Special Issue "Entropy, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Methods of Complex Systems in Earthquake Physics including Precursory Phenomena II"

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Complexity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nicholas Vassiliou Sarlis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Section of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84, Greece
Interests: solid state physics; thermodynamics of point defects; complex systems physics; nonlinear dynamics; physics of earthquakes; heart rate variability; natural time analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last decade, considerable progress has been made towards the understanding of preseismic processes. In this direction, the physics of critical phenomena, information entropy, and methods of complex systems have been applied for the study of rupture in the solid Earth crust.

From another point of view, during the 21st century, many very strong earthquakes have taken place (e.g., the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku, the 2004 M9.0 Sumatra, Andaman, or the 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquakes). Since the instrumentation in our days is much better than that of the previous century, the study of various physical (or geophysical) observables before these earthquakes may provide useful precursory signals. When combined with and studied within the aforementioned frame of modern methods, such signals may lead to more efficient earthquake prediction methods than ever before.

The scope of this Special Issue is to strengthen and present the most recent attempts in both theoretical and experimental methods to understand the physics of earthquakes and, hence, foresee their occurrence.

Prof. Dr. Nicholas V Sarlis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Earthquakes
  • Rupture
  • Seismicity
  • Entropy
  • Nonlinear dynamics
  • Complex systems
  • Time series analysis
  • Natural time analysis
  • Electromagnetic phenomena
  • Earthquake prediction
  • Earthquake forecasting
  • Applications

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Statistical Study of the Correlation between Geomagnetic Storms and M ≥ 7.0 Global Earthquakes during 1957–2020
Entropy 2020, 22(11), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22111270 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
In order to find out whether the geomagnetic storms and large-mega earthquakes are correlated or not, statistical studies based on Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA), significance analysis, and Z test have been applied to the Dst index data and M ≥ 7.0 global earthquakes [...] Read more.
In order to find out whether the geomagnetic storms and large-mega earthquakes are correlated or not, statistical studies based on Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA), significance analysis, and Z test have been applied to the Dst index data and M ≥ 7.0 global earthquakes during 1957–2020. The results indicate that before M ≥ 7.0 global earthquakes, there are clearly higher probabilities of geomagnetic storms than after them. Geomagnetic storms are more likely to be related with shallow earthquakes rather than deep ones. Further statistical investigations of the results based on cumulative storm hours show consistency with those based on storm days, suggesting that the high probability of geomagnetic storms prior to large-mega earthquakes is significant and robust. Some possible mechanisms such as a reverse piezoelectric effect and/or electroosmotic flow are discussed to explain the statistical correlation. The result might open new perspectives in the complex process of earthquakes and the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Catalogue Lead Time on Medium-Term Earthquake Forecasting with Application to New Zealand Data
Entropy 2020, 22(11), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22111264 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 450
Abstract
‘Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale’ (EEPAS) is a catalogue-based model to forecast earthquakes within the coming months, years and decades, depending on magnitude. EEPAS has been shown to perform well in seismically active regions like New Zealand (NZ). It is based [...] Read more.
‘Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale’ (EEPAS) is a catalogue-based model to forecast earthquakes within the coming months, years and decades, depending on magnitude. EEPAS has been shown to perform well in seismically active regions like New Zealand (NZ). It is based on the observation that seismicity increases prior to major earthquakes. This increase follows predictive scaling relations. For larger target earthquakes, the precursor time is longer and precursory seismicity may have occurred prior to the start of the catalogue. Here, we derive a formula for the completeness of precursory earthquake contributions to a target earthquake as a function of its magnitude and lead time, where the lead time is the length of time from the start of the catalogue to its time of occurrence. We develop two new versions of EEPAS and apply them to NZ data. The Fixed Lead time EEPAS (FLEEPAS) model is used to examine the effect of the lead time on forecasting, and the Fixed Lead time Compensated EEPAS (FLCEEPAS) model compensates for incompleteness of precursory earthquake contributions. FLEEPAS reveals a space-time trade-off of precursory seismicity that requires further investigation. Both models improve forecasting performance at short lead times, although the improvement is achieved in different ways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nowcasting Avalanches as Earthquakes and the Predictability of Strong Avalanches in the Olami-Feder-Christensen Model
Entropy 2020, 22(11), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22111228 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 460
Abstract
Nowcasting earthquakes, suggested recently as a method to estimate the state of a fault and hence the seismic risk, is based on the concept of natural time. Here, we generalize nowcasting to a prediction method the merits of which are evaluated by means [...] Read more.
