Special Issue "Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vittorio Capozzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Agricultural, Food and Environment Sciences, University of Foggia, via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy
2. Promis Biotech srl, via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Tel. 0039-0881-589303; Fax: 0039-0881-589303
Interests: food microbiology; food biotechnology; lactic acid bacteria; probiotics; prebiotics; volatile organic compounds; Lactobacillus plantarum; Oenococcus oeni; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; non-Saccharomyces; wine
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The heterogeneous class of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have represented a continuous reservoir of biotechnological productions for millennia. In the light of recent innovative applications for lactic acid fermentations in the different biotechnological sectors and industries (e.g., food production, agricultural and environmental practices, industrial processes, medical and pharmaceutical solutions), this Special Issue will encompass multiple aspects of LAB-based innovations from the biological understanding (e.g., genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and systems biology; bioinformatics; microbial physiology and metabolism) to the biotechnological development (e.g., strain improvement; bioprocess and metabolic engineering; applied genetics and molecular biotechnology), including aspects dealing with industrialization (e.g., scale up of fermentation processes; downstream processing of fermentation products; bioreactor design; monitoring, biosensors and instrumentation; biosafety and biosecurity).

Dr. Vittorio Capozzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Starter cultures and protective cultures
  • Functional biomolecules
  • Biocontrol
  • Food quality
  • Prebiotics and probiotics
  • Vaccines
  • Antimicrobial substances
  • Bioplastic
  • Biodiversity and Bioremediation
  • Animal nutrition

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Exploration of the Microbial Biodiversity Associated with North Apulian Sourdoughs and the Effect of the Increasing Number of Inoculated Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains on the Biocontrol against Fungal Spoilage
Fermentation 2019, 5(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5040097 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this study, we explored the diversity of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with six spontaneous sourdough fermentations from the northern part of the Apulian region (Italy). Bacterial and yeast isolates from sourdough were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [...] Read more.
In this study, we explored the diversity of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with six spontaneous sourdough fermentations from the northern part of the Apulian region (Italy). Bacterial and yeast isolates from sourdough were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, respectively. The identification of the isolates was confirmed by sequencing bacterial 16S gene and yeast ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 rRNA gene amplicons. Microbiological analysis of all sourdough samples revealed that LAB and yeast counts ranged between 1.7 × 105 and 6.5 × 108 cfu/g, and 7.7 × 105 and 2.5 × 107 cfu/g, respectively. The molecular identification at species level revealed the occurrence of Lactobacillus plantarum as the dominant LAB and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant yeast species in all different sourdough samples. Then, the ability of all isolated strains to inhibit and/or reduce the growth of several selected fungi was valued through the overlay method. In light of their antifungal performances, ten LAB strains were inoculated, singularly and in combination, in subsequent bread-making trials. Overall, we confirmed the potential of LAB to extend the shelf life of bread through spoilage inhibition and, for the first time, we observed a synergistic effect due to the combination of several isolated LAB on the inhibition behavior against selected fungal spoilage strains. Our findings suggest the exploration of a LAB-based approach in order to extend the shelf life of bread, reducing, at the same time, the use of chemical agents for food preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Goat Milk with Different Alpha-s1 Casein Genotype (CSN1S1) Fermented by Selected Lactobacillus paracasei as Potential Functional Food
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030055 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
The characteristics of fermented milk are affected by the type of milk used and the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process. Goat milk has been widely suggested as a possible alternative to cow milk in allergic subjects, because of the high genetic variability [...] Read more.
