Fermented Beverages Revisited: From Terroir to Customized Functional Products

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2023) | Viewed by 21279

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Department of Wine, Vine, and Beverage Sciences, School of Food Science, University of West Attica, 12243 Athens, Greece
Interests: food microbiology; sparkling wine; yeast; yeast–yeast interactions; wine; mixed culture; fermentation conditions; sensory; food microbiology; alcohol reduction; native yeast
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Laboratory of Enology & Alcoholic Drinks, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: wine aroma; wine polyphenolics; polysaccharides; yeasts and bacteria; sensory analysis; winemaking; natural wines; wine composition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Dear Colleagues,

A wide variety of fruits and grains are employed as substrates for fermentation, resulting in a range of beverages, some of which are known to provide unique characteristics of certain geographical areas. Terroir is a term mostly affiliated with wine, but can be expanded to all products subjected to a similar fermentation process. Terroir is associated with agricultural practices, micro-climatic conditions, soil composition, cultivar and the microecosystem that drives fermentation. The same parameters may also affect the functional characteristics of the products, such as their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activity, as well as protect against neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, a series of metabolites, such as biogenic amines and ochratoxins, may exert adverse effects on human health. The micro-ecosystem implicated in the fermentation process may include yeasts, as well as lactic and acetic acid bacteria, and may affect these functions via metabolic activities. The diversity of the implicated microbial species is quite extended, and accompanied by a remarkable variability in metabolic capacity.

The conceptual, methodological and technological advances of recent years have enabled the rapid characterization of micro-communities. In addition, genetic data treated with bioinformatic tools have allowed the in silico assessment of the metabolic capacity of the strains under study and the prediction of metabolic activities. This information is valuable, as it facilitates the selection of starter cultures with properties tailored to specific technological or nutritional needs.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect articles that update the current knowledge on the factors that affect the terroir of fermented beverages and define their functional properties.

Dr. Maria Dimopoulou
Dr. Spiros Paramithiotis
Prof. Dr. Yorgos Kotseridis
Dr. Jayanta Kumar Patra
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fermented beverages
  • alcoholic fermentation
  • lactic acid fermentation
  • acetic acid fermentation
  • functional metabolites

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 169 KiB  
Editorial
Fermented Beverages Revisited: From Terroir to Customized Functional Products
by Spiros Paramithiotis, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Yorgos Kotseridis and Maria Dimopoulou
Fermentation 2024, 10(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10020074 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 977
Abstract
The production of fermented beverages dates back to antiquity [...] Full article

Research

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13 pages, 1877 KiB  
Article
Use of Non-Saccharomyces Yeast to Enhance the Acidity of Wines Produced in a Warm Climate Region: Effect on Wine Composition
by Fernando Sánchez-Suárez and Rafael A. Peinado
Fermentation 2024, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10010017 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
One of the most notable effects of climate change, especially in warm regions, is the decrease in acidity (i.e., increase in pH) of wines and a reduction in their aromatic profile. To address this issue, must from a white grape variety with low [...] Read more.
One of the most notable effects of climate change, especially in warm regions, is the decrease in acidity (i.e., increase in pH) of wines and a reduction in their aromatic profile. To address this issue, must from a white grape variety with low acidity were inoculated with two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Lachancea thermotolerans and Torulaspora delbrueckii) to enhance the acidity of the resulting wines. Basic oenological variables and major volatile compounds and polyols of the wines were analyzed, and the results were compared with those obtained through a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Through multiple regression analysis, we found relations between the production of lactic acid to compounds involved in yeast metabolism and redox balance, including glycerol, acetic acid, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohols, and 2-phenylethanol. By means of principal component analysis, we obtained three components that explain more than 89% of the observed variability. The first component differentiates wines produced by L. thermotolerans; the second differentiates wines obtained by S. cerevisiae from those obtained by T. delbrueckii; and the third component is related to the temperature of fermentation. Organoleptic wines produced with S. cerevisiae were the best valuated, but taste was a highlight of the wines produced with L. thermotolerans due to possessing the best acidity. Full article
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18 pages, 3921 KiB  
Article
Survey on Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen Status of Musts from Native and International Grape Varieties: Effect of Variety and Climate
by Elisavet Bouloumpasi, Adriana Skendi and Evangelos H. Soufleros
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080773 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN), besides the oenological parameters (sugar content, titratable acidity, and pH) in grape musts of sixteen native and international varieties of Vitis vinifera cultivated in six regions of Northern Greece, was assessed in the frame of the present study. Low [...] Read more.
Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN), besides the oenological parameters (sugar content, titratable acidity, and pH) in grape musts of sixteen native and international varieties of Vitis vinifera cultivated in six regions of Northern Greece, was assessed in the frame of the present study. Low levels of YAN are frequently thought to be the cause of problematic fermentations and originate significant changes in the organoleptic aspects of the finished product. The objective of this multi-variety study was to assess factors affecting the YAN amount and composition in technologically mature grapes and, therefore, to evaluate the necessity of YAN supplementation with ammonium salts in musts across different native and international grape varieties. Free amino nitrogen was measured colorimetrically, ammoniacal nitrogen was measured enzymatically, and their values for each must sample were summed to obtain the total amount of YAN. Statistical analysis was carried out including principal component analysis (PCA) to discover relationships among must samples and the parameters studied. PCA analysis classified samples depending on grape varieties and region of origin, bringing knowledge about native and international cultivars of great commercial interest. Moreover, these findings could help to understand how commercial varieties can behave in different climates in the climate change context. Full article
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18 pages, 5543 KiB  
Article
Integrated Metagenomics and Network Analysis of Metabolic Functional Genes in the Microbial Community of Chinese Fermentation Pits
by Mingyi Guo, Yan Deng, Junqiu Huang, Chuantao Zeng, Huachang Wu, Hui Qin and Suyi Zhang
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080772 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 977
Abstract
Traditional Chinese strong-aroma baijiu (CSAB) fermentation technology has been used for thousands of years. Microbial communities that are enriched in continuous and uninterrupted fermentation pits (FPs) are important for fermentation. However, changes in the metabolic functional genes in microbial communities of FPs are [...] Read more.
Traditional Chinese strong-aroma baijiu (CSAB) fermentation technology has been used for thousands of years. Microbial communities that are enriched in continuous and uninterrupted fermentation pits (FPs) are important for fermentation. However, changes in the metabolic functional genes in microbial communities of FPs are still under-characterized. High-throughput sequencing technology was applied to comprehensively analyze the diversity, function, and dynamics of the metabolic genes among FPs of different ages, positions, and geographical regions. Approximately 1,375,660 microbial genes derived from 259 Gb metagenomic sequences of FPs were assembled and characterized to understand the impact of FP microorganisms on the quality of CSAB and to assess their genetic potential. The core functional gene catalog of FPs, consisting of 3379 ubiquitously known gene clusters, was established using Venn analysis. The functional profile confirmed that the flavor compounds in CSAB mainly originate from the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. Approximately 17 key gene clusters that determine the yield and quality of CSAB were identified. The potential mechanism was associated with the biosynthesis of host compounds in CSAB, which relies on the abundance of species, such as Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Saccharomycetales, and the abundance of functional genes, such as CoA dehydrogenase, CoA transferase, and NAD dehydrogenase. Furthermore, the detailed metabolic pathways for the production of main flavor compounds of CSAB were revealed. This study provides a theoretical reference for a deeper understanding of substance metabolism during CSAB brewing and may help guide the future exploration of novel gene resources for biotechnological applications. Full article
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0 pages, 3940 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Yeast Inoculation Methods on the Metabolite Composition of Sauvignon Blanc Wines
by Farhana R. Pinu, Lily Stuart, Taylan Topal, Abby Albright, Damian Martin and Claire Grose
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080759 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2043 | Correction
Abstract
Evidence from the literature suggests that different inoculation strategies using either active dry yeast (ADY) or freshly prepared yeast cultures affect wine yeast performance, thus altering biomass and many primary and secondary metabolites produced during fermentation. Here, we investigated how different inoculation methods [...] Read more.
