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Special Issue "Alternative Fuels and Their Application to Combustion Engines"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B3: Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. S M Ashrafur Rahman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Queensland University of Technology QUT, Brisbane, Australia
Interests: Combustion, Biofuel, Environment, Energy, Emissions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is observing the disastrous consequence of climate change. The recent bushfires in Australia in 2019-20 has burned 16.8 million hectares of land and killed 1 billion animals (estimated). Although the diesel vehicles are widely used all over the world due their innate high power output and adaptability and affordability; the transport sector is a significant contributor to carbon dioxide, which is immensely accountable for global warming. It is now crucial to take measures to address these issues. The production of cleaner alternatives to diesel fuel will help to build a sustainable environment for future generations. The individual issue invite papers from experts around the world which will help to develop a product that will substantially improve the situation.  The documents received are subject to a rigorous, fast, peer-review procedure, ensuring the wide dissemination of research results accepted.

Dr. S M Ashrafur Rahman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • combustion
  • alternative fuels
  • energy efficiency
  • emission
  • technology
  • conversion
  • biomass

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Overview of Sustainable Aviation Fuels with Emission Characteristic and Particles Emission of the Turbine Engine Fueled ATJ Blends with Different Percentages of ATJ Fuel
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071858 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The following article focuses on sustainable aviation fuels, which include first and second generation biofuels and other non-biomass fuels that meet most of environmental, operational and physicochemical requirements. Several of the requirements for sustainable aviation fuels are discussed in this article. The main [...] Read more.
The following article focuses on sustainable aviation fuels, which include first and second generation biofuels and other non-biomass fuels that meet most of environmental, operational and physicochemical requirements. Several of the requirements for sustainable aviation fuels are discussed in this article. The main focus was on researching the alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alternative fuel. The tests covered the emission of harmful gaseous compounds with the Semtech DS analyzer, as well as the number and mass concentration of particles of three fuels: reference fuel Jet A-1, a mixture of Jet A-1 and 30% of ATJ fuel, and mixture of Jet A-1 and 50% of ATJ fuel. The number concentration of particles allowed us to calculate, inter alia, the corresponding particle number index and particle mass index. The analysis of the results made it possible to determine the effect of the content of alternative fuel in a mixture with conventional fuel on the emission of harmful exhaust compounds and the concentration of particles. One of the main conclusion is that by using a 50% blend of ATJ and Jet A-1, the total number and mass of particulate matter at high engine loads can be reduced by almost 18% and 53%, respectively, relative to pure Jet A-1 fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Fuels and Their Application to Combustion Engines)
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Article
Effect of Additivized Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Engine Performance, Emission, Tribological Characteristics, and Lubricant Tribology
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133375 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
This research work focuses on investigating the lubricity and analyzing the engine characteristics of diesel–biodiesel blends with fuel additives (titanium dioxide (TiO2) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)) and their effect on the tribological properties of a mineral lubricant. A blend of palm–sesame [...] Read more.
This research work focuses on investigating the lubricity and analyzing the engine characteristics of diesel–biodiesel blends with fuel additives (titanium dioxide (TiO2) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)) and their effect on the tribological properties of a mineral lubricant. A blend of palm–sesame oil was used to produce biodiesel using ultrasound-assisted transesterification. B30 (30% biodiesel + 70% diesel) fuel was selected as the base fuel. The additives used in the current study to prepare ternary fuel blends were TiO2 and DMC. B30 + TiO2 showed a significant reduction of 6.72% in the coefficient of friction (COF) compared to B30. B10 (Malaysian commercial diesel) exhibited very poor lubricity and COF among all tested fuels. Both ternary fuel blends showed a promising reduction in wear rate. All contaminated lubricant samples showed an increment in COF due to the dilution of combustible fuels. Lub + B10 (lubricant + B10) showed the highest increment of 42.29% in COF among all contaminated lubricant samples. B30 + TiO2 showed the maximum reduction (6.76%) in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). B30 + DMC showed the maximum increment (8.01%) in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). B30 + DMC exhibited a considerable decline of 32.09% and 25.4% in CO and HC emissions, respectively. The B30 + TiO2 fuel blend showed better lubricity and a significant improvement in engine characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Fuels and Their Application to Combustion Engines)
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Article
Research of Energy and Ecological Indicators of a Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel, Biodiesel (RME-Based) and Isopropanol Fuel Blends
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2398; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092398 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study of energy and ecological indicators at different engine loads (BMEP) adjusting the Start of Injection (SOI) of a Compression Ignition Engine fuelled with blends of diesel (D), rapeseed methyl ester (RME)-based [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study of energy and ecological indicators at different engine loads (BMEP) adjusting the Start of Injection (SOI) of a Compression Ignition Engine fuelled with blends of diesel (D), rapeseed methyl ester (RME)-based biodiesel and isopropanol (P). Fuel blends mixed at D50RME45P5, D50RME40P10 and D50RME30P20 proportions were used. Alcohol-based fuels, such as isopropanol, were chosen because they can be made from different biomass-based feedstocks and used as additives with diesel fuel in diesel engines. Diesel fuel and its blend with 10% alcohol have almost the same thermal efficiency (BTE). In further examination of energy and ecological indicators, combustion parameters were analysed at SOI 6 CAD BTDC using AVL BOOST software (BURN subprogram). Increasing alcohol content in fuel blends led to a reduced cetane number, which prolonged the ignition delay phase and intensified heat release in the premixed combustion phase. Higher combustion temperatures and oxygen content in the fuel blends increased NOx emissions. Lower C/H ratios and higher O2 levels affected by RME and isopropanol reduced smoke emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Fuels and Their Application to Combustion Engines)
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Article
Resource Recovery from Waste Coffee Grounds Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Technology for Bioenergy Production
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071770 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Biodiesel is a proven alternative fuel that can serve as a substitute for petroleum diesel due to its renewability, non-toxicity, sulphur-free nature and superior lubricity. Waste-based non-edible oils are studied as potential biodiesel feedstocks owing to the focus on the valorisation of waste [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is a proven alternative fuel that can serve as a substitute for petroleum diesel due to its renewability, non-toxicity, sulphur-free nature and superior lubricity. Waste-based non-edible oils are studied as potential biodiesel feedstocks owing to the focus on the valorisation of waste products. Instead of being treated as municipal waste, waste coffee grounds (WCG) can be utilised for oil extraction, thereby recovering an energy source in the form of biodiesel. This study evaluates oil extraction from WCG using ultrasonic and Soxhlet techniques, followed by biodiesel conversion using an ultrasonic-assisted transesterification process. It was found that n-hexane was the most effective solvent for the oil extraction process and ultrasonic-assisted technology offers a 13.5% higher yield compared to the conventional Soxhlet extraction process. Solid-to-solvent ratio and extraction time of the oil extraction process from the dried waste coffee grounds (DWCG) after the brewing process was optimised using the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that predicted yield of 17.75 wt. % of coffee oil can be obtained using 1:30 w/v of the mass ratio of DWCG-ton-hexane and 34 min of extraction time when 32% amplitude was used. The model was verified by the experiment where 17.23 wt. % yield of coffee oil was achieved when the extraction process was carried out under optimal conditions. The infrared absorption spectrum analysis of WCG oil determined suitable functional groups for biodiesel conversion which was further treated using an ultrasonic-assisted transesterification process to successfully convert to biodiesel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Fuels and Their Application to Combustion Engines)
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Review

