energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A6: Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ka Wai Eric Cheng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Power Electronics Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Interests: power electronics; machines; drives; alternative energy; EMI; electric vehicle, air-conditioning; DC distribution; AC distribution; transmission; electromagnetic compatibility and actuation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After 20 years of the rapid development of electric vehicles (EV), the basic technology of EV in terms of motor, drive, batteries, chargers, and vehicle control are well developed, and numerous products have been found in the market. Advanced electric vehicle techniques require future technologies. High-energy storage of batteries or other energy storage devices should be examined. Research should not only develop new devices in fuel cells, super-capacitors, and flow batteries, it also develop associated management, cell balancing, and bi-directional charging or refuel systems or mechanisms for EV. The new, high-torque motor is in high demand. High power density in terms of motor and drive, braking, a new cooling method, energy storage safety, and vehicle security are urgently needed. The vehicle control unit, and communication among vehicles and travel control, are the new requirements for smart cities and planning. Vehicles’ self-diagnosis and autonomous driving systems are also needed for sustainable vehicle development. Advanced vehicle parts and components are being built, including active suspension, new power train, parts-and-body integration, and braking systems, which are new interests for all EV, and the elimination of the hydraulic subsystem. The future electric vehicle market is large; research is just beginning, and we expect new research to be reported in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Ka Wai Eric Cheng
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electric vehicle (EV)
  • Electric mobility
  • Energy storage
  • Motor
  • Electrical machines
  • Drives
  • Braking system
  • Antilock braking system (ABS)
  • Battery management system (BMS)
  • Vehicle control unit
  • Lighting
  • Vehicle security
  • Autonomous driving
  • Diagnosis system
  • Fuel cell
  • Flow battery
  • Super-capacitor
  • Vehicle packaging
  • Electromagnetic compatibility
  • Hybrid-electric vehicle
  • Wireless charger
  • High power charger
  • Amphibious vehicle
  • New energy
  • Photovoltaic
  • Solar car.

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Hybrid Energy Storage System with Vehicle Body Integrated Super-Capacitor and Li-Ion Battery: Model, Design and Implementation, for Distributed Energy Storage
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6553; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206553 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
In this paper, a distributed energy storage design within an electric vehicle for smarter mobility applications is introduced. Idea of body integrated super-capacitor technology, design concept and its implementation is proposed in the paper. Individual super-capacitor cells are connected in series or parallel [...] Read more.
In this paper, a distributed energy storage design within an electric vehicle for smarter mobility applications is introduced. Idea of body integrated super-capacitor technology, design concept and its implementation is proposed in the paper. Individual super-capacitor cells are connected in series or parallel to form a string connection of super-capacitors with the associated management unit to form a panel. These super-capacitor panels are shaped to fit the alternative concept of vehicle design, and it solves the design issues and prepares for configurable electric vehicles. Body integration of super-capacitors enhances the acceleration, and regenerative braking performances of the electric vehicle increases the operating life of the Li-ion battery and improves space utilization by giving more area for the main energy source, the Li-ion battery. Integrating super-capacitor into the car body involves special packaging technology to minimize space and promotes distributed energy storage within a vehicle. This pioneering design encourages future configurable electric vehicles. Model of both the Li-ion battery and the super-capacitor employed is studied with its series internal resistance determined at various C-rates. Loss and the efficiency analysis of the bi-directional converter, traits of body integrated super-capacitors system and control of the interleaved bi-directional converter to regulate the power-sharing in the hybrid energy storage system is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimization of Ferrites Structure by Using a New Core-Less Design Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Wireless Power Transfer
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092590 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
In order to improve the customers’ continuous usage of electrical vehicles (EVs) and reduce the weight of the energy storage devices, wireless charging technology has been widely studied, updated, and commercialized in recent decades, regarding to its distinct superiority of great convenience and [...] Read more.
