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Open AccessArticle

Goat Milk with Different Alpha-s1 Casein Genotype (CSN1S1) Fermented by Selected Lactobacillus paracasei as Potential Functional Food

1
Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2
Laboratory of Dairy Research, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11521 Athens, Greece
3
Istituto di Biologia e Biotecnologia Agraria, CNR, 26900 Lodi, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università degli Studi di Torino, Grugliasco, 10095 Turin, Italy
5
Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 11521 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030055
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Fermentation and the Colours of Biotechnology)
The characteristics of fermented milk are affected by the type of milk used and the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process. Goat milk has been widely suggested as a possible alternative to cow milk in allergic subjects, because of the high genetic variability in alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1) content, which is associated with different technological and nutritional properties of milk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of goat milk with low and high CSN1S1 to produce fermented milk. In addition, the performance as starter of selected Lactobacillus paracasei FS109 strain compared to no-selected L. paracasei strains was investigated. Initially, the selected L. paracasei FS109 strain was tested for adhesion ability to HT-29 and Caco-2 cells and immunomodulation effect. Then, the strain was used to produce fermented milk from goat milk with a low and high casein CSN1S1 genotype. The results indicated that greater acidifying activity was obtained for L. paracasei FS109 after 24 h of fermentation than the other two strains tested independently by the CSN1S1 genotype. L. paracasei FS109 grew well during fermentation, reaching a higher value (>8.5 log CFU/mL). Interestingly, the same strain maintained a high viable population (about 9 log CFU/mL) during the 30-day cold storage of the product. The present study shows for the first time the suitability of the goat milk with low CSN1S1 genotypes to produce fermented milk and highlight the importance of strain selection in determination of technological and beneficial traits. Combining goat milk with low CSN1S1 and selected strains could be a strategy of improving traditional and functional fermented milk market. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactobacillus paracasei; immunomodulation; goat milk; casein genotype; fermented milk; functional food Lactobacillus paracasei; immunomodulation; goat milk; casein genotype; fermented milk; functional food
MDPI and ACS Style

Mangia, N.P.; Saliba, L.; Zoumpopoulou, G.; Chessa, S.; Anastasiou, R.; Karayiannis, Ι.; Sgouras, D.; Tsakalidou, E.; Nudda, A. Goat Milk with Different Alpha-s1 Casein Genotype (CSN1S1) Fermented by Selected Lactobacillus paracasei as Potential Functional Food. Fermentation 2019, 5, 55.

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