Special Issue "Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Faranda Roberto Sebastiano
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milan Area, Italy
Interests: smart grids; DG; PV; storage
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Emanuele Ogliari
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via La masa, 34, 20156 Milano MI, Italy
Interests: photovoltaics; PV power forecasting; machine learning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Hossein Hafezi
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Electrical Engineering, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
Interests: power electronics application in power quality improvement; smart grids; renewable energies integration; DC and hybrid DC-AC distribution systems and microgrids
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Marco Mussetta
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano MI, Italy
Interests: computational intelligence; optimization; machine learning; fuzzy logic; wireless sensor networks; renewable energy; photovoltaics; wind power; forecasting
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 21st Century is faced with the major concern of Climate Change. As a counter measure, it is important to move towards the decarbonization of the world’s energy system. In this aspect, massive scaling in energy generation from renewables is essential. Due to the abundance, market potential, technological advancements, and, importantly, low cost, solar photovoltaics (PVs) are driving the growth of renewable energy sources and will be the main source leading this transformation towards sustainable and climate-resilient energy generation.

To remove the technical hurdles towards the proliferation of solar PV systems, this Special Issue is aimed at several aspects, collecting the advancements of novel, original research works, and reviews carried out. The topics include, but are not limited to:

Component and System Level:

  • PV systems characterization and modelling;
  • Advanced control algorithms and optimization techniques;
  • Advanced forecasting methods;
  • Smart PV converters;
  • Storage systems for PV plants;
  • Advanced PV power plant configurations;
  • Utility scale PV systems;
  • Coordinated operation of PV and other renewable sources;

Safety and Security:

  • PV fault mitigation and protection systems;

Application of PV Systems for:

  • Grid stability and ancillary services;
  • EV charging and public transport;
  • Residential applications;
  • Isolated/islanded systems;
  • Smart buildings/smart cities.
Dr. Faranda Roberto Sebastiano
Dr. Emanuele Ogliari
Dr. Hossein Hafezi
Prof. Marco Mussetta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
PV Forecast for the Optimal Operation of the Medium Voltage Distribution Network: A Real-Life Implementation on a Large Scale Pilot
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5330; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205330 - 13 Oct 2020
Abstract
The goal of the paper is to develop an online forecasting procedure to be adopted within the H2020 InteGRIDy project, where the main objective is to use the photovoltaic (PV) forecast for optimizing the configuration of a distribution network (DN). Real-time measurements are [...] Read more.
The goal of the paper is to develop an online forecasting procedure to be adopted within the H2020 InteGRIDy project, where the main objective is to use the photovoltaic (PV) forecast for optimizing the configuration of a distribution network (DN). Real-time measurements are obtained and saved for nine photovoltaic plants in a database, together with numerical weather predictions supplied from a commercial weather forecasting service. Adopting several error metrics as a performance index, as well as a historical data set for one of the plants on the DN, a preliminary analysis is performed investigating multiple statistical methods, with the objective of finding the most suitable one in terms of accuracy and computational effort. Hourly forecasts are performed each 6 h, for a horizon of 72 h. Having found the random forest method as the most suitable one, further hyper-parameter tuning of the algorithm was performed to improve performance. Optimal results with respect to normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) were found when training the algorithm using solar irradiation and a time vector, with a dataset consisting of 21 days. It was concluded that adding more features does not improve the accuracy when adopting relatively small training sets. Furthermore, the error was not significantly affected by the horizon of the forecast, where the 72-h horizon forecast showed an error increment of slightly above 2% when compared to the 6-h forecast. Thanks to the InteGRIDy project, the proposed algorithms were tested in a large scale real-life pilot, allowing the validation of the mathematical approach, but taking also into account both, problems related to faults in the telecommunication grids, as well as errors in the data exchange and storage procedures. Such an approach is capable of providing a proper quantification of the performances in a real-life scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Benefit Evaluation of PV Orientation for Individual Residential Consumers
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5122; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195122 - 01 Oct 2020