The characteristics of fermented milk are affected by the type of milk used and the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process. Goat milk has been widely suggested as a possible alternative to cow milk in allergic subjects, because of the high genetic variability in alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1) content, which is associated with different technological and nutritional properties of milk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of goat milk with low and high CSN1S1 to produce fermented milk. In addition, the performance as starter of selected Lactobacillus paracasei FS109 strain compared to no-selected L. paracasei strains was investigated. Initially, the selected L. paracasei FS109 strain was tested for adhesion ability to HT-29 and Caco-2 cells and immunomodulation effect. Then, the strain was used to produce fermented milk from goat milk with a low and high casein CSN1S1 genotype. The results indicated that greater acidifying activity was obtained for L. paracasei FS109 after 24 h of fermentation than the other two strains tested independently by the CSN1S1 genotype. L. paracasei FS109 grew well during fermentation, reaching a higher value (>8.5 log CFU/mL). Interestingly, the same strain maintained a high viable population (about 9 log CFU/mL) during the 30-day cold storage of the product. The present study shows for the first time the suitability of the goat milk with low CSN1S1 genotypes to produce fermented milk and highlight the importance of strain selection in determination of technological and beneficial traits. Combining goat milk with low CSN1S1 and selected strains could be a strategy of improving traditional and functional fermented milk market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
Open AccessArticle
Production of Anserine-Rich Fish Sauce from Giant Masu Salmon, Oncorhynchus masou masou and γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)-Enrichment by Lactobacillus plantarum Strain N10
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020045 - 30 May 2019
Abstract
Previously, we developed a novel production technique for giant masu salmon (GMS). This study aimed to develop a fish sauce from GMS to explore ways to efficiently utilize the salmon and to enrich the fish sauce with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by microbial fermentation. [...] Read more.
Previously, we developed a novel production technique for giant masu salmon (GMS). This study aimed to develop a fish sauce from GMS to explore ways to efficiently utilize the salmon and to enrich the fish sauce with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by microbial fermentation. The minced bodies of GMS were autolyzed by endogenous protease at 55 °C and 60 °C. During autolysis, the changes in total free amino acids and protein size was monitored by LC-MS and SDS-PAGE analysis, respectively. After 96 h, fish sauce was prepared by heating, and the amino acid composition was analyzed by LC-MS. To enrich the fish sauce with GABA, Lactobacillus plantarum strain N10 was added and incubated at 28 °C for 48 h. The total free amino acids content significantly increased for 96 h. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that major bands at 200 kDa and 48 kDa detected at 0 h gradually disappeared over time. The ratio of anserine to total amino acids in the fish sauce was approximately 36%. The concentration of GABA in the fish sauce significantly increased through the addition of strain N10. Thus, anserine-rich fish sauce could be quickly produced from GMS, and the fish sauce was enriched with GABA by microbial fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Production and Purification of l-lactic Acid in Lab and Pilot Scales Using Sweet Sorghum Juice
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020036 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was evaluated as fermentation substrate for the production of l-lactic acid. A thermophilic Bacillus coagulans isolate was selected for batch fermentations without the use of additional nutrients. The first batch of SSJ (Batch A) resulted on higher lactic [...] Read more.
Sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was evaluated as fermentation substrate for the production of l-lactic acid. A thermophilic Bacillus coagulans isolate was selected for batch fermentations without the use of additional nutrients. The first batch of SSJ (Batch A) resulted on higher lactic acid concentration, yield and productivity with values of 78.75 g∙L−1, 0.78 g∙g−1 and 1.77 g∙L−1 h−1, respectively. Similar results were obtained when the process was transferred into the pilot scale (50 L), with corresponding values of 73 g∙L−1, 0.70 g∙g−1 and 1.47 g∙L−1 h−1. A complete downstream process scheme was developed in order to separate lactic acid from the fermentation components. Coarse and ultra-filtration were employed as preliminary separation steps. Mono- and bipolar electrodialysis, followed by chromatography and vacuum evaporation were subsequently carried out leading to a solution containing 905.8 g∙L−1 lactic acid, with an optical purity of 98.9%. The results of this study highlight the importance of the downstream process with respect to using SSJ for lactic acid production. The proposed downstream process constitutes a more environmentally benign approach to conventional precipitation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Capnophilic Lactic Fermentation from Thermotoga neapolitana: A Resourceful Pathway to Obtain Almost Enantiopure L-lactic Acid
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020034 - 11 Apr 2019
Abstract
The industrial production of lactic acid (LA) is mainly based on bacterial fermentation. This process can result in enantiopure or racemic mixture according to the producing organism. Between the enantiomers, L-lactic acid shows superior market value. Recently, we reported a novel anaplerotic pathway [...] Read more.
