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Special Issue "Entropy, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Methods of Complex Systems in Earthquake Physics including Precursory Phenomena"

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Complexity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Nicholas V Sarlis

Section of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: solid-state physics; complex systems physics; non-linear dynamics; physics of earthquakes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last decade, considerable progress has been made towards the understanding of pre-seismic processes. In this direction, the physics of critical phenomena, information entropy, and methods of complex systems have been applied for the study of rupture in the Solid Earth crust.

From another point of view, during the 21st century, many very strong earthquakes took place (e.g., the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku, the 2004 M9.0 Sumatra, Andaman, or the 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquakes). Since the instrumentation in our days is much better than that of the previous century, the study of various physical (or geophysical) observables before these earthquakes may provide useful precursory signals. When combined with and studied within the aforementioned frame of modern methods, such signals may lead to more efficient earthquake prediction methods than ever before.

The scope of this special issue is to strengthen and present the most recent attempts in both theoretical and experimental methods for understanding the physics of earthquakes and hence foresee their occurrence.

Dr. Nicholas V Sarlis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Earthquakes
  • Rupture
  • Seismicity
  • Entropy
  • Nonlinear dynamics
  • Complex systems
  • Time series analysis
  • Natural time analysis
  • Electromagnetic phenomena
  • Earthquake prediction
  • Earthquake forecasting
  • Applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Complexity of the Yellowstone Park Volcanic Field Seismicity in Terms of Tsallis Entropy
Entropy 2018, 20(10), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20100721
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
The Yellowstone Park volcanic field is one of the most active volcanic systems in the world, presenting intense seismic activity that is characterized by several earthquake swarms over the last decades. In the present work, we focused on the spatiotemporal properties of the
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The Yellowstone Park volcanic field is one of the most active volcanic systems in the world, presenting intense seismic activity that is characterized by several earthquake swarms over the last decades. In the present work, we focused on the spatiotemporal properties of the recent earthquake swarms that occurred on December–January 2008–2009 and the 2010 Madison Plateau swarm, using the approach of Non Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP). Our approach is based on Tsallis entropy, and is used in order to describe the behavior of complex systems where fracturing and strong correlations exist, such as in tectonic and volcanic environments. This framework is based on the maximization of the non-additive Tsallis entropy Sq, introducing the q-exponential function and the entropic parameter q that expresses the degree of non-extentivity of the system. The estimation of the q-parameters could be used as a correlation degree among the events in the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity. Using the seismic data provided by University of Utah Seismological Stations (UUSS), we analyzed the inter-event time (T) and distance (r) distribution of successive earthquakes that occurred during the two swarms, fitting the observed data with the q-exponential function, resulting in the estimation of the Tsallis entropic parameters qT, qr for the inter-event time and distance distributions, respectively. Furthermore, we studied the magnitude-frequency distribution of the released earthquake energies E as formulated in the frame of NESP, which results in the estimation of the qE parameter. Our analysis provides the triplet (qE, qT, qr) that describes the magnitude-frequency distribution and the spatiotemporal scaling properties of each of the studied earthquake swarms. In addition, the spatial variability of qE throughout the Yellowstone park volcanic area is presented and correlated with the existence of the regional hydrothermal features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Behavior of VLF/LF Variations Associated with Geomagnetic Activity, Earthquakes, and the Quiet Condition Using a Neural Network Approach
Entropy 2018, 20(9), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20090691
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The neural network approach is proposed for studying very-low- and low-frequency (VLF and LF) subionospheric radio wave variations in the time vicinities of magnetic storms and earthquakes, with the purpose of recognizing anomalies of different types. We also examined the days with quiet
[...] Read more.
The neural network approach is proposed for studying very-low- and low-frequency (VLF and LF) subionospheric radio wave variations in the time vicinities of magnetic storms and earthquakes, with the purpose of recognizing anomalies of different types. We also examined the days with quiet geomagnetic conditions in the absence of seismic activity, in order to distinguish between the disturbed signals and the quiet ones. To this end, we trained the neural network (NN) on the examples of the representative database. The database included both the VLF/LF data that was measured during four-year monitoring at the station in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and the parameters of seismicity in the Kuril-Kamchatka and Japan regions. It was shown that the neural network can distinguish between the disturbed and undisturbed signals. Furthermore, the prognostic behavior of the VLF/LF variations indicative of magnetic and seismic activity has a different appearance in the time vicinity of the earthquakes and magnetic storms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Laboratory Observations of Linkage of Preslip Zones Prior to Stick-Slip Instability
Entropy 2018, 20(9), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20090629
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Field and experimental observations showed that preslip undergoes a transition from multiple to single preslip zones, which implies the existence of linkage of preslip zones before the fault instability. However, the observations of the linkage process, which is significant for understanding the mechanism