In order to improve the customers’ continuous usage of electrical vehicles (EVs) and reduce the weight of the energy storage devices, wireless charging technology has been widely studied, updated, and commercialized in recent decades, regarding to its distinct superiority of great convenience and low risk. A higher coupling coefficient is the key factor that impacts the transmission efficiency, thus in most medium-power (hundreds of watts) to high-power (several kilowatts) wireless charging systems, ferrites are used to guide the magnetic flux and intensify the magnetic density. However, the weight of the ferrite itself puts an extra burden on the system, and the core loss during operation also reduces the total efficiency and output power. This paper proposes an optimized design algorithm based on a core-less method for the magnetic core, where the core loss and the coupling coefficient are consequently balanced, and the overall weight and efficiency of the system can be optimized. The iteration procedure is applied on the basis of removed ferrite length and thickness in the algorithm. In the simulation, a square coupler with a total volume of 300 mm × 150 mm, a circular coupler of 150 mm × 150 mm and a Double-D (DD) coupler of 300 mm × 150 mm are used to verify the advantages of the proposed method. The optimized ferrite structures are specific for each coupler shape, and the improvement is proved to be universal in current scale by means of 3-D finite element analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Improved and Integrated Design of Segmented Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071975 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
This paper describes improvements in a segmented dynamic wireless power transfer (DWPT) system for electric vehicles (EVs), and aims to offer a stable charging method for high-power applications. An integrated design is presented, including the modified switching sequence, the size of segmented transmitters, [...] Read more.
This paper describes improvements in a segmented dynamic wireless power transfer (DWPT) system for electric vehicles (EVs), and aims to offer a stable charging method for high-power applications. An integrated design is presented, including the modified switching sequence, the size of segmented transmitters, and parallel inverter technology for high-power applications. Three consecutive transmitters mounted on the rail track are energized according to the position of the pickups. This three-consecutive-transmitter group is comprised of a Q-shaped coil, a DD-shaped coil, and a Q-shaped coil again (QDDQ). QDDQ is used as an elementary energized group to optimize the number of energized transmitters and mitigate the output voltage variation. The entire DWPT system is designed with finite element analysis (FEA) and studied with circuit topologies. Overall, an experimental prototype for dynamic charging is built to verify the overall performance, which shows a great agreement with the theoretical analysis. In this prototype, there are five transmitters and one receiver. All dimensions are 500 mm × 500 mm. The proposed system has been validated to realize 500 V constant output voltage with approximately 85% dc-dc efficiency from the 100 Ω to 200 Ω load conditions. A 2.5 kW maximum output power occurs at the 100 Ω load condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Design, Analysis and Application of Single-Wheel Test Bench for All-Electric Antilock Braking System in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051294 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
An antilock braking system (ABS) is one of the most important components in a road vehicle, which provides active protection during braking, to prevent the wheels from locking-up and achieve handling stability and steerability. The all-electric ABS without any hydraulic components is a [...] Read more.
An antilock braking system (ABS) is one of the most important components in a road vehicle, which provides active protection during braking, to prevent the wheels from locking-up and achieve handling stability and steerability. The all-electric ABS without any hydraulic components is a potential candidate for electric vehicles. To demonstrate and examine the all-electric ABS algorithms, this article proposes a single-wheel all-electric ABS test bench, which mainly includes the vehicle wheel, the roller, the flywheels, and the electromechanical brake. To simulate dynamic operation of a real vehicle’s wheel, the kinetic energy of the total rotary components in the bench is designed to match the quarter of the one of a commercial car. The vertical force to the wheel is adjustable. The tire-roller contact simulates the real tire-road contact. The roller’s circumferential velocity represents the longitudinal vehicle velocity. The design and analysis of the proposed bench are described in detail. For the developed prototype, the rated clamping force of the electromechanical brake is 11 kN, the maximum vertical force to the wheel reaches 300 kg, and the maximum roller (vehicle) velocity reaches 100 km/h. The measurable bandwidth of the wheel speed is 4 Hz–2 kHz and the motor speed is 2.5 Hz–50 kHz. The measured results including the roller (vehicle) velocity, the wheel velocity, and the wheel slip are satisfactory. This article offers the effective tools to verify all-electric ABS algorithms in a laboratory, hence saving time and cost for the subsequent test on a real road. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Integrated Electric Vehicle Shunt Current Sensing System for Concurrent Revenue Metering and Detection of DC Injection
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041193 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
Certified electric vehicle power converters can inject DC current into the AC grid if they fail. Verification of DC injection by electric vehicle supply equipment can be a cost-effective extra measure to ensure power quality from a variety of plugged-in electric vehicles. As [...] Read more.
