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Research of Energy and Ecological Indicators of a Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel, Biodiesel (RME-Based) and Isopropanol Fuel Blends
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Additivized Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Engine Performance, Emission, Tribological Characteristics, and Lubricant Tribology

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Energy Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
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Department of Mechanical, Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering (New Campus), University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50728, Malaysia
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School of Information, Systems and Modelling, Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales 2007, Australia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Pakistan
6
Department of Physics, Center of Ionics, Faculty of Science University of Malaya Malaysia, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133375
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Fuels and Their Application to Combustion Engines)
This research work focuses on investigating the lubricity and analyzing the engine characteristics of diesel–biodiesel blends with fuel additives (titanium dioxide (TiO2) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)) and their effect on the tribological properties of a mineral lubricant. A blend of palm–sesame oil was used to produce biodiesel using ultrasound-assisted transesterification. B30 (30% biodiesel + 70% diesel) fuel was selected as the base fuel. The additives used in the current study to prepare ternary fuel blends were TiO2 and DMC. B30 + TiO2 showed a significant reduction of 6.72% in the coefficient of friction (COF) compared to B30. B10 (Malaysian commercial diesel) exhibited very poor lubricity and COF among all tested fuels. Both ternary fuel blends showed a promising reduction in wear rate. All contaminated lubricant samples showed an increment in COF due to the dilution of combustible fuels. Lub + B10 (lubricant + B10) showed the highest increment of 42.29% in COF among all contaminated lubricant samples. B30 + TiO2 showed the maximum reduction (6.76%) in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). B30 + DMC showed the maximum increment (8.01%) in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). B30 + DMC exhibited a considerable decline of 32.09% and 25.4% in CO and HC emissions, respectively. The B30 + TiO2 fuel blend showed better lubricity and a significant improvement in engine characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: high frequeny reciprocating rig; palm-sesame biodiesel; nanoparticle additives; four-ball tribo tester; engine characteristics; tribological characteristics high frequeny reciprocating rig; palm-sesame biodiesel; nanoparticle additives; four-ball tribo tester; engine characteristics; tribological characteristics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mujtaba, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Noor, F.; Farooq, M.; Ong, H.C.; Gul, M.; Soudagar, M.E.M.; Bashir, S.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Razzaq, L. Effect of Additivized Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Engine Performance, Emission, Tribological Characteristics, and Lubricant Tribology. Energies 2020, 13, 3375.

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