Nowcasting earthquakes, suggested recently as a method to estimate the state of a fault and hence the seismic risk, is based on the concept of natural time. Here, we generalize nowcasting to a prediction method the merits of which are evaluated by means of the receiver operating characteristics. This new prediction method is applied to a simple (toy) model for the waiting (natural) time of the stronger earthquakes, real seismicity, and the Olami-Feder-Christensen earthquake model with interesting results revealing acceptable to excellent or even outstanding performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Extensive Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Emissions Recorded in Marble and Cement Mortar Specimens Under Mechanical Load Until Fracture
Entropy 2020, 22(10), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22101115 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
Non-extensive statistical mechanics (NESM), which is a generalization of the traditional Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics, constitutes a theoretical and analytical tool for investigating the irreversible damage evolution processes and fracture mechanisms occurring when materials are subjected to mechanical loading. In this study, NESM is used [...] Read more.
Non-extensive statistical mechanics (NESM), which is a generalization of the traditional Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics, constitutes a theoretical and analytical tool for investigating the irreversible damage evolution processes and fracture mechanisms occurring when materials are subjected to mechanical loading. In this study, NESM is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission (AE) events recorded when marble and cement mortar specimens were subjected to mechanical loading until fracture. In total, AE data originating from four distinct loading protocols are presented. The cumulative distribution of inter-event times (time interval between two consecutive AE events) and the inter-event distances (three-dimensional Euclidian distance between the centers of successive AE events) were examined under the above concept and it was found that NESM is suitable to detect criticality under the terms of mechanical status of a material. This was conducted by evaluating the fitting results of the q-exponential function and the corresponding q-indices of Tsallis entropy qδτ and qδr, along with the parameters τδτ and dδr. Results support that qδτ+qδr2 for AE data recorded from marble and cement mortar specimens of this work, which is in good agreement with the conjecture previously found in seismological data and AE data recorded from Basalt specimens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detecting Earthquake-Related Anomalies of a Borehole Strain Network Based on Multi-Channel Singular Spectrum Analysis
Entropy 2020, 22(10), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22101086 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
To investigate the nonlinear spatio-temporal behavior of earthquakes, a complex network has been built using borehole strain data from the southwestern endpoint of the Longmenshan fault zone, Sichuan-Yunnan region of China, and the topological structural properties of the network have been investigated based [...] Read more.
To investigate the nonlinear spatio-temporal behavior of earthquakes, a complex network has been built using borehole strain data from the southwestern endpoint of the Longmenshan fault zone, Sichuan-Yunnan region of China, and the topological structural properties of the network have been investigated based on data from 2011–2014. Herein, six observation sites were defined as nodes and their edges as the connections between them. We introduced Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (MSSA) to analyze periodic oscillations, earthquake-related strain, and noise in multi-site observations, and then defined the edges of the network by calculating the correlations between sites. The results of the daily degree centrality of the borehole strain network indicated that the strain network anomalies were correlatable with local seismicity associate with the earthquake energy in the strain network. Further investigation showed that strain network anomalies were more likely to appear before major earthquakes rather than after them, particularly within 30 days before an event. Anomaly acceleration rates were also found to be related to earthquake energy. This study has revealed the self-organizing pre-earthquake phenomena and verified the construction of borehole networks is a powerful tool for providing information on earthquake precursors and the dynamics of complex fault systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Variation of b-Values and Their Relationship with the Fault Blocks in the Western Part of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surrounding Areas
Entropy 2020, 22(9), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22091016 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 842
Abstract
The Tibetan Plateau is considered to be one of the best natural laboratories for seismological research. This study sought to determine the spatial variations of b-values in the western part of the Tibetan Plateau, along with its surrounding areas, and the relation [...] Read more.
