms of alpha and beta bacterial diversity, but fungal populations appeared as more stable communities in vineyard soils, especially in terms of alpha diversity. Focusing on the presence and abundance of wine-related microorganisms present in the studied soils, some seasonal and soil-dependent patterns were observed. The Lactobacillaceae family, containing species responsible for the malolactic fermentation, was only present in non-calcareous soils samples and during the summer season. The study of wine-related fungi indicated that the Debaryomycetaceae family dominates the winter yeast population, whereas the Saccharomycetaceae family, containing the most important fermentative yeast species for winemaking, was detected as dominant in summer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of A Low-Alcoholic Fermented Beverage Employing Cashew Apple Juice and Non-Conventional Yeasts
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030071 - 03 Aug 2019
Abstract
Cashew apples are by-products in the production of cashew nuts, which are mostly left to rot in the fields. Cashew apple juice (CAJ), a highly nutritious beverage, can be produced from them. It is rich in sugars and ascorbic acid, but its high [...] Read more.
Cashew apples are by-products in the production of cashew nuts, which are mostly left to rot in the fields. Cashew apple juice (CAJ), a highly nutritious beverage, can be produced from them. It is rich in sugars and ascorbic acid, but its high polyphenol content makes it bitter and astringent, and therefore difficult to commercialize. The kingdom of fungi contains more than 2000 yeast species, of which only a few species have been studied in relation to their potential to produce aroma compounds. The aim of this research was to develop a new low-alcoholic fermented beverage to valorize cashew apples. For this purpose, a screening was carried out employing non-conventional yeast species and some species of the genus Saccharomyces for comparison, followed by a more detailed study with four selected strains cultured at different conditions. The production of volatile aroma compounds as a function of the presence of oxygen, temperature, and yeast species was investigated. The results showed that the more diverse aroma profiles appeared at 25 °C under anaerobic cultivation conditions, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae WUR 102 and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii CBS 2567 excelled in the synthesis of certain aroma compounds, such as β-phenylethanol and its acetate ester (rose aroma). Further studies are needed to test consumer acceptance of these new products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Selected Autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Narince Wines
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030070 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vitis vinifera cv. Narince is a Turkish native white grape variety. In this study, volatile and sensory properties of Narince wines that are produced with autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains and commercial strain were compared. Autochthonous yeast strains 1044 (MG017575), [...] Read more.
Vitis vinifera cv. Narince is a Turkish native white grape variety. In this study, volatile and sensory properties of Narince wines that are produced with autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains and commercial strain were compared. Autochthonous yeast strains 1044 (MG017575), 1088 (MG017577), and 1281 (MG017581) were previously isolated from spontaneous fermentations of Narince grapes. Volatile compounds formed in wines were extracted using a liquid–liquid extraction method and determined by GC-MS-FID. All yeast strains fermented Narince grape juice to dryness. The differences between the volatile profiles of the yeast strains were determined. Wines fermented with autochthonous strains 1281 and 1044 produced a higher amount of acetates and ethyl esters. While the highest concentrations of ethyl hexanoate and hexyl acetate were found in wine fermented with 1044, the highest concentrations of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate were found in wine fermented with strain 1281. Also, the highest contents of 2-phenyl ethanol and linalool were found in wine fermented with strain 1281. According to sensory analysis, the wine fermented with 1281 achieved the best scores in floral and fruity attributes, as well as balance and global impression. The data obtained in the present study showed that autochthonous yeast strains affect the final physicochemical composition and sensory profile of Narince wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact on Sensory and Aromatic Profile of Low Ethanol Malbec Wines Fermented by Sequential Culture of Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Native Yeasts
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030065 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is well known that high ethanol levels in wines adversely affect the perception of new wine consumers. Moreover, numerous issues, such as civil restrictions, health risk and trade barriers, are associated with high ethanol concentrations. Several strategies have been proposed to produce [...] Read more.