The industrial production of lactic acid (LA) is mainly based on bacterial fermentation. This process can result in enantiopure or racemic mixture according to the producing organism. Between the enantiomers, L-lactic acid shows superior market value. Recently, we reported a novel anaplerotic pathway called capnophilic lactic fermentation (CLF) that produces a high concentration of LA by fermentation of sugar in the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. The aim of this work was the identification of the enantiomeric characterization of the LA produced by T. neapolitana and identification of the lactate dehydrogenase in T. neapolitana (TnLDH) and related bacteria of the order Thermotogales. Chemical derivatization and GC/MS analysis were applied to define the stereochemistry of LA from T. neapolitana. A bioinformatics study on TnLDH was carried out for the characterization of the enzyme. Chemical analysis showed a 95.2% enantiomeric excess of L-LA produced by T. neapolitana. A phylogenetic approach clearly clustered the TnLDH together with the L-LDH from lactic acid bacteria. We report for the first time that T. neapolitana is able to produce almost enantiopure L-lactic acid. The result was confirmed by bioinformatics analysis on TnLDH, which is a member of the L-LDH sub-family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Bioconversion of Gelatinized Starchy Waste from the Rice Noodle Manufacturing Process to Lactic Acid and Maltose-Forming α-Amylase by Lactobacillus plantarum S21, Using a Low-Cost Medium
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020032 - 10 Apr 2019
Abstract
A direct bioconversion of gelatinized starchy waste (GSW) to lactic acid by amylolytic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum S21 was investigated. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was selected as the most suitable low-cost nitrogen source for replacing yeast extract, beef extract, and peptone in [...] Read more.
A direct bioconversion of gelatinized starchy waste (GSW) to lactic acid by amylolytic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum S21 was investigated. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was selected as the most suitable low-cost nitrogen source for replacing yeast extract, beef extract, and peptone in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium. Plackett–Burman design results indicated that GSW and CSL were the two most nutrients that significantly influence lactic acid production, among eight medium components, including GSW, CSL, K2HPO4, CH3COONa, (NH4)2HC6H5O7, MgSO4, MnSO4, and Tween 80. A new low-cost medium containing only GSW (134.4 g/L) and CSL (187.7 g/L) was achieved as omitting other six components from the optimized medium had no effect on lactic acid yield. Batch fermentation at 37 °C both in 1 L and 10 L jar fermenters showed non-significantly different productivity. A by-product, maltose-forming α-amylase, was successfully achieved up to 96% recovery yield using an ultrafiltration unit equipped with a 50 kDa cut-off membrane. Crude lactic acid exhibited the additional benefit of antimicrobial activity against food and feed pathogens Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TISTR 292, Vibrio cholerae TH-001, and also E. coli ATCC 25922. This study presents a promising bioprocess for the simultaneous production of lactic acid, and a value-added food enzyme, using only two industrial wastes, GSW and CSL, as the medium components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Fermentation on Enhancing the Nutraceutical Properties of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina)
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010028 - 19 Mar 2019
Abstract
Arthrospira platensis (spirulina), a filamentous fresh-water planktonic cyanobacterium, possesses diverse biological activities and a unique nutritional profile, due to its high content of valuable nutrients. This study aimed to further improve the bioactive profile of spirulina, by fermenting it with the lactic acid [...] Read more.
Arthrospira platensis (spirulina), a filamentous fresh-water planktonic cyanobacterium, possesses diverse biological activities and a unique nutritional profile, due to its high content of valuable nutrients. This study aimed to further improve the bioactive profile of spirulina, by fermenting it with the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. In vitro comparison of the total phenolic content (TPC), C-phycocyanin, free methionine, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and protein fragmentation via SDS-PAGE in untreated versus 12 to 72 h fermented spirulina is reported here. After 36 h fermentation, TPC was enhanced by 112%, FRAP by 85% and ORAC by 36%. After 24 h, the DPPH radical scavenging capacity increased 60%, while the free methionine content increased by 94%, after 72 h. Past 36 h of fermentation, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) diminished, possibly due to deterioration of the heat-sensitive antioxidants. However, protein fragmentation and free methionine content increased, linearly, with the fermentation time. Cyanobacterial peptides and other bioactive compounds trapped within the spirulina cell wall are released during fermentation and have a significant potential as a functional ingredient in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, in addition to their nutritive value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Production of d-Lactate from Avocado Seed Hydrolysates by Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli JU15
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010026 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Agroindustry residues can be used to produce valuable chemicals such as lactic acid, which is a primary chemical platform with many industrial applications. Biotechnological processes are the main approach of lactic acid production; however, culture media has an important impact on their costs. [...] Read more.
