Control of Wine Fermentation

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 24699

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
INRAE, Joint Research Unit Sciences for Enology, Montpellier, France
Interests: wine; fermentation; technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the control of wine fermentation has been greatly improved, but, at the same time, new challenges have arisen. Winemakers must now offer quality wines while fulfilling the societal and environmental constraints related to sustainability, climate change and safety. The highly diverse objectives and the corresponding research questions include the increase in the production of aromas or the complexity of the wine, polyphenolic extraction, decrease in the yield of ethanol, acidification, decrease in inputs such as SO2 and optimization of tank use and energy consumption.

Current advances in knowledge of yeasts and their diversity, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, are essential. However, the effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, nutrition, aeration, turbidity and hydrodynamic conditions on the metabolism of these strains still needs to be better understood. Furthermore, the possible use of mixed cultures makes issues such as the optimization of sequential cultures more difficult to overcome.

Improving the control of fermentation also means looking for innovative or breakthrough strategies. Sensors already allow online monitoring or even automation of the process, but new sensors, related to organoleptic properties, can still be developed. Predictive fermentation models can lead to simulation and decision support tools and the coupling of such models with online monitoring seems very promising to develop optimal control strategies taking into account both the characteristics of the must and those of the desired product.

This Special Issue of Fermentation aims to disseminate recent innovative research regarding the management of wine fermentation.

Dr. Jean-Marie Sablayrolles
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wine fermentation
  • fermentation management
  • environmental parameters
  • nutrients
  • mixed cultures
  • wine aroma
  • ethanol lowering
  • sensors
  • optimal control strategies