It is well known that high ethanol levels in wines adversely affect the perception of new wine consumers. Moreover, numerous issues, such as civil restrictions, health risk and trade barriers, are associated with high ethanol concentrations. Several strategies have been proposed to produce wines with lower alcoholic content, one simple and inexpensive approach being the use of new wine native yeasts with less efficiency in sugar to ethanol conversion. Nevertheless, it is also necessary that these yeasts do not impair the quality of wine. In this work, we tested the effect of sequential culture between Hanseniaspora uvarum BHu9 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BSc114 on ethanol production. Then, the wines produced were analyzed by GC-MS and tested by a sensorial panel. Co-culture had a positive impact on ethanol reduction and sensory profile when compared to the S. cerevisiae monoculture. Wines with lower alcohol content were related to fruity aroma; moreover, color intensity was associated. The wines obtained with S. cerevisiae BSc114 in pure conditions were described by parameters linked with high ethanol levels, such as hotness and astringency. Moreover, floral profile was related to this treatment. Based on these findings, this work provides a contribution to answer the current consumers’ preferences and addresses the main challenges faced by the enological industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Wine Flavor using Hanseniaspora uvarum in Combination with Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains and Malolactic Fermentation Strategies
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030064 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hanseniaspora uvarum is one of the predominant non-Saccharomyces yeast species found on grapes and in juice, but its effect on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growth and wine flavor has not been extensively studied. Therefore, the interaction between H. uvarum, two Saccharomyces [...] Read more.
Hanseniaspora uvarum is one of the predominant non-Saccharomyces yeast species found on grapes and in juice, but its effect on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growth and wine flavor has not been extensively studied. Therefore, the interaction between H. uvarum, two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, two LAB species (Lactobacillus plantarum and Oenococcus oeni) in combination with two malolactic fermentation (MLF) strategies was investigated in Shiraz wine production trials. The evolution of the different microorganisms was monitored, non-volatile and volatile compounds were measured, and the wines were subjected to sensory evaluation. Wines produced with H. uvarum in combination with S. cerevisiae completed MLF in a shorter period than wines produced with only S. cerevisiae. Sequential MLF wines scored higher for fresh vegetative and spicy aroma than wines where MLF was induced as a simultaneous inoculation. Wines produced with H. uvarum had more body than wines produced with only S. cerevisiae. The induction of MLF using L. plantarum also resulted in wines with higher scores for body. H. uvarum can be used to reduce the duration of MLF, enhance fresh vegetative aroma and improve the body of a wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Selection of Native Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts with Biocontrol Activity against Spoilage Yeasts in Order to Produce Healthy Regional Wines
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030060 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Two major spoilage yeasts in the wine industry, Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, produce off-flavors and gas, causing considerable economic losses. Traditionally, SO2 has been used in winemaking to prevent spoilage, but strict regulations are in place regarding its use due [...] Read more.
Two major spoilage yeasts in the wine industry, Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, produce off-flavors and gas, causing considerable economic losses. Traditionally, SO2 has been used in winemaking to prevent spoilage, but strict regulations are in place regarding its use due to its toxic and allergenic effects. To reduce its usage researchers have been searching for alternative techniques. One alternative is biocontrol, which can be used either independently or in a complementary way to chemical control (SO2). The present study analyzed 122 native non-Saccharomyces yeasts for their biocontrol activity and their ability to be employed under fermentation conditions, as well as certain enological traits. After the native non-Saccharomyces yeasts were assayed for their biocontrol activity, 10 biocontroller yeasts were selected and assayed for their ability to prevail in the fermentation medium, as well as with respect to their corresponding positive/negative contribution to the wine. Two yeasts that satisfy these characteristics were Wickerhamomyces anomalus BWa156 and Metschnikowia pulcherrima BMp29, which were selected for further research in application to mixed fermentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized pH and Its Control Strategy Lead to Enhanced Itaconic Acid Fermentation by Aspergillus terreus on Glucose Substrate
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020031 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Biological itaconic acid production can by catalyzed by Aspergillus terreus (a filamentous fungi) where the fermentation medium pH is of prominent importance. Therefore, in this work, we investigated what benefits the different pH regulation options might offer in enhancing the process. The batch [...] Read more.
Biological itaconic acid production can by catalyzed by Aspergillus terreus (a filamentous fungi) where the fermentation medium pH is of prominent importance. Therefore, in this work, we investigated what benefits the different pH regulation options might offer in enhancing the process. The batch itaconic acid fermentation data underwent a kinetic analysis and the pH control alternatives were ranked subsequently. It would appear that the pH-shift strategy (initial adjustment of pH to 3 and its maintenance at 2.5 after 48 h) resulted in the most attractive fermentation pattern and could hence be recommended to achieve itaconic acid production with an improved performance using A. terreus from carbohydrate, such as glucose. Under this condition, the itaconic acid titer potential, the maximal itaconic acid (titer) production rate, the length of lag-phase and itaconic acid yield were 87.32 g/L, 0.22 g/L/h, 56.04 h and 0.35 g/g glucose, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Climate Changes and Food Quality: The Potential of Microbial Activities as Mitigating Strategies in the Wine Sector
Fermentation 2019, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5040085 - 23 Sep 2019
Abstract
Climate change threatens food systems, with huge repercussions on food security and on the safety and quality of final products. We reviewed the potential of food microbiology as a source of biotechnological solutions to design climate-smart food systems, using wine as a model [...] Read more.