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) installations located in the northern hemisphere must be oriented to the south in order to obtain maximal annual yield. This is mainly driven by the remuneration mechanisms which incentivize maximal energy production to a certain extent. Nowadays, such support mechanisms are [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) installations located in the northern hemisphere must be oriented to the south in order to obtain maximal annual yield. This is mainly driven by the remuneration mechanisms which incentivize maximal energy production to a certain extent. Nowadays, such support mechanisms are declining or even phased out in many countries. Hence, self-consuming the produced energy is getting more viable. In order to match better the load demand pattern, the azimuth angle of a PV installation could be changed or oriented towards multiple directions. This article investigates the benefits of PV installations facing other directions than the south. Therefore, the Hay & Davies transposition model has been used to calculate the in-plane irradiance, as it is found in the literature to be the most accurate for non-south faced PV installations. In order to determine the benefit, a large dataset of real measured consumption profiles has been used and then divided according to their annual consumption. Large consumers with an oversized east/west-oriented PV installation especially take advantage. The self-sufficiency index (SSI) is found to increase with almost 0.94 percent points, while the self-consumption index (SCI) increases with 6.46 percent points. The peak reduction is assessed by calculating the annual moving average of the month peaks. It is found that this moving average month peak reduction is marginal. Lastly, the reduction in storage capacity is found to be not that significant, although in terms of battery utilization it is found that the number of discharge cycles is reduced with 6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Installation of 500-kW Floating Photovoltaic Structures Using High-Durability Steel
Energies 2020, 13(19), 4996; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13194996 - 23 Sep 2020
Abstract
Countries around the world are expanding their investment in the new and renewable energy industry for strengthening energy security, improving air pollution, responding to climate change, and tackling energy poverty. In Korea, with the nuclear phase-out declaration in 2017, the government has announced [...] Read more.
Countries around the world are expanding their investment in the new and renewable energy industry for strengthening energy security, improving air pollution, responding to climate change, and tackling energy poverty. In Korea, with the nuclear phase-out declaration in 2017, the government has announced a policy to expand the ratio of new and renewable energy from 4.7% to 20% by 2030. This study examines a floating photovoltaic power generation system, which is a new and renewable energy source. A structure composed of high-durability steel with excellent corrosion resistance and durability was designed for constructing and installing a 500-kW-class floating photovoltaic power generation structure. In addition, the safety of the structure was verified through finite element analysis. By reviewing the safety of the structure with respect to the wave height, the behavior of the structure was confirmed through the design wave height formula proposed in the domestic standard. The verification result confirms that the stress is within the allowable design limit. Moreover, the energy production of the floating photovoltaic generation system was measured and compared with that of a terrestrial photovoltaic generation system, and that of the former was shown to be 10% higher than that of the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Long-Term Condition Monitoring and Performance Assessment of Grid Connected PV Power Plant with High Power Sizing Factor under Partial Shading Conditions
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4810; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184810 - 14 Sep 2020
Abstract
Partial shading conditions of photovoltaic (PV) modules often occurs in urban areas leading to losses in electricity power generation of the PV power plant. The purpose of this study is to present how the PV power plant with high value of inverter power [...] Read more.
Partial shading conditions of photovoltaic (PV) modules often occurs in urban areas leading to losses in electricity power generation of the PV power plant. The purpose of this study is to present how the PV power plant with high value of inverter power sizing factor (Kinv) can achieve high performance and power production under partial shading conditions with high shading losses. In this paper the results of long-term monitoring, performance analysis and experimental results are presented, while the results are compared to the estimated values calculated using PVsyst software. The study focused on the PV power plant at the Faculty of Technical Sciences (FTS) in Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia, for the period between the years 2012 and 2019. It has been shown that the values of PV power plant performance parameters are better than expected (very high), and resemble the power plants operating without shading. The high value of the inverter power sizing factor may lead to occasional saturation of the inverter when certain conditions are met, but most of the times it allows the inverter to operate at a more optimal power level. PV module soiling and power degradation is within the limits mentioned in the literature. The increase in Kinv in the partial shading conditions favorably affects the performance, does not degrade the efficiency of the inverter at saturation, reduces the effect of soiling and aging of PV modules, leading to higher power production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Assessment of Large Photovoltaic (PV) Plants Using an Integrated State-Space Average Modeling Approach
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4777; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184777 - 13 Sep 2020
Abstract
Distributed power converters represent a technical solution to improve the performance of large or utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plants. Unfortunately, evaluation of the yield obtained in large PV fields by using distributed converters is a difficult task because of recurring partial unavailability, inaccuracy of [...] Read more.