Evidence from the literature suggests that different inoculation strategies using either active dry yeast (ADY) or freshly prepared yeast cultures affect wine yeast performance, thus altering biomass and many primary and secondary metabolites produced during fermentation. Here, we investigated how different inoculation methods changed the fermentation behaviour and metabolism of a commercial wine yeast. Using a commercial Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juice, fermentation was carried out with two different inoculum preparation protocols using Saccharomyces cerevisiae X5: rehydration of commercial ADY and preparation of pre-inoculum in a rich laboratory medium. We also determined the effect of different numbers of yeast cells inoculation (varying from 1 × 106 to 1 × 1012) and successive inoculation on fermentation and end-product formation. The yeast inoculation method and number of cells significantly affected the fermentation time. Principal component analysis (PCA) using 60 wine metabolites showed a separation pattern between wines produced from the two inoculation methods. Inoculation methods influenced the production of amino acids and different aroma compounds, including ethyl and acetate esters. Varietal thiols, 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one (4MMP) in the wines were affected by the inoculation methods and numbers of inoculated cells, while little impact was observed on 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) production. Pathway analysis using these quantified metabolites allowed us to identify the most significant pathways, most of which were related to central carbon metabolism, particularly metabolic pathways involving nitrogen and sulphur metabolism. Altogether, these results suggest that inoculation method and number of inoculated cells should be considered in the production of different wine styles. Full article
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14 pages, 5812 KiB  
Article
Effect of Microbial Reinforcement on Polyphenols in the Acetic Acid Fermentation of Shanxi-Aged Vinegar
by Peng Du, Yingqi Li, Chenrui Zhen, Jia Song, Jiayi Hou, Jia Gou, Xinyue Li, Sankuan Xie, Jingli Zhou, Yufeng Yan, Yu Zheng and Min Wang
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080756 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Polyphenols are important functional substances produced in the acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV). Previous studies have shown that the metabolic activity of microorganisms is closely related to polyphenol production and accumulation. In this study, microorganisms in the AAF of [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are important functional substances produced in the acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV). Previous studies have shown that the metabolic activity of microorganisms is closely related to polyphenol production and accumulation. In this study, microorganisms in the AAF of SAV were analyzed to explore how to increase the polyphenol yield by changing the microorganisms and reveal the potential mechanism of the microbial influence on the polyphenol yield. Macrotranscriptome analysis showed that acetic and lactic acid bacteria dominated the AAF fermentation process and initially increased and decreased. Spearman correlation analysis and verification experiments showed that the co-addition of Acetobacter pasteurianus and Lactobacillus helveticus promoted the accumulation of polyphenols, and the total polyphenol content increased by 72% after strengthening. Full article
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21 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
Development of Fermented Kombucha Tea Beverage Enriched with Inulin and B Vitamins
by Yuliya Frolova, Valentina Vorobyeva, Irina Vorobyeva, Varuzhan Sarkisyan, Alexey Malinkin, Vasily Isakov and Alla Kochetkova
Fermentation 2023, 9(6), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9060552 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
Kombucha is a sweet and sour beverage made by fermenting a liquid base with a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast. Different tea substrates, carbohydrate sources, and additional ingredients are used to create beverages with different physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a sweet and sour beverage made by fermenting a liquid base with a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast. Different tea substrates, carbohydrate sources, and additional ingredients are used to create beverages with different physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this work was to create a recipe and technology to study the properties of the beverage based on kombucha with a given chemical composition. The content of added functional ingredients (vitamins and inulin) in quantities comparable with reference daily intake was the specified parameter characterizing the distinctive features of the enriched beverages. For fermentation using symbiotic cultures of bacteria and yeast, a black tea infusion sweetened with sucrose was used as a substrate. The changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the fermented tea beverage base were evaluated. The dynamics of changes in pH, acidity, the content of mono- and disaccharides, ethanol, organic acids, polyphenolic compounds, and volatile organic substances were shown. The fermentation conditions were selected (pH up to 3.3 ± 0.3, at T = 25 ± 1 °C, process duration of 14 days) to obtain the beverage base. Strawberry and lime leaves were used as flavor and aroma ingredients, and vitamins with inulin were used as functional ingredients. Since the use of additional ingredients changed the finished beverage’s organoleptic profile and increased its content of organic acids, the final product’s physical–chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and organoleptic indicators were assessed. The content of B vitamins in the beverages ranges from 29 to 44% of RDI, and 100% of RDI for inulin, which allows it to be attributed to the category of enriched products. The DPPH inhibitory activity of the beverages was 82.0 ± 7%, and the ethanol content did not exceed 0.43%. The beverages contained a variety of organic acids: lactic (43.80 ± 4.82 mg/100 mL), acetic (205.00 ± 16.40 mg/100 mL), tartaric (2.00 ± 0.14 mg/100 mL), citric (65.10 ± 5.86 mg/100 mL), and malic (45.50 ± 6.37 mg/100 mL). The technology was developed using pilot equipment to produce fermented kombucha tea enriched with inulin and B vitamins. Full article
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10 pages, 8232 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Botrytis cinerea Activity on Glycol Composition and Concentration in Wines
by Eszter Antal, Miklós Kállay, Zsuzsanna Varga and Diána Nyitrai-Sárdy
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050493 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The content of 2,3-butanediol ((R,R) and meso isomers) and 1,2-propanediol in grape berries and “liquid samples” (all non-berry extracts) from the Tokaj wine region of Hungary was investigated. Our aim was to find out how the activity of Botrytis cinerea influences the concentrations [...] Read more.