The Tibetan Plateau is considered to be one of the best natural laboratories for seismological research. This study sought to determine the spatial variations of b-values in the western part of the Tibetan Plateau, along with its surrounding areas, and the relation with the region’s fault blocks. The study region lies within 27–36.5° N, 78–89° E, and its fracture structure consists of strike-slip faults, as well as normal and thrust faults. A catalog record from 2009–2019 provided 4431 well-centered earthquakes that varied in magnitude from 0.1 to 8.2 M. The record was obtained from China’s seismological network, which is capable of recording low magnitudes to analyze b-values in the study area. The key findings of this study are as follows: (1) the range of earthquake depth in the region was 0–256 km, with the depth histogram showing a high frequency occurrence of shallow earthquakes in the area; (2) a time histogram showed that the major earthquakes occurred between 2014–2015, including the notable 2015 Gorkha earthquake (M = 8.2); (3) the b-value computed in the study area was 0.5 to 1.6, but in most of the study area, the b-value ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, which was a low to intermediate value, due to the presence of strike-slip faults in the central part of the study area and underthrusting in the region (south of the study area); and (4) a high b-value was found in the northwestern and eastern regions of the area, which proved that the area is prone to small earthquakes in the near future. The study also showed that the central and southern areas of the study region had low to intermediate b-values, meaning that it is prone to destructive and massive earthquakes with high magnitudes, such as the Gorkha earthquake (southern part of the study area). Low b-values revealed the degree of variation in rock properties, including large stress and strain, a fractured medium, a high deformation rate, and large faults. Small b-values were observed when the stress level was high in the investigated region, which might be used to predict a massive high-magnitude earthquake in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Model to Relate the Elastic Ratio Gamma of a Critically Self-Organized Spring-Block Model with the Age of a Lithospheric Downgoing Plate in a Subduction Zone
Entropy 2020, 22(8), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22080868 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
In 1980, Ruff and Kanamori (RK) published an article on seismicity and the subduction zones where they reported that the largest characteristic earthquake (Mw) of a subduction zone is correlated with two geophysical quantities: the rate of convergence between the oceanic and continental plates (V) and the age of the corresponding subducting oceanic lithosphere (T). This proposal was synthetized by using an empirical graph (RK-diagram) that includes the variables Mw, V and T. We have recently published an article that reports that there are some common characteristics between real seismicity, sandpaper experiments and a critically self-organized spring-block model. In that paper, among several results we qualitatively recovered a RK-diagram type constructed with equivalent synthetic quantities corresponding to Mw, V and T. In the present paper, we improve that synthetic RK-diagram by means of a simple model relating the elastic ratio γ of a critically self-organized spring-block model with the age of a lithospheric downgoing plate. In addition, we extend the RK-diagram by including some large subduction earthquakes occurred after 1980. Similar behavior to the former RK-diagram is observed and its SOC synthetic counterpart is obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Potential Earthquake Precursory Information in ULF Magnetic Data Recorded in Kanto, Japan during 2000–2010: Distance and Magnitude Dependences
Entropy 2020, 22(8), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22080859 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
In order to clarify ultra-low-frequency (ULF) seismomagnetic phenomena, a sensitive geomagnetic network was installed in Kanto, Japan since 2000. In previous studies, we have verified the correlation between ULF magnetic anomalies and local sizeable earthquakes. In this study, we use Molchan’s error diagram [...] Read more.
In order to clarify ultra-low-frequency (ULF) seismomagnetic phenomena, a sensitive geomagnetic network was installed in Kanto, Japan since 2000. In previous studies, we have verified the correlation between ULF magnetic anomalies and local sizeable earthquakes. In this study, we use Molchan’s error diagram to evaluate the potential earthquake precursory information in the magnetic data recorded in Kanto, Japan during 2000–2010. We introduce the probability gain (PG′) and the probability difference (D′) to quantify the forecasting performance and to explore the optimal prediction parameters for a given ULF magnetic station. The results show that the earthquake predictions based on magnetic anomalies are significantly better than random guesses, indicating the magnetic data contain potential useful precursory information. Further investigations suggest that the prediction performance depends on the choices of the distance (R) and size of the target earthquake events (Es). Optimal R and Es are about (100 km, 108.75) and (180 km, 108.75) for Seikoshi (SKS) station in Izu and Kiyosumi (KYS) station in Boso, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Time Analysis of Seismicity within the Mexican Flat Slab before the M7.1 Earthquake on 19 September 2017
Entropy 2020, 22(7), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22070730 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
One of the most important subduction zones in the world is located in the Mexican Pacific Coast, where the Cocos plate inserts beneath the North American plate. One part of it is located in the Mexican Pacific Coast, where the Cocos plate inserts [...] Read more.
One of the most important subduction zones in the world is located in the Mexican Pacific Coast, where the Cocos plate inserts beneath the North American plate. One part of it is located in the Mexican Pacific Coast, where the Cocos plate inserts beneath the North American plate with different dip angles, showing important seismicity. Under the central Mexican area, such a dip angle becomes practically horizontal and such an area is known as flat slab. An earthquake of magnitude M7.1 occurred on 19 September 2017, the epicenter of which was located in this flat slab. It caused important human and material losses of urban communities including a large area of Mexico City. The seismicity recorded in the flat slab region is analyzed here in natural time from 1995 until the occurrence of this M7.1 earthquake in 2017 by studying the entropy change under time reversal and the variability β of the order parameter of seismicity as well as characterize the risk of an impending earthquake by applying the nowcasting method. The entropy change ΔS under time reversal minimizes on 21 June 2017 that is almost one week after the observation of such a minimum in the Chiapas region where a magnitude M8.2 earthquake took place on 7 September 2017 being Mexico’s largest quake in more than a century. A minimum of β was also observed during the period February–March 2017. Moreover, we show that, after the minimum of ΔS, the order parameter of seismicity starts diminishing, thus approaching gradually the critical value 0.070 around the end of August and the beginning of September 2017, which signals that a strong earthquake is anticipated shortly in the flat slab. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Time Analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System Surface Deformation: The Case of the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes
Entropy 2020, 22(6), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22060674 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
In order to have further evidence of the atmospheric oscillation channel of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC), we have studied criticality in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) surface deformation as a possible agent for exciting atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and GNSS [...] Read more.