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Review
Current Research and Development Status of Corrosion Behavior of Automotive Materials in Biofuels
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051440 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
The world’s need for energy is increasing with the passage of time and the substantial energy demand of the world is met by fossil fuels. Biodiesel has been considered as a replacement for fossil fuels in automotive engines. Biodiesels are advantageous because they [...] Read more.
The world’s need for energy is increasing with the passage of time and the substantial energy demand of the world is met by fossil fuels. Biodiesel has been considered as a replacement for fossil fuels in automotive engines. Biodiesels are advantageous because they provide energy security, they are nontoxic, renewable, economical, and biodegradable and clean sources of energy. However, there are certain disadvantages of biodiesels, including their corrosive, hygroscopic and oxidative natures. This paper provides a review of automotive materials when coming into contact with biodiesel blended fuel in terms of corrosion. Biodiesels have generally been proved to be corrosive, therefore it is important to understand the limits and extents of corrosion on different materials. Methods generally used to find and calculate corrosion have also been discussed in this paper. The reasons for the occurrence of corrosion and the subsequent problems because of corrosion have been presented. Biodiesel production can be carried out by different feedstocks and the studies which have been carried out on these biodiesels have been reviewed in this paper. A certain number of compounds form on the surface of materials because of corrosion and the mechanism behind the formation of these compounds along with the characterization techniques generally used is reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Fuels and Their Application to Combustion Engines)
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