The content of 2,3-butanediol ((R,R) and meso isomers) and 1,2-propanediol in grape berries and “liquid samples” (all non-berry extracts) from the Tokaj wine region of Hungary was investigated. Our aim was to find out how the activity of Botrytis cinerea influences the concentrations of these compounds compared with healthy grapes. Based on the measured concentrations, we can make a distinction between healthy berries and noble, rotted, so-called aszú berries. We also investigated if there is a difference between finished aszú wines and liquids intended for aszú production. We wanted to investigate the amount and distribution of the stereoisomers of 2,3-butanediol and their proportions. The results of the HS-SPME-GC-FID analysis of the samples showed significant differences in the 2,3-butanediol content between healthy and botrytised, aszú berries and between liquid samples for aszú production and aszú wines. In the berry samples, meso-2,3-butanediol could not be detected, whereas in the liquid samples, we found good amounts of this isomer. This may be due to the fact that the appearance of the meso form of 2,3-butanediol is a consequence of alcoholic fermentation. Significant differences were found between wines from healthy grapes and wines from botrytised grapes in terms of the levo-2,3-butanediol content, so that from an analytical point of view, a difference can be made between wines from healthy and botrytised grapes. No significant differences were found between berry and liquid samples in terms of 1,2-propanediol concentrations during our tests. Full article
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20 pages, 2068 KiB  
Article
Total Lipids and Fatty Acids in Major New Zealand Grape Varieties during Ripening, Prolonged Pomace Contacts and Ethanolic Extractions Mimicking Fermentation
by Emma Sherman, Muriel Yvon, Franzi Grab, Erica Zarate, Saras Green, Kyung Whan Bang and Farhana R. Pinu
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040357 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
Despite the important roles of lipids in winemaking, changes in lipids during grape ripening are largely unknown for New Zealand (NZ) varieties. Therefore, we aimed to determine the fatty acid profiles and total lipid content in two of NZ’s major grape varieties. Using [...] Read more.
Despite the important roles of lipids in winemaking, changes in lipids during grape ripening are largely unknown for New Zealand (NZ) varieties. Therefore, we aimed to determine the fatty acid profiles and total lipid content in two of NZ’s major grape varieties. Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, absolute quantification of 45 fatty acids was determined in Sauvignon blanc (SB) and Pinot noir (PN) grapes harvested at two different stages of ripeness. Lipid concentrations were as high as 0.4 g/g in seeds of both varieties, while pulp contained the least amount. Many unsaturated fatty acids were present, particularly in grape seeds, while skin contained relatively higher amounts of saturated fatty acids that increased throughout ripening. For both varieties, a significant increase in lipid concentration was observed in grapes harvested at the later stage of ripeness, indicating an association between lipids and grape maturity, and providing a novel insight about the use of total lipids as another parameter of grape ripeness. A variety-specific trend in the development and extraction of grape lipids was found from the analysis of the must and ethanolic extracts. Lipid extraction increased linearly with the ethanol concentration and with the extended pomace contact time. More lipids were extracted from the SB pomace to the must than PN within 144 h, suggesting a must matrix effect on lipid extraction. The knowledge generated here is relevant to both industry and academia and can be used to develop lipid diversification strategies to produce different wine styles. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 447 KiB  
Review
Fermented Beverages Revisited: From Terroir to Customized Functional Products
by Spiros Paramithiotis, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Yorgos Kotseridis and Maria Dimopoulou
Fermentation 2024, 10(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10010057 - 14 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Fermented beverages have been a constant companion of humans throughout their history. A wide range of products have been developed with time, depending on the availability of raw materials and ambient conditions. Their differentiation was based on the specific characteristics of each product, [...] Read more.