In order to have further evidence of the atmospheric oscillation channel of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC), we have studied criticality in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) surface deformation as a possible agent for exciting atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and GNSS fluctuations in the frequency range of AGWs with the use of the natural time (NT) method. The target earthquake (EQ) is the 2016 Kumamoto EQ with its main shock on 15 April 2016 (M = 7.3, universal time). As the result of the application of the NT method to GNSS data, we found that for the one-day sampled GNSS deformation data and its fluctuations in two AGW bands of 20–100 and 100–300 min, we could detect a criticality in the period of 1–14 April, which was one day to two weeks before the EQ. These dates of criticalities are likely to overlap with the time periods of previous results on clear AGW activity in the stratosphere and on the lower ionospheric perturbation. Hence, we suggest that the surface deformation could be a possible candidate for exciting those AGWs in the stratosphere, leading to the lower ionospheric perturbation, which lends further support to the AGW hypothesis of the LAIC process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Time Analysis: The Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of the Order Parameter Fluctuations Minima Preceding Major Earthquakes
Entropy 2020, 22(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22050583 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
It has been reported that major earthquakes are preceded by Seismic Electric Signals (SES). Observations show that in the natural time analysis of an earthquake (EQ) catalog, an SES activity starts when the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibit a minimum. [...] Read more.
It has been reported that major earthquakes are preceded by Seismic Electric Signals (SES). Observations show that in the natural time analysis of an earthquake (EQ) catalog, an SES activity starts when the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibit a minimum. Fifteen distinct minima—observed simultaneously at two different natural time scales and deeper than a certain threshold—are found on analyzing the seismicity of Japan from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the time of the M9 Tohoku EQ occurrence) 1 to 3 months before large EQs. Six (out of 15) of these minima preceded all shallow EQs of magnitude 7.6 or larger, while nine are followed by smaller EQs. The latter false positives can be excluded by a proper procedure (J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 2014, 119, 9192–9206) that considers aspects of EQ networks based on similar activity patterns. These results are studied here by means of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) technique by focusing on the area under the ROC curve (AUC). If this area, which is currently considered an effective way to summarize the overall diagnostic accuracy of a test, has the value 1, it corresponds to a perfectly accurate test. Here, we find that the AUC is around 0.95 which is evaluated as outstanding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Changes in Land Surface Temperature Possibly Associated with Earthquake: Case of the April 2015 Nepal Mw 7.9 Earthquake
Entropy 2020, 22(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22040377 - 26 Mar 2020
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Satellite thermal infrared remote sensing has received worldwide attention in the exploration for earthquake precursors; however, this method faces great controversy. Obtaining repeatable phenomena related to earthquakes is helpful to reduce this controversy. In this paper, a total of 15 or 17 years [...] Read more.
Satellite thermal infrared remote sensing has received worldwide attention in the exploration for earthquake precursors; however, this method faces great controversy. Obtaining repeatable phenomena related to earthquakes is helpful to reduce this controversy. In this paper, a total of 15 or 17 years of Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua and MODIS/Terra satellite remote sensing land surface temperature (LST) products is selected to analyze the temperature changes before and after the Mw 7.9 earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 2015 and to explore possible thermal information associated with this earthquake. Major findings are given as follows: (1) from the time course, the temperature slowly cooled before the earthquake, reached a minimum at the time of the earthquake, and returned to normal after the earthquake. Since these changes were initiated before the earthquake, they may even have been precursors to the Nepal earthquake. (2) From the space distribution, the cooling areas correspond to the seismogenic structure during the earthquake. These cooling areas are distributed along the Himalayas and are approximately 1300 km long. The widths of the East and West sides are slightly different, with an average temperature decrease of 5.6 °C. For these cooling areas, the Western section is approximately 90 km wide and 500 km long; the East side is approximately 190 km wide and 800 km long. The Western side of the cooling strips appeared before the earthquake. In short, these kinds of spatial and temporal changes are tectonically related to the earthquake and may have been caused by the tectonic activity associated with the Nepal earthquake. This process began before the earthquake and therefore might even be potentially premonitory information associated with the Nepal earthquake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Gravity Wave Activity in the Stratosphere before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake as the Mechanism of Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere Coupling
Entropy 2020, 22(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22010110 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
The precursory atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) activity in the stratosphere has been investigated in our previous paper by studying an inland Kumamoto earthquake (EQ). We are interested in whether the same phenomenon occurs or not before another major EQ, especially an oceanic EQ. [...] Read more.
