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Special Issue "Fermented and Functional Food"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Diana Oliveira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho, 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
Interests: food and nutritional sciences

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although there is no industry-wide definition for functional foods or ingredients, is broadly accepted that functional foods are those that provide an extra health benefit to the consumer, i.e., positive health outcome via physiological activity in the body, beyond basic nutrition. On the other hand, a functional ingredient is a bioactive compound that can be used in the manufacture of functional food products. These bioactive compounds can be obtained from a variety of sources such as primary produce, marine sources, microorganisms or derived from food processing waste providing additional economic benefits to food businesses. The processing, (e.g., fermented foods), digestion and fermentation of these functional food/ingredients generate bioactive metabolites, which exert a direct or indirect benefit to the host, either by enhancing the gut health, improving metabolism and energy homeostasis, influencing insulin secretion, regulating appetite, ameliorate inflammatory processes or preventing cell damage, among others. In vitro gastrointestinal models have contributed significantly to the successful development of new functional foods/ingredients by providing useful and crucial information regarding their metabolism, digestion, absorption and fermentation. Thus, enabling the food industry to increase their competitiveness and develop new preventive food strategies, leading to a reformulation of processed foods and development of novel foods and ingredients, dietetic foods and foods with nutritional and health claims. The goal of this Special Issue is to collect both original research articles and reviews focussed on the contribution of functional food and/or ingredients and their metabolites in promoting and/or improving welfare and/or preventing and/or delaying metabolic dysfunctions.

Dr. Diana Oliveira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fermentation
  • functional ingredients
  • prebiotics and probiotics
  • in vitro gastrointestinal models
  • gut microbiota
  • antioxidant
  • anti-inflammatory
  • bioactive metabolites

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Microbiological and Metagenomic Characterization of a Retail Delicatessen Galotyri-Like Fresh Acid-Curd Cheese Product
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020067 - 29 Apr 2021
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Abstract
This study evaluated the microbial quality, safety, and ecology of a retail delicatessen Galotyri-like fresh acid-curd cheese traditionally produced by mixing fresh natural Greek yogurt with ‘Myzithrenio’, a naturally fermented and ripened whey cheese variety. Five retail cheese batches (mean pH 4.1) were [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the microbial quality, safety, and ecology of a retail delicatessen Galotyri-like fresh acid-curd cheese traditionally produced by mixing fresh natural Greek yogurt with ‘Myzithrenio’, a naturally fermented and ripened whey cheese variety. Five retail cheese batches (mean pH 4.1) were analyzed for total and selective microbial counts, and 150 presumptive isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were characterized biochemically. Additionally, the most and the least diversified batches were subjected to a culture-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. LAB prevailed in all cheeses followed by yeasts. Enterobacteria, pseudomonads, and staphylococci were present as <100 viable cells/g of cheese. The yogurt starters Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were the most abundant LAB isolates, followed by nonstarter strains of Lactiplantibacillus, Lacticaseibacillus, Enterococcus faecium, E. faecalis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, whose isolation frequency was batch-dependent. Lactococcus lactis isolates were sporadic, except for one cheese batch. However, Lactococcus lactis, Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, Salinivibrio, and Shewanellaceae were detected at fairly high relative abundances culture-independently, despite the fact that their viable counts in the cheeses were low or undetectable. Metagenomics confirmed the prevalence of S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii. Overall, this delicatessen Galotyri-like cheese product was shown to be a rich pool of indigenous nonstarter LAB strains, which deserve further biotechnological investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented and Functional Food)
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Article
Identification and Transferability of Tetracycline Resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus during Milk Fermentation, Storage, and Gastrointestinal Transit
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020065 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food products, particularly those carrying acquired resistance genes, has increased concerns about the transmission of these genes from beneficial microbes to human pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibiotic resistance-susceptibility patterns of 16 antibiotics in eight [...] Read more.
The existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food products, particularly those carrying acquired resistance genes, has increased concerns about the transmission of these genes from beneficial microbes to human pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibiotic resistance-susceptibility patterns of 16 antibiotics in eight S. thermophilus strains, whose genome sequence is available, using phenotypic and genomic approaches. The minimal inhibitory concentration values collected revealed intermediate resistance to aminoglycosides, whereas susceptibility was detected for different classes of β-lactams, quinolones, glycopeptide, macrolides, and sulfonamides in all strains. A high tetracycline resistance level has been detected in strain M17PTZA496, whose genome analysis indicated the presence of the tet(S) gene and the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family efflux pump. Moreover, an in-depth genomic analysis revealed genomic islands and an integrative and mobilizable element (IME) in the proximity of the gene tet(S). However, despite the presence of a prophage, genomic islands, and IME, no horizontal gene transfer was detected to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 20355 and Lactobacillusrhamnosus GG during 24 h of skim milk fermentation, 2 weeks of refrigerated storage, and 4 h of simulated gastrointestinal transit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented and Functional Food)
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Review

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Review
Vitamin K in COVID-19—Potential Anti-COVID-19 Properties of Fermented Milk Fortified with Bee Honey as a Natural Source of Vitamin K and Probiotics
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040202 (registering DOI) - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Vitamin K deficiency is evident in severe and fatal COVID-19 patients. It is associated with the cytokine storm, thrombotic complications, multiple organ damage, and high mortality, suggesting a key role of vitamin K in the pathology of COVID-19. To support this view, we [...] Read more.
Vitamin K deficiency is evident in severe and fatal COVID-19 patients. It is associated with the cytokine storm, thrombotic complications, multiple organ damage, and high mortality, suggesting a key role of vitamin K in the pathology of COVID-19. To support this view, we summarized findings reported from machine learning studies, molecular simulation, and human studies on the association between vitamin K and SARS-CoV-2. We also investigated the literature for the association between vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and the prognosis of COVID-19. In addition, we speculated that fermented milk fortified with bee honey as a natural source of vitamin K and probiotics may protect against COVID-19 and its severity. The results reported by several studies emphasize vitamin K deficiency in COVID-19 and related complications. However, the literature on the role of VKA and other oral anticoagulants in COVID-19 is controversial: some studies report reductions in (intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality), others report no effect on mortality, while some studies report higher mortality among patients on chronic oral anticoagulants, including VKA. Supplementing fermented milk with honey increases milk peptides, bacterial vitamin K production, and compounds that act as potent antioxidants: phenols, sulforaphane, and metabolites of lactobacilli. Lactobacilli are probiotic bacteria that are suggested to interfere with various aspects of COVID-19 infection ranging from receptor binding to metabolic pathways involved in disease prognosis. Thus, fermented milk that contains natural honey may be a dietary manipulation capable of correcting nutritional and immune deficiencies that predispose to and aggravate COVID-19. Empirical studies are warranted to investigate the benefits of these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented and Functional Food)
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