Special Issue "Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Rudolf Andoga
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Aeronautics, Department of Avionics, 040 21 Kosice, Slovakia
Interests: turbojet engines; aircraft power systems; flight control systems; digital avionics; aerospace systems; computational intelligence; computational cybernetics; large-scale systems control and diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Improvements in all areas of aviation are important to meet the ever-increasing demands on safety, ecology, and economics. As most of the industry, aviation is also moving towards a lower ecological footprint with increasing electrification of its systems and considerable improvements in state-of-the-art electrical systems. Efficient power generation and electric power utilization in aircraft can be achieved through the development of new electric systems and improvements in algorithms, which manage and control aircraft electrical systems. This is all materialized in the concept of more electric aircraft, where more and more power systems are being replaced by electrical ones. Development of more efficient algorithms implemented in digital aircraft systems as well as high integration with other aircraft systems aims to materialize this concept in production aircraft and move the boundaries of development of aviation transport. The Special Issue is dedicated to present advancements in algorithms used in digital aircraft power and electric systems as well as developments in their architecture and hardware.

Prof. Dr. Rudolf Andoga
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aircraft electric system modeling
  • Aircraft electric system control
  • Alternative aircraft power systems
  • More electric aircraft
  • All electric aircraft
  • Electric aircraft
  • Hybrid electric aircraft
  • Aircraft power systems diagnosis
  • Management of aircraft electric power systems
  • Integrated aircraft control and management systems
  • Aircraft electricity generation systems
  • Digital control of aircraft power systems
  • Management of aircraft engines and electric systems
  • Progressive algorithms in aircraft control
  • Predictive maintenance in aircraft electric systems
  • Hybrid aircraft power systems
  • Auxiliary aircraft electrical systems
  • Decentralized electrical distribution system
  • Electrically powered actuators
  • Superconducting aircraft power systems
  • Electrical propulsion and power systems for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
A Multilayer Brushless DC Motor for Heavy Lift Drones
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2504; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092504 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
This paper describes the concept of a multilayer brushless DC motor which is suitable for use on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and capable of carrying a heavy payload. The paper deals with a unique multilayer structure, using three standard stators placed in parallel [...] Read more.
This paper describes the concept of a multilayer brushless DC motor which is suitable for use on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and capable of carrying a heavy payload. The paper deals with a unique multilayer structure, using three standard stators placed in parallel with a single rotor body, to increase the torque even under low-speed conditions. In this solution, nine inner windings can use different star/delta interconnections to optimize the performance of the BLDC motor on demand. The proposed multilayer BLDC motor solution utilizes the main advantages of BLDC motors, ensuring highly reliable operation, and thus enabling a BLDC motor to be applied to UAVs. This paper gives an overview of the design, assumes an extension with an electronic inner winding switching capability, and provides practical details about realization, testing, and experimental verification. Practical measurements and obtained data are utilized to confirm the approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems)
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Article
Adaptive Control and Estimation of the Condition of a Small Unmanned Aircraft Using a Kalman Filter
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082292 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The article was motivated by the design of adaptive control algorithms for the control of a a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). An adaptive system is a system that, with its structure or parameters, adapts to changes in the behavior of the [...] Read more.
The article was motivated by the design of adaptive control algorithms for the control of a a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). An adaptive system is a system that, with its structure or parameters, adapts to changes in the behavior of the object and based on the knowledge of variable properties, maintains the quality of its regulatory transition. The knowledge gained on this small UAV can be applied to larger aircraft. The creation of the proposed adaptive control into the UAV consisted of the creation of a simulation model of the aircraft based on known physical laws, the properties of the aircraft and a mathematical description. An adaptive PID controller for stabilization with changing coefficients based on the airspeed of the aircraft was designed and simulated. A validated control of the mathematical model of an unmanned aircraft was designed and simulated using the methods of estimation and identification of the UAV model parameter based on measured data from flight tests. Identifying dynamic parameters is a challenging task due to several factors, such as random vibration noise, interference, and sensor measurement uncertainty. The designed adaptive UAV control provides very promising results in improving the controllability of the aircraft while reducing the effect of speed changes on the stability and controllability of the system compared to the conventional PID controller. The comparison was performed on three selected types of PID controllers. The first type had fixed coefficients for the entire range of speeds calculated using the Control toolbox in MatLab. The second type also had constant coefficients over the entire range of speeds calculated using the Naslin method. The third adaptive type of PID controller had variable coefficients based on approximate polynomials dependent on the change in flight speed. The reason for the comparison was to show an increase in margin of stability using the method of variable coefficients of the PID controller based on the change of flight speeds. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive control algorithm is robust enough to control the movement of the aircraft in the longitudinal plane and due to the introduced process and measurement errors, while the used Kalman filter effectively eliminates these errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems)
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Article
Assessment of All-Electric General Aviation Aircraft
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6206; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236206 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 575
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to describe the upcoming changes that will bring the transition from piston engines to all-electric aircrafts. The article focuses on the differences in operation of small general aviation aircrafts. This topic is timely, as the first all-electric [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the upcoming changes that will bring the transition from piston engines to all-electric aircrafts. The article focuses on the differences in operation of small general aviation aircrafts. This topic is timely, as the first all-electric aircraft was certified by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) in 2019. As there are no data concerning this new type of operation available, the data have been derived from other applicable sources. At first, we compared the energy consumption of the same aircraft with the piston engine, and then afterwards with the retrofitted all-electric variant. Our results focus on the difference in fuel price, which is discussed in the context of electricity price comparison with AVGAS prices. Moreover, we discuss the environmental impacts, especially concerning electricity source mix and emissions produced (we estimate both with and without life-cycle assessment). In the discussion, we compare the results and identify the benefits of an all-electric solution. Furthermore, several operational restrictions of all-electric aircrafts are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems)
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Article
Improved Gain Scheduling Control and Its Application to Aero-Engine LPV Synthesis
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5967; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225967 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Issues of gain scheduling control for aero-engines are addressed in this paper. An aero-engine is a system with high nonlinearity, and the requirement on controlling performance is high. Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) synthesis is commonly used to satisfy the requirements. However, the designing [...] Read more.