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Strain-Specific Responses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Competition by Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts
by Cristobal A. Onetto, Anthony R. Borneman and Simon A. Schmidt
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030165 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast species generally involves sequential or co-inoculation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to complete fermentation. While most studies have focused on characterising the impact that S. cerevisiae has on the growth and metabolic activity of these non-Saccharomyces [...] Read more.
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast species generally involves sequential or co-inoculation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to complete fermentation. While most studies have focused on characterising the impact that S. cerevisiae has on the growth and metabolic activity of these non-Saccharomyces species, microbial interactions work reciprocally. Antagonism or competition of non-Saccharomyces species against S. cerevisiae has been shown to impact subsequent fermentation performance. To date, it remains unclear whether these negative interactions are strain specific. Hence, characterisation of strain-specific responses to co-inoculation would enable the identification of specific S. cerevisiae strain/non-Saccharomyces combinations that minimise the negative impacts of sequential fermentation on fermentation performance. The competitive fitness response of 93 S. cerevisiae strains to several non-Saccharomyces species was simultaneously investigated using a barcoded library to address this knowledge gap. Strain-specific fitness differences were observed across non-Saccharomyces treatments. Results obtained from experiments using selected S. cerevisiae strains sequentially inoculated after Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii were consistent with the competitive barcoded library observations. The results presented in this study indicate that strain selection will influence fermentation performance when using non-Saccharomyces species, therefore, appropriate strain/yeast combinations are required to optimise fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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10 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Chemical and Sensory Profiles of Merlot Wines Produced by Sequential Inoculation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima or Meyerzyma guilliermondii
by Jesse J. Aplin, Victoria D. Paup, Carolyn F. Ross and Charles G. Edwards
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030126 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Inoculation of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as means to produce Merlot wines with reduced ethanol contents was investigated. Fermentations of grape musts (25.4° Brix, pH 3.50, and 4.23 g/L titratable acidity) were conducted in stainless steel tanks inoculated with Metschnikowia [...] Read more.
Inoculation of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as means to produce Merlot wines with reduced ethanol contents was investigated. Fermentations of grape musts (25.4° Brix, pH 3.50, and 4.23 g/L titratable acidity) were conducted in stainless steel tanks inoculated with Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains P01A016 or NS-MP or Meyerozyma guilliermondii P40D002 with S. cerevisiae Syrah added after three days. After fermentation, wines with Mt. pulcherrima contained 13.8% (P01A016) or 13.9% (NS-MP) v/v ethanol, respectively, amounts which were lower than in wines with S. cerevisiae alone (14.9% v/v). Delayed inoculation of must with S. cerevisiae (day 3) or musts with My. guilliermondii contained elevated concentrations of ethyl acetate (145 and 148 mg/L, respectively), concentrations significantly higher than those with S. cerevisiae inoculated on day 0 or with either strain of Mt. pulcherrima. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed a significant effect due to panelist but not due to Mt. pulcherrima or My. guilliermondii. This research indicates the potential for commercial application of these yeasts towards the production of reduced alcohol wines but without imparting negative sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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20 pages, 2632 KiB  
Article
Selection of Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains and Exploitation of a Pilot-Plant to Produce Fresh Yeast Starter Cultures in a Winery
by Simona Guerrini, Damiano Barbato, Lorenzo Guerrini, Eleonora Mari, Giacomo Buscioni, Silvia Mangani, Yuri Romboli, Viola Galli, Alessandro Parenti and Lisa Granchi
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030099 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
The inoculation of grape juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains selected from indigenous yeast populations can be a suitable tool to control alcoholic fermentation, contributing to producing wines with typical flavor and aroma and, hence, the demand for native starter cultures is increasing. However, [...] Read more.
The inoculation of grape juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains selected from indigenous yeast populations can be a suitable tool to control alcoholic fermentation, contributing to producing wines with typical flavor and aroma and, hence, the demand for native starter cultures is increasing. However, since low amounts of indigenous yeast biomasses are usually required for local winemaking, the industrial production of these yeasts can be expensive. Therefore, in this study, after selecting an indigenous S. cerevisiae strain based on relevant oenological and technological features, a pilot-plant for easy and rapid production of fresh yeast biomass directly in a winery located in Tuscany, was exploited. The selected yeast strain was used as a starter to carry out 25 and 100 hL fermentations and its enological performance was compared with that of the commercial starter normally used in the winery. Chemical and sensory analysis of the resulting wines showed that they differentiated according to the used yeast strain, with the wines produced by the indigenous S. cerevisiae strain being characterized by a distinctive aromatic and sensory profile. In conclusion, the pilot-plant effectively resulted in producing fresh yeast starter cultures in the winery to be successfully used to carry out alcoholic fermentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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14 pages, 428 KiB  
Article
Optimal Control Applied to Oenological Management of Red Wine Fermentative Macerations
by Ricardo Luna, Bruno M. Lima, José Cuevas-Valenzuela, Julio E. Normey-Rico and José R. Pérez-Correa
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020094 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3060
Abstract
The management of wineries for industrial red winemaking is limited by the capacity and availability of fermentation tanks over the harvest season. The winemakers aim to optimize the wine quality, the fermentative maceration length, and the fermentation tank’s productive cycle simultaneously. Maceration in [...] Read more.
The management of wineries for industrial red winemaking is limited by the capacity and availability of fermentation tanks over the harvest season. The winemakers aim to optimize the wine quality, the fermentative maceration length, and the fermentation tank’s productive cycle simultaneously. Maceration in varietal wine production is carried out until a specific sugar content (digging-out point) is attained, finishing before alcoholic fermentation. Winemakers have found that by trial and error handling of the digging-out point, they can improve the winery capacity and production cost. In this work, we develop an optimal control problem for managing the digging-out point considering two objectives associated with process efficiency and costs. A good compromise between these objectives was found by applying multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques and the knee point. Two control strategies were compared: free nutrition and traditional nutrition. TOPSIS and LINMAP algorithms were used to choose the most suitable strategy that coincided with the knee point. The preferred option was nitrogen addition only at the beginning of fermentation (6.6–10.6 g/hL of DAP) and a high fermentation temperature (30 °C), yielding the desired digging-out point with a small error (6–9 g/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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19 pages, 9050 KiB  
Article
Clustering in Wineinformatics with Attribute Selection to Increase Uniqueness of Clusters
by Jared McCune, Alex Riley and Bernard Chen
Fermentation 2021, 7(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7010027 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Wineinformatics is a new data science research area that focuses on large amounts of wine-related data. Most of the current Wineinformatics researches are focused on supervised learning to predict the wine quality, price, region and weather. In this research, unsupervised learning using K-means [...] Read more.
Wineinformatics is a new data science research area that focuses on large amounts of wine-related data. Most of the current Wineinformatics researches are focused on supervised learning to predict the wine quality, price, region and weather. In this research, unsupervised learning using K-means clustering with optimal K search and filtration process is studied on a Bordeaux-region specific dataset to form clusters and find representative wines in each cluster. 14,349 wines representing the 21st century Bordeaux dataset are clustered into 43 and 13 clusters with detailed analysis on the number of wines, dominant wine characteristics, average wine grades, and representative wines in each cluster. Similar research results are also generated and presented on 435 elite wines (wines that scored 95 points and above on a 100 points scale). The information generated from this research can be beneficial to wine vendors to make a selection given the limited number of wines they can realistically offer, to connoisseurs to study wines in a target region/vintage/price with a representative short list, and to wine consumers to get recommendations. Many possible researches can adopt the same process to analyze and find representative wines in different wine making regions/countries, vintages, or pivot points. This paper opens up a new door for Wineinformatics in unsupervised learning researches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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Review