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Field and experimental observations showed that preslip undergoes a transition from multiple to single preslip zones, which implies the existence of linkage of preslip zones before the fault instability. However, the observations of the linkage process, which is significant for understanding the mechanism of earthquake preparation, remains to be implemented due to the limitations of observation methods in previous studies. Detailed spatiotemporal evolutions of preslip were observed via a high-speed camera and a digital image correlation method in our experiments. The normalized length of preslip zones shows an increase trend while the normalized number of preslip zones (NN) shows an increase followed by a decrease trend, which indicate that the expansion of the preslip undergoes a transition from increase to linkage of the isolated preslip zones. The peak NN indicates the initiation of the linkage of preslip zones. Both the linkage of the preslip zones and the decrease in the normalized information entropy of fault displacement direction indicate the reduction of spatial complexity of preslip as the instability approaches. Furthermore, the influences of dynamic adjustment of stress along the fault and the interactions between the asperities and preslip on the spatial complexity of preslip were also observed and analyzed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of Geo-Electric Data Collected by the Joint EMSEV-Bishkek RS-RAS Cooperation: Possible Earthquake Precursors
Entropy 2018, 20(8), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080614
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
By employing the cross-correlogram method, in geo-electric data from the area of Kyrgyzstan for the period 30 June 2014–10 June 2015, we identified Anomalous Telluric Currents (ATC). From a total of 32 ATC after taking into consideration the electric current source properties, we
[...] Read more.
By employing the cross-correlogram method, in geo-electric data from the area of Kyrgyzstan for the period 30 June 2014–10 June 2015, we identified Anomalous Telluric Currents (ATC). From a total of 32 ATC after taking into consideration the electric current source properties, we found that three of them are possible Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities. These three SES activities are likely to be linked with three local seismic events. Finally, by studying the corresponding recordings when a DC alternating source injects current into the Earth, we found that the subsurface resistivity seems to be reduced before one of these three earthquakes, but a similar analysis for the other two cannot be done due to their large epicentral distance and the lack of data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Significance of Earth’s Electric and Magnetic Field Variations Preceding Earthquakes in Greece and Japan Revisited
Entropy 2018, 20(8), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080561
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
By analyzing the seismicity in a new time domain, termed natural time, we recently found that the change of the entropy under time reversal (Physica A2018, 506, 625–634) and the relevant complexity measures (Entropy2018, 20,
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By analyzing the seismicity in a new time domain, termed natural time, we recently found that the change of the entropy under time reversal (Physica A2018, 506, 625–634) and the relevant complexity measures (Entropy2018, 20, 477) exhibit pronounced variations before the occurrence of the M8.2 earthquake in Mexico on 7 September 2017. Here, the statistical significance of precursory phenomena associated with other physical properties and in particular the anomalous variations observed in the Earth’s electric and magnetic fields before earthquakes in different regions of the world and in particular in Greece since 1980s and Japan during 2001–2010 are revisited (the latter, i.e., the magnetic field variations are alternatively termed ultra low frequency (ULF) seismo-magnetic phenomena). Along these lines we employ modern statistical tools like the event coincidence analysis and the receiver operating characteristics technique. We find that these precursory variations are far beyond chance and in addition their lead times fully agree with the experimental findings in Greece since the 1980s. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Complexity Measures Associated with the Fluctuations of the Entropy in Natural Time before the Deadly México M8.2 Earthquake on 7 September 2017
Entropy 2018, 20(6), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20060477
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
We analyse seismicity during the 6-year period 2012–2017 in the new time domain termed natural time in the Chiapas region where the M8.2 earthquake occurred, Mexico’s largest earthquake in more than a century, in order to study the complexity measures associated with fluctuations
[...] Read more.
We analyse seismicity during the 6-year period 2012–2017 in the new time domain termed natural time in the Chiapas region where the M8.2 earthquake occurred, Mexico’s largest earthquake in more than a century, in order to study the complexity measures associated with fluctuations of entropy as well as with entropy change under time reversal. We find that almost three months before the M8.2 earthquake, i.e., on 14 June 2017, the complexity measure associated with the fluctuations of entropy change under time reversal shows an abrupt increase, which, however, does not hold for the complexity measure associated with the fluctuations of entropy in forward time. On the same date, the entropy change under time reversal has been previously found to exhibit a minimum [Physica A 506, 625–634 (2018)]; we thus find here that this minimum is also accompanied by increased fluctuations of the entropy change under time reversal. In addition, we find a simultaneous increase of the Tsallis entropic index q. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Criticality Analysis of the Lower Ionosphere Perturbations Prior to the 2016 Kumamoto (Japan) Earthquakes as Based on VLF Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Data Observed at Multiple Stations
Entropy 2018, 20(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20030199
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract
The perturbations of the ionosphere which are observed prior to significant earthquakes (EQs) have long been investigated and could be considered promising for short-term EQ prediction. One way to monitor ionospheric perturbations is by studying VLF/LF electromagnetic wave propagation through the lower ionosphere
[...] Read more.
The perturbations of the ionosphere which are observed prior to significant earthquakes (EQs) have long been investigated and could be considered promising for short-term EQ prediction. One way to monitor ionospheric perturbations is by studying VLF/LF electromagnetic wave propagation through the lower ionosphere between specific transmitters and receivers. For this purpose, a network of eight receivers has been deployed throughout Japan which receive subionospheric signals from different transmitters located both in the same and other countries. In this study we analyze, in terms of the recently proposed natural time analysis, the data recorded by the above-mentioned network prior to the catastrophic 2016 Kumamoto fault-type EQs, which were as huge as the former 1995 Kobe EQ. These EQs occurred within a two-day period (14 April: M W = 6.2 and M W = 6.0 , 15 April: M W = 7.0 ) at shallow depths (~10 km), while their epicenters were adjacent. Our results show that lower ionospheric perturbations present critical dynamics from two weeks up to two days before the main shock occurrence. The results are compared to those by the conventional nighttime fluctuation method obtained for the same dataset and exhibit consistency. Finally, the temporal evolutions of criticality in ionospheric parameters and those in the lithosphere as seen from the ULF electromagnetic emissions are discussed in the context of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Full article
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