Fermented beverages have been a constant companion of humans throughout their history. A wide range of products have been developed with time, depending on the availability of raw materials and ambient conditions. Their differentiation was based on the specific characteristics of each product, resulting from the cultivation of different varieties and the variability of environmental conditions and agricultural practices, collectively described by the term ‘terroir’ that was developed in winemaking. The health benefits that have been associated with their consumption, which include the control of blood pressure and glycemic control, along with immunomodulatory, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective, and antiproliferative activities, directed their re-discovery that occurred over the last few decades. Thus, the dynamics of the microbial communities of fermented beverages during fermentation and storage have been thoroughly assessed. The functional potential of fermented beverages has been attributed to the chemical composition of the raw materials and the bioconversions that take place during fermentation and storage, due to the metabolic capacity of the driving microbiota. Thus, the proper combination of raw materials with certain microorganisms may allow for the modulation of the organoleptic properties, as well as enrichment with specific functional ingredients, enabling targeted nutritional interventions. This plasticity of fermented beverages is their great advantage that offers limitless capabilities. The present article aims to critically summarize and present the current knowledge on the microbiota and functional potential of fermented beverages and highlight the great potential of these products. Full article
10 pages, 1392 KiB  
Review
The Role of Malt on Beer Flavour Stability
by Luis F. Guido and Inês M. Ferreira
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050464 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Delaying flavour staling has been one of the greatest and most significant challenges for brewers. The choice of suitable raw materials, particularly malting barley, is the critical starting point to delay the risk of beer staling. Malting barley and the malting process can [...] Read more.
Delaying flavour staling has been one of the greatest and most significant challenges for brewers. The choice of suitable raw materials, particularly malting barley, is the critical starting point to delay the risk of beer staling. Malting barley and the malting process can have an impact on beer instability due to the presence of pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities. Malt contains various compounds originating from barley or formed during the malting process, which can play a significant role in the fundamental processes of brewing through their antioxidant properties. This review explores the relationship between malt quality, in terms of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities, and the flavour stability of beer. Full article
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16 pages, 1130 KiB  
Review
Zero- and Low-Alcohol Fermented Beverages: A Perspective for Non-Conventional Healthy and Sustainable Production from Red Fruits
by Marcello Brugnoli, Elsa Cantadori, Mattia Pia Arena, Luciana De Vero, Andrea Colonello and Maria Gullo
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050457 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
The growing health consciousness among consumers is leading to an increased presence of functional foods and beverages on the market. Red fruits are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins with high antioxidant activity. In addition, red fruits contain sugars and are rich [...] Read more.
The growing health consciousness among consumers is leading to an increased presence of functional foods and beverages on the market. Red fruits are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins with high antioxidant activity. In addition, red fruits contain sugars and are rich in phenolic compounds, vitamin C, dietary fibers, and manganese. Due to these characteristics, they are also suitable substrates for fermentation. Indeed, nowadays, microbial transformation of red fruits is based on alcoholic or lactic fermentation, producing alcoholic and non-alcoholic products, respectively. Although products fermented by acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have been thoroughly studied as a model of health benefits for human beings, little evidence is available on the acetic and gluconic fermentation of red fruits for obtaining functional products. Accordingly, this review aims to explore the potential of different red fruits, namely blackberry, raspberry, and blackcurrant, as raw materials for fermentation processes aimed at producing low- and no-alcohol beverages containing bioactive compounds and no added sugars. AAB are treated with a focus on their ability to produce acetic acid, gluconic acid, and bacterial cellulose, which are compounds of interest for developing fruit-based fermented beverages. Full article
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