Distributed power converters represent a technical solution to improve the performance of large or utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plants. Unfortunately, evaluation of the yield obtained in large PV fields by using distributed converters is a difficult task because of recurring partial unavailability, inaccuracy of power analyzers, operating constraints imposed by the Power Plant Controller and so on. To overcome such issues in real operating scenarios, a new modeling strategy has been introduced and validated in terms of computational complexity and accuracy. This approach is based on the state-space averaging technique which is applied to large PV plants with multiple conversion stages by performing some elaborations in order to get a final integrated model. The new modeling strategy has been tested in MatLab Simulink environment using data coming from a 300 MW PV plant located in Brazil representing the case study of this work. In this plant, one subfield is equipped with central inverters while another is with string inverters. The proposed model, whose accuracy is in the range from 2.2 to 2.7% with respect to the measured energy, effectively supports data analysis leading to a consistent performance assessment for the distributed conversion system. Final results highlight that string inverters ensure a gain of about 2% in terms of produced energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Proposal for an MPPT Algorithm Based on the Fluctuations of the PV Output Power, Output Voltage, and Control Duty Cycle for Improving the Performance of PV Systems in Microgrid
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4326; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174326 - 20 Aug 2020
Abstract
In microgrids, distributed generators that cannot be dispatched, such as a photovoltaic system, need to control their output power at the maximum power point. The fluctuation of their output power should be minimized with the support of the maximum power point tracking algorithm [...] Read more.
In microgrids, distributed generators that cannot be dispatched, such as a photovoltaic system, need to control their output power at the maximum power point. The fluctuation of their output power should be minimized with the support of the maximum power point tracking algorithm under the variation of ambient conditions. In this paper, a new maximum power point tracking method based on the parameters of power deviation (ΔPPV), voltage difference (ΔVPV), and duty cycle change (ΔD) is proposed for photovoltaic systems. The presented algorithm achieves the following good results: (i) when the solar radiance is fixed, the output power is stable around the maximum power point; (ii) when the solar radiance is rapidly changing, the generated power is always in the vicinity of maximum power points; (iii) the effectiveness of energy conversion is comparable to that of intelligent algorithms. The proposed algorithm is presented and compared with traditional and intelligent maximum power point tracking algorithms on the simulation model by MATLAB/Simulink under different radiation scenarios to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Energy Compensation Techniques in Photovoltaic Solar Systems with the Use of Supercapacitors in Low-Voltage Networks
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3755; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153755 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The power generated by photovoltaic solar systems is exposed to high variability of irradiance mainly due to weather conditions, which cause instability in the electrical networks connected to these systems. This study shows the typical behavior of solar irradiance in an Andean city, [...] Read more.
The power generated by photovoltaic solar systems is exposed to high variability of irradiance mainly due to weather conditions, which cause instability in the electrical networks connected to these systems. This study shows the typical behavior of solar irradiance in an Andean city, which presents considerable variations that can reach up to 63% of the nominal power of the photovoltaic system, at time intervals in the order of seconds. The study covers the application of 3 techniques to reduce power fluctuations at the point of common coupling (PCC), with the incorporation of energy storage systems, under the same irradiance conditions. Supercapacitors were used as the storage system, which were selected for their high efficiency and useful life. A state of charge control is also applied by means of a hysteresis band. The three algorithms studied show similar behaviors; however, the ramp control technique has the best performance. The storage system was dimensioned based on the photovoltaic system’s nominal power and the desired rate of change in the PCC, whose capacity can be estimated from Pnom/12 [kWh] and a maximum power that can reach up to 0.63 Pnom. The study determines that based on the storage capacity and the irradiance characteristics under study, the storage system could use at least 5.76 daily charge/discharge cycles. In the study, it is possible to reduce the rate of change of the photovoltaic energy injected into the PCC about 6.66 times with the use of the proposed energy storage system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Kernel ELM and Variational Mode Decomposition for Probabilistic PV Power Prediction
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3592; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143592 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A probabilistic prediction interval (PI) model based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and a kernel extreme learning machine using the firefly algorithm (FA-KELM) is presented to tackle the problem of photovoltaic (PV) power for intra-day-ahead prediction. Firstly, considering the non-stationary and nonlinear characteristics [...] Read more.