The precursory atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) activity in the stratosphere has been investigated in our previous paper by studying an inland Kumamoto earthquake (EQ). We are interested in whether the same phenomenon occurs or not before another major EQ, especially an oceanic EQ. In this study, we have examined the stratospheric AGW activity before the oceanic 2011 Tohoku EQ (Mw 9.0), while using the temperature profiles that were retrieved from ERA5. The potential energy (EP) of AGW has enhanced from 3 to 7 March, 4–8 days before the EQ. The active region of the precursory AGW first appeared around the EQ epicenter, and then expanded omnidirectionally, but mainly toward the east, covering a wide area of 2500 km (in longitude) by 1500 km (in latitude). We also found the influence of the present AGW activity on some stratospheric parameters. The stratopause was heated and descended; the ozone concentration was also reduced and the zonal wind was reversed at the stratopause altitude before the EQ. These abnormalities of the stratospheric AGW and physical/chemical parameters are most significant on 5–6 March, which are found to be consistent in time and spatial distribution with the lower ionospheric perturbation, as detected by our VLF network observations. We have excluded the other probabilities by the processes of elimination and finally concluded that the abnormal phenomena observed in the present study are EQ precursors, although several potential sources can generate AGW activities and chemical variations in the stratosphere. The present paper shows that the abnormal stratospheric AGW activity has also been detected even before an oceanic EQ, and the AGW activity has obliquely propagated upward and further disturbed the lower ionosphere. This case study has provided further support to the AGW hypothesis of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Geoelectric Signals Possibly Associated with the Occurrence of Two Ms > 7 EQs in the South Pacific Coast of Mexico
Entropy 2019, 21(12), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21121225 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 944
Abstract
During past decades, several studies have suggested the existence of possible seismic electric precursors associated with earthquakes of magnitude M > 7 . However, additional analyses are needed to have more reliable evidence of pattern behavior prior to the occurrence of a big event. In this article we report analyses of self-potential Δ V records during approximately two years in three electro-seismic stations in Mexico located at Acapulco, Guerrero; Petatlán, Guerrero and Pinotepa Nacional, Oaxaca. On 18 April 2014 an M s 7.2 earthquake occurred near our Petatlán station. Our study shows two notable anomalies observed in the behavior of the Fourier power spectrum of Δ V for ultra low frequency ULF-range, and the transition of the α l -exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis of the Δ V time series from uncorrelated to correlated signals. These anomalies lasted approximately three and a half months before the main shock. We compare this electric pattern with another electric signal we reported associated with an M s 7.4 that occurred on 14 September 1995 at Guerrero state, Mexico. Our characterization of the anomalies observed in both signals point out similar features that enrich our knowledge about precursory phenomena linked to the occurrence of earthquakes of magnitude M > 7 . Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Complexity of Fracturing in Terms of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics: From Earthquake Faults to Arctic Sea Ice Fracturing
Entropy 2020, 22(11), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22111194 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Fracturing processes within solid Earth materials are inherently a complex phenomenon so that the underlying physics that control fracture initiation and evolution still remain elusive. However, universal scaling relations seem to apply to the collective properties of fracturing phenomena. In this article we [...] Read more.
Fracturing processes within solid Earth materials are inherently a complex phenomenon so that the underlying physics that control fracture initiation and evolution still remain elusive. However, universal scaling relations seem to apply to the collective properties of fracturing phenomena. In this article we present a statistical physics approach to fracturing based on the framework of non-extensive statistical physics (NESP). Fracturing phenomena typically present intermittency, multifractality, long-range correlations and extreme fluctuations, properties that motivate the NESP approach. Initially we provide a brief review of the NESP approach to fracturing and earthquakes and then we analyze stress and stress direction time series within Arctic sea ice. We show that such time series present large fluctuations and probability distributions with “fat” tails, which can exactly be described with the q-Gaussian distribution derived in the framework of NESP. Overall, NESP provide a consistent theoretical framework, based on the principle of entropy, for deriving the collective properties of fracturing phenomena and earthquakes. Full article
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