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16 pages, 1153 KiB  
Review
Non-Conventional Grape Varieties and Yeast Starters for First and Second Fermentation in Sparkling Wine Production Using the Traditional Method
by María Laura Raymond Eder and Alberto Luis Rosa
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040321 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5668
Abstract
Sparkling wine production using the traditional method involves a second fermentation of still wines in bottles, followed by prolonged aging on lees. The key factors affecting the organoleptic profiles of these wines are the grape varieties, the chemical and sensory attributes of the [...] Read more.
Sparkling wine production using the traditional method involves a second fermentation of still wines in bottles, followed by prolonged aging on lees. The key factors affecting the organoleptic profiles of these wines are the grape varieties, the chemical and sensory attributes of the base wines elaborated, the yeast strains used for first and second fermentation, and the winery practices. While Chardonnay and Pinot noir are gold standard grape varieties in sparkling wine production, other valuable grape cultivars are used worldwide to elaborate highly reputable sparkling wines. Fundamental research on the chemical and sensory profiles of innovative sparkling wines produced by the traditional method, using non-conventional grape varieties and novel yeast strains for first and/or second fermentation, is accompanying their market diversification. In this review, we summarize relevant aspects of sparkling wine production using the traditional method and non-conventional grape varieties and yeast starters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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17 pages, 2895 KiB  
Review
Study of Oenological Fermentation: Which Strategy and Which Tools?
by Jean-Roch Mouret, Evelyne Aguera, Marc Perez, Vincent Farines and Jean-Marie Sablayrolles
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030155 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3520
Abstract
Wine fermentation is a specific and complex research subject and its control is essential to ensure full process completion while improving wine quality. It displays several specificities, in particular, (i) musts with a very high sugar content, low pH, and some limiting nutrients, [...] Read more.
Wine fermentation is a specific and complex research subject and its control is essential to ensure full process completion while improving wine quality. It displays several specificities, in particular, (i) musts with a very high sugar content, low pH, and some limiting nutrients, as well as a great variability in must composition according to the year, grape variety, and so on; (ii) atypical fermentation conditions with non-isothermal temperature profiles, a quasi-anaerobiosis and legal constraints with a limited and predefined list of authorized operations. New challenges have emerged, related to the increasing diversity of commercially available yeast strains; the fluctuating composition of musts, particularly owing to climate change; and sustainability, which has become a key issue. This paper synthesizes approaches implemented to address all these issues. It details the example of our laboratory that, for many years, has been developing an integrated approach to study yeast diversity, understand their metabolism, and develop new fermentation control strategies. This approach requires the development of specific fermentation devices to study yeast metabolism in a controlled environment that mimics practical conditions and to develop original fermentation control strategies. All these tools are described here, together with their role in the overall scientific strategy and complementary approaches in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Wine Fermentation)
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