A probabilistic prediction interval (PI) model based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and a kernel extreme learning machine using the firefly algorithm (FA-KELM) is presented to tackle the problem of photovoltaic (PV) power for intra-day-ahead prediction. Firstly, considering the non-stationary and nonlinear characteristics of a PV power output sequence, the decomposition of the original PV power output series is carried out using VMD. Secondly, to further improve the prediction accuracy, KELM is established for each decomposed component and the firefly algorithm is introduced to optimize the penalty factor and kernel parameter. Finally, the point predicted value is obtained through the summation of predicted results of each component and then using the nonlinear kernel density estimation to fit it. The cubic spline interpolation algorithm is applied to obtain the shortest confidence interval. Results from practical cases show that this probabilistic prediction interval could achieve higher accuracy as compared with other prediction models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Strategy for the Building Integrated Photovoltaic System
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2679; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112679 - 26 May 2020
Abstract
Thin-film photovoltaic technology has begun to be applied in building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs), and it is believed that thin-film photovoltaic technology has potential in building-integrated photovoltaic applications. In this paper, a hybrid approach was investigated which combined the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm [...] Read more.
Thin-film photovoltaic technology has begun to be applied in building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs), and it is believed that thin-film photovoltaic technology has potential in building-integrated photovoltaic applications. In this paper, a hybrid approach was investigated which combined the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm of three-stage variable step size with continuous conduction mode (CCM)/discontinuous current mode (DCM). The research contents of this paper include the principle analysis of the maximum power point tracking algorithm, the design of the sampling period, and the design of a double closed-loop control system and correction factor. A system model was built in MATLAB/Simulink, and a comparative simulation was carried out to compare the performance of the proposed method with some traditional methods. The simulation results show that the proposed approach has the ability to fast-track and make the system run stably. Furthermore, it can make the system respond quickly to environmental changes. An experimental platform was built, and the experimental results validated and confirmed the advantages of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved PSO: A Comparative Study in MPPT Algorithm for PV System Control under Partial Shading Conditions
Energies 2020, 13(8), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082035 - 19 Apr 2020
Abstract
This paper deals with the implementation and analysis of a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method, which is tested under variable climatic conditions. This new MPPT strategy has been created for photovoltaic systems based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The novel [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the implementation and analysis of a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method, which is tested under variable climatic conditions. This new MPPT strategy has been created for photovoltaic systems based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The novel Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) algorithm is tested in several simulations which have been implemented in view of the various system responses such as: voltage, current, and power. The performances of the proposed IPSO algorithm have been completed and compared with results of well-established methods adopted in the literature showing a higher accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Maximum Power Point Tracking and Voltage Regulation of Two-Stage Grid-Tied PV System Based on Model Predictive Control
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061304 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper proposes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and voltage regulation method based on model predictive control (MPC) for the two-stage grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system, which can achieve MPPT and output voltage regulation of a PV system simultaneously. The MPPT algorithm based [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and voltage regulation method based on model predictive control (MPC) for the two-stage grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system, which can achieve MPPT and output voltage regulation of a PV system simultaneously. The MPPT algorithm based on MPC is implemented in a DC-DC boost converter. The reference voltage at maximum power point is obtained by dual step Incremental Conductance (I&C) algorithm under the rapidly varying illumination intensity, and the MPPT controller only needs to minimize one cost function of PV current, without pulse width modulation (PWM) module. To inject the generated PV power into the grid with high quality, this paper designs voltage regulation controller based on MPC to maintain the output voltage of the PV system at the desired value. The MPC controller outputs the optimal duty signal with the input and state constraints in the inner loop, and the PI controller in the outer loop is designed to improve the dynamic performance. The proposed method based on MPC was demonstrated using the SimPower systems tool in MATLAB/Simulink. Analysis and simulation results for the PV system show possible improvements on the closed-loop performance such as fast response and low overshoot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Key Operational Issues on the Integration of Large-Scale Solar Power Generation—A Literature Review
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5951; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225951 - 14 Nov 2020
Abstract
Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation has strong intermittency and volatility due to its high dependence on solar radiation and other meteorological factors. Therefore, the negative impact of grid-connected PV on power systems has become one of the constraints in the development of large [...] Read more.
Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation has strong intermittency and volatility due to its high dependence on solar radiation and other meteorological factors. Therefore, the negative impact of grid-connected PV on power systems has become one of the constraints in the development of large scale PV systems. Accurate forecasting of solar power generation and flexible planning and operational measures are of great significance to ensure safe, stable, and economical operation of a system with high penetration of solar generation at transmission and distribution levels. In this paper, studies on the following aspects are reviewed: (1) this paper comprehensively expounds the research on forecasting techniques of PV power generation output. (2) In view of the new challenge brought by the integration of high proportion solar generation to the frequency stability of power grid, this paper analyzes the mechanisms of influence between them and introduces the current technical route of PV power generation participating in system frequency regulation. (3) This section reviews the feasible measures that facilitate the inter-regional and wide-area consumption of intermittent solar power generation. At the end of this paper, combined with the actual demand of the development of power grid and PV power generation, the problems that need further attention in the future are prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Lifting Off Spatial Degeneracy of Functions, Where Does It Lead Us for Photovoltaic Device Systems?
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195234 - 08 Oct 2020
Abstract
The defact standard of a solar cell is that electric power generation is made at the same place as photoharvesting is performed, i.e., the function of photoharvesting/photoreception is spatially degenerated with that of electric power generation (photo-electroconversion). Here, in this review paper, we [...] Read more.
The defact standard of a solar cell is that electric power generation is made at the same place as photoharvesting is performed, i.e., the function of photoharvesting/photoreception is spatially degenerated with that of electric power generation (photo-electroconversion). Here, in this review paper, we investigate how liberated we are when the degeneracy is lifted off. A conventional concentrator system is, in a sense, a system in which the primary photoharvesting place is decoupled from the photo-conversion part, but is too bulky because the two parts are connected three-dimensionally by photons. We propose a two-dimensional photoreceptor-conversion (2DPRC) scheme in which the photoreception part is spatially decoupled from, but is two-dimensionally connected to the photo-conversion part by a redirection waveguide (RWG). The whole system is in an edge-illumination/photoinjection configuration and concentrator system is quite naturally built, and the edge-injection lift off the trade-off between photo-absorption and photo-carrier collection in the conventional solar cell, leading to a possible high conversion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Systems: Modelling, Control, Design and Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Novel Nonisolated Three-Port Bidirectional DC/DC Converter for Photovoltaic Electric Scooter Charging Stations
Authors: Yu-En Wu; Xiu-Yi Lin
Affiliation: Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology *[email protected]
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel nonisolated three-port bidirectional dc/dc converter for photovoltaic (PV) electric scooter (ES) charging stations. The proposed converter combines an improved boost converter and a bidirectional buck-boost converter. When PV energy is sufficient, the PV module is stepped up to provide dc load energy to the ES through the improved boost converter in order to charge the ES battery. When PV energy is insufficient, the storage battery is stepped up to provide energy to the ES load dc bus, and the ES load dc bus charges the battery if the battery energy is low. The proposed converter reduces the number of components and circuit cost by using a switch internal diode. Finally, a 400-W modified boost converter and a 120-W/60-W bidirectional boost-buck converter were implemented to verify the three operating modes of the proposed nonisolated dc/dc converter. The results revealed that the highest efficiency levels achieved under PV module step-up, storage battery step-up, and storage battery step-down operation were 97.5%, 96.6%, and 92%, respectively.

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