Certified electric vehicle power converters can inject DC current into the AC grid if they fail. Verification of DC injection by electric vehicle supply equipment can be a cost-effective extra measure to ensure power quality from a variety of plugged-in electric vehicles. As electric vehicle supply equipment typically performs high-accuracy revenue energy metering, we propose that measurement of AC current and DC injection with a single sensor is the most economically efficient design. This article presents an integrated shunt current sensing system with separation of AC and DC signals for concurrent revenue metering and DC injection detection. It also shows how the combined sensor is integrated into 19.2 kW single-phase electric vehicle supply equipment, and outlines how the design would be extended to 100 kW three-phase electric vehicle supply equipment. The prototype can detect DC injection of ≥400 mA in an AC current up to 80 A in accordance with the IEEE 1547-2018 standard. The prototype can also conduct revenue metering within the 1.0 accuracy class. The prototype does not have high power dissipation at high currents typical for shunt systems. Finally, the prototype is less costly than common electric vehicle supply equipment revenue metering CT systems with the addition of the popular Hall-effect sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Huber-Based Robust Unscented Kalman Filter Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle State Observation
Energies 2021, 14(3), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030750 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Accurate and real-time acquisition of vehicle state parameters is key to improving the performance of vehicle control systems. To improve the accuracy of state parameter estimation for distributed drive electric vehicles, an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm combined with the Huber method is [...] Read more.
Accurate and real-time acquisition of vehicle state parameters is key to improving the performance of vehicle control systems. To improve the accuracy of state parameter estimation for distributed drive electric vehicles, an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm combined with the Huber method is proposed. In this paper, we introduce the nonlinear modified Dugoff tire model, build a nonlinear three-degrees-of-freedom time-varying parametric vehicle dynamics model, and extend the vehicle mass, the height of the center of gravity, and the yaw moment of inertia, which are significantly influenced by the driving state, into the vehicle state vector. The vehicle state parameter observer was designed using an unscented Kalman filter framework. The Huber cost function was introduced to correct the measured noise and state covariance in real-time to improve the robustness of the observer. The simulation verification of a double-lane change and straight-line driving conditions at constant speed was carried out using the Simulink/Carsim platform. The results show that observation using the Huber-based robust unscented Kalman filter (HRUKF) more realistically reflects the vehicle state in real-time, effectively suppresses the influence of abnormal error and noise, and obtains high observation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Core Stress Analysis of Amorphous Alloy Transformer for Rail Transit under Different Working Conditions
Energies 2021, 14(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010164 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
The rail transit system is a large electric vehicle system that is strongly dependent on the energy technologies of the power system. The use of new energy-saving amorphous alloy transformers can not only reduce the loss of rail transit power, but also help [...] Read more.