Agroindustry residues can be used to produce valuable chemicals such as lactic acid, which is a primary chemical platform with many industrial applications. Biotechnological processes are the main approach of lactic acid production; however, culture media has an important impact on their costs. As a result, researchers are exploring various methods of production that use residual or waste biomass as raw materials, most of which are rich in lignocellulose. Nevertheless, starch and micronutrients such as those contained in avocado seeds stand out as promising feedstock for the bioprocess as well. In this study, the lactogenic Escherichia coli strain JU15 was evaluated for producing d-lactate using an avocado seed hydrolysate medium in a controlled stirred-tank bioreactor. The highest lactic acid concentration achieved was 37.8 g L−1 using 120 g L−1 as the content of initial reducing sugars. The results showed that d-lactate can be produced from avocado seed, which hydrolysates to 0.52 g L−1 h−1 using the engineered E. coli JU15. This study may serve as a starting point to further develop bioprocesses for producing metabolites using avocado seed hydrolysates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessCommunication
Influence of Media Heat Sterilization Process on Growth Performance of Representative Strains of the Genus Lactobacillus
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010020 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely applied microorganisms in food, feed, and beverage applications, where they can provide essential functionality for product modification, increase product shelf life, or act as beneficial organisms after consumption. Among these, strains of the genus Lactobacillus are often [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely applied microorganisms in food, feed, and beverage applications, where they can provide essential functionality for product modification, increase product shelf life, or act as beneficial organisms after consumption. Among these, strains of the genus Lactobacillus are often used as starters, probiotics, or biopreservatives. For all these types of bacterial preparations, a transportable shelf-stable form of concentrated bacteria, preserving their intrinsic properties, is essential for commercial distribution. Former studies revealed a relationship between the culture medium, cellular morphology, and the robustness of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (name derived from North Carolina Food Microbiology) cultures. Due to these insights, a multitude of Lactobacillus strains representative of the genus were screened regarding their sensitivity to thermal medium pretreatment possibly accompanied by the alteration of their chemical composition, such as the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). This study reveals a quite diverse and different growth behavior of those strains in the form of altered or non-altered cell concentrations and the size distributions of the populations, whereby five strains of the L. delbrueckii group in particular showed increased cell concentrations combined with decreased mean cell volumes. The results are of both scientific and industrial relevance, as they highlight the necessity to consider and understand the effects of media sterilization for the applied production strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Hydrolysis Methods on the Utilization of Agricultural Residues as Nutrient Source for D-lactic Acid Production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010012 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
d-lactic acid is a building block for heat resistant polylactic acid, a biobased polymer with a high potential. Nevertheless, an economically efficient industrial process for d-lactic acid production still needs to be implemented. Yeast extract is an expensive nutrient source, which [...] Read more.
d-lactic acid is a building block for heat resistant polylactic acid, a biobased polymer with a high potential. Nevertheless, an economically efficient industrial process for d-lactic acid production still needs to be implemented. Yeast extract is an expensive nutrient source, which is used to fulfill the complex nutritional requirements in lactic acid fermentations. The substitution of yeast extract by cheap alternative nutrient sources is a challenge in many fermentation processes. In this study, chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis techniques for protein rich agricultural residues and their effectiveness are compared, as well as their impact on the d-lactic acid production of Sporolactobacillus inulinus. An efficient substitution of yeast extract could be achieved by a variety of agricultural residues, hydrolysed with 3M H2SO4, demonstrating the much higher versatility and effectiveness of this method compared to enzymatic methods. In a fed-batch experiment with chemically hydrolyzed rapeseed meal and minimal supplementation, a lactic acid titer of 221 g L−1 and an overall productivity of 1.55 g (L h)−1 (96% yield) were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
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