Climate change threatens food systems, with huge repercussions on food security and on the safety and quality of final products. We reviewed the potential of food microbiology as a source of biotechnological solutions to design climate-smart food systems, using wine as a model productive sector. Climate change entails considerable problems for the sustainability of oenology in several geographical regions, also placing at risk the wine typicity. The main weaknesses identified are: (i) The increased undesired microbial proliferation; (ii) the improved sugars and, consequently, ethanol content; (iii) the reduced acidity and increased pH; (iv) the imbalanced perceived sensory properties (e.g., colour, flavour); and (v) the intensified safety issues (e.g., mycotoxins, biogenic amines). In this paper, we offer an overview of the potential microbial-based strategies suitable to cope with the five challenges listed above. In terms of microbial diversity, our principal focus was on microorganisms isolated from grapes/musts/wines and on microbes belonging to the main categories with a recognized positive role in oenological processes, namely Saccharomyces spp. (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae), non-Saccharomyces yeasts (e.g., Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Starmerella bacillaris), and malolactic bacteria (e.g., Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus plantarum). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessReview
The Influence of Non-Saccharomyces Species on Wine Fermentation Quality Parameters
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030054 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the past, some microbiological studies have considered most non-Saccharomyces species to be undesirable spoilage microorganisms. For several decades, that belief made the Saccharomyces genus the only option considered by winemakers for achieving the best possible wine quality. Nevertheless, in recent decades, [...] Read more.
In the past, some microbiological studies have considered most non-Saccharomyces species to be undesirable spoilage microorganisms. For several decades, that belief made the Saccharomyces genus the only option considered by winemakers for achieving the best possible wine quality. Nevertheless, in recent decades, some strains of non-Saccharomyces species have been proven to improve the quality of wine. Non-Saccharomyces species can positively influence quality parameters such as aroma, acidity, color, and food safety. These quality improvements allow winemakers to produce innovative and differentiated wines. For that reason, the yeast strains Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Pichia kluyveri are now available on the market. Other interesting species, such as Starmerella bacillaris, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Hanseniospora spp., and others, will probably be available in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessReview
The Importance of Yeasts on Fermentation Quality and Human Health-Promoting Compounds
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020046 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces are important during wine fermentation once they influence wine composition. In the early stages of wine fermentation, and together with indigenous or commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces are able to transform grape-must sugars into ethanol, CO2, [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces are important during wine fermentation once they influence wine composition. In the early stages of wine fermentation, and together with indigenous or commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces are able to transform grape-must sugars into ethanol, CO2, and other important secondary metabolites. A better understanding of yeast biochemistry will allow the selection of yeast strains that have defined specific influences on fermentation efficiency, wine quality, and the production of human health-promoting compounds. Yeast metabolism produces compounds derived from tryptophan, melatonin, and serotonin, which are found in fermented beverages, such as wine and beer. Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted from the pineal gland and has a wide-ranging regulatory and neuroprotective role, while serotonin, as well as being a precursor of melatonin synthesis, is also a neurotransmitter. This review summarizes the importance of some conventional and nonconventional yeast strains’ alcoholic fermentations, especially in the production of metabolites that promote human health and thus, attract consumers attention towards fermented beverages. A brief reference is also made on fermented beverages containing probiotics, namely kombucha, also known as kombucha tea, and its interesting microorganism’s symbiotic relationships named SCOBY. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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Open AccessReview
The Management of Compounds that Influence Human Health in Modern Winemaking from an HACCP Point of View
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020033 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The undesirable effects of some hazardous compounds involved in the different steps of the winemaking process may pose health risks to consumers; hence, the importance of compliance with recent international food safety standards, including the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) standards. [...] Read more.
The undesirable effects of some hazardous compounds involved in the different steps of the winemaking process may pose health risks to consumers; hence, the importance of compliance with recent international food safety standards, including the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) standards. In recent years, there has been a rise in the development of new technologies in response to the hazardous effects of chemical compounds detected during the winemaking process, whether naturally produced or added during different winemaking processes. The main purpose was to reduce the levels of some compounds, such as biogenic amines, ethyl carbamate, ochratoxin A, and sulfur dioxide. These technological advances are currently considered a necessity, because they produce wines free of health-hazardous compounds and, most importantly, help in the management and prevention of health risks. This review shows how to prevent and control the most common potential health risks of wine using a HACCP methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality)
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