Issues of gain scheduling control for aero-engines are addressed in this paper. An aero-engine is a system with high nonlinearity, and the requirement on controlling performance is high. Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) synthesis is commonly used to satisfy the requirements. However, the designing procedure of an LPV synthesis controller is complex, and may lead to undesirable design results when the variation rate of scheduling parameter is relatively fast. In this paper, an improved gain scheduling design procedure that can guarantee reliable stability and performance is developed. The method allows arbitrary variation of scheduling parameters, and is a modification for conventional LPV synthesis control. Special cases where traditional LPV synthesis control can still work are also discussed. The modified design procedure is evaluated on a small turbofan engine. Simulations show that for conditions where conventional scheduling fail to stabilize the plant, the proposed modification can ensure reliability and achieve desired performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems)
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Article
System Identification and LQR Controller Design with Incomplete State Observation for Aircraft Trajectory Tracking
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5354; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205354 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 534
Abstract
This paper presents a controller design process for an aircraft tracking problem when not all states are available. In the study, a nonlinear-transport aircraft simulation model was used and identified through Maximum Likelihood Principle and Extended Kalman Filter. The obtained mathematical model was [...] Read more.
This paper presents a controller design process for an aircraft tracking problem when not all states are available. In the study, a nonlinear-transport aircraft simulation model was used and identified through Maximum Likelihood Principle and Extended Kalman Filter. The obtained mathematical model was used to design a Linear–Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with optimal weighting matrices when not all states are measured. The nonlinear aircraft simulation model with LQR controller tracking abilities were analyzed for multiple experiments with various noise levels. It was shown that the designed controller is robust and allows for accurate trajectory tracking. It was found that, in ideal atmospheric conditions, the tracking errors are small, even for unmeasured variables. In wind presence, the tracking errors were proportional to the wind velocity and acceptable for small and moderate disturbances. When turbulence was present in the experiment, state variable oscillations occurred that were proportional to the turbulence intensity and acceptable for small and moderate disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems)
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Article
Sliding Mode Control for Micro Turbojet Engine Using Turbofan Power Ratio as Control Law
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4841; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184841 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 502
Abstract
The interest in turbojet engines was emerging in the past years due to their simplicity. The purpose of this article is to investigate sliding mode control (SMC) for a micro turbojet engine based on an unconventional compound thermodynamic parameter called Turbofan Power Ratio [...] Read more.
The interest in turbojet engines was emerging in the past years due to their simplicity. The purpose of this article is to investigate sliding mode control (SMC) for a micro turbojet engine based on an unconventional compound thermodynamic parameter called Turbofan Power Ratio (TPR) and prove its advantage over traditional linear methods and thrust parameters. Based on previous research by the authors, TPR can be applied to single stream turbojet engines as it varies proportionally to thrust, thus it is suitable as control law. The turbojet is modeled by a linear, parameter-varying structure, and variable structure sliding mode control has been selected to control the system, as it offers excellent disturbance rejection and provides robustness against discrepancies between mathematical model and real plant as well. Both model and control system have been created in MATLAB® Simulink®, data from real measurement have been taken to evaluate control system performance. The same assessment is conducted with conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers and showed the superiority of SMC, furthermore TPR computation using turbine discharge temperature was proven. Based on the results of the simulation, a controller layout is proposed and its feasibility is investigated. The utilization of TPR results in more accurate thrust output, meanwhile it allows better insight into the thermodynamic process of the engine, hence it carries an additional diagnostic possibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems)
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Article
Statistical Evaluation of Pilot’s Behavior Models Parameters Connected to Military Flight Training
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4452; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174452 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 506
Abstract
The paper discusses the possibilities of objective assessment of military flight training quality based on statistical evaluation of pilot’s behavior models parameters. For these purposes, the pilots’ responses to non-standard flight situations were measured by using a fixed-base and a moving-base engineering flight [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the possibilities of objective assessment of military flight training quality based on statistical evaluation of pilot’s behavior models parameters. For these purposes, the pilots’ responses to non-standard flight situations were measured by using a fixed-base and a moving-base engineering flight simulator. Tens of military pilots at different training stages were tested. By exploiting real-life tests, we established that the given pilot models provide sufficiently accurate approximation of realistic human responses. Importantly, the models are relatively easy to use, and the individual parameters can be unambiguously interpreted, i.e., the time constants of the pilot behavior model are obtainable, representing the pilot’s current psychological and physiological state of mind. The parameters lay in the defined ranges, and they characterize the ability of the human/pilot to adapt to a controlled dynamic system. Consequently, a fundamental statistical analysis based on pilot’s behavioral model parameters was conducted, using the acquired test data representing the pilot’s behavior during repeated measuring. The initial results indicate the possibility to use the results for objective assessment the military flight training level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Aircraft Electric Power Systems)
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