The rail transit system is a large electric vehicle system that is strongly dependent on the energy technologies of the power system. The use of new energy-saving amorphous alloy transformers can not only reduce the loss of rail transit power, but also help alleviate the power shortage situation and electromagnetic emissions. The application of the transformer in the field of rail transit is limited by the problem that amorphous alloy is prone to debris. this paper studied the stress conditions of amorphous alloy transformer cores under different working conditions and determined that the location where the core is prone to fragmentation, which is the key problem of smoothly integrating amorphous alloy distribution transformers on rail transit power supply systems. In this study, we investigate the changes in the electromagnetic field and stress of the amorphous alloy transformer core under different operating conditions. The finite element model of an amorphous alloy transformer is established and verified. The simulation results of the magnetic field and stress of the core under different working conditions are given. The no-load current and no-load loss are simulated and compared with the actual experimental data to verify practicability of amorphous alloy transformers. The biggest influence on the iron core is the overload state and the maximum value is higher than the core stress during short circuit. The core strain caused by the side-phase short circuit is larger than the middle-phase short circuit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Research on the Starting Acceleration Characteristics of a New Mechanical–Electric–Hydraulic Power Coupling Electric Vehicle
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236279 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
To simplify the layout of a purely electric vehicle transmission system and improve the acceleration performance of the vehicle, this paper utilizes the characteristics of the large torque of a hydraulic transmission system and proposes a new mechanical–electric–hydraulic dynamic coupling drive system (MEH-DCDS). [...] Read more.
To simplify the layout of a purely electric vehicle transmission system and improve the acceleration performance of the vehicle, this paper utilizes the characteristics of the large torque of a hydraulic transmission system and proposes a new mechanical–electric–hydraulic dynamic coupling drive system (MEH-DCDS). It integrates the traditional motor and the swashplate hydraulic pump/motor into one, which can realize the mutual conversion between the mechanical energy, electrical energy, and hydraulic energy. This article explains its working principle and structural characteristics. At the same time, the mathematical model for the key components is established and the operation mode is divided into various types. Based on AMESim software, the article studies the dynamic characteristics of the MEH-DCDS, and finally proposes a method that combines real-time feedback of the accumulator output torque with PID control to complete the system simulation. The results show that the MEH-DCDS vehicle has a starting time of 4.52 s at ignition, and the starting performance is improved by 40.37% compared to that of a pure motor drive system vehicle; after a PID adjustment, the MEH-DCDS vehicle’s starting time is shortened by 1.04 s, and the acceleration performance is improved by 23.01%. The results indicated the feasibility of the system and the power performance was substantially improved. Finally, the system is integrated into the vehicle and the dynamic performance of the MEH-DCDS under cycle conditions is verified by joint simulation. The results show that the vehicle is able to follow the control speed well when the MEH-DCDS is loaded on the vehicle. The state-of-charge (SOC) consumption rate is reduced by 20.33% compared to an electric vehicle, while the MEH-DCDS has an increased range of 45.7 m compared to the EV. This improves the energy efficiency and increases the driving range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Design and Analysis of Second-Order Sliding Mode Controller for Active Magnetic Bearing
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5965; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225965 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
An active magnetic bearing (AMB) is a kind of high-performance bearing that uses controllable electromagnetic force to levitate the rotor. Its control performance directly affects the operation characteristics of high-speed motors and other electromechanical products. The magnetic bearing control model is nonlinear and [...] Read more.
An active magnetic bearing (AMB) is a kind of high-performance bearing that uses controllable electromagnetic force to levitate the rotor. Its control performance directly affects the operation characteristics of high-speed motors and other electromechanical products. The magnetic bearing control model is nonlinear and difficult to control. Sliding mode control algorithm can be used in the magnetic bearing control system, but the traditional sliding mode control has the problem of high-frequency chattering, which affects the operation stability of magnetic bearings. Based on the second-order sliding mode control algorithm, a new second-order sliding mode controller for active magnetic bearing control was designed, and the stability of the designed sliding mode control law was proven by Lyapunov criterion. On the basis of the established active magnetic bearing control model, the numerical analysis of the designed controller was carried out, and the control effect was compared with that obtained by the exponential reaching law for the sliding mode control algorithm. The experimental results show that the designed sliding mode controller has better dynamic performance and stability than the exponential reaching law for the sliding mode controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electric Vehicle Techniques)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop