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Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 31215

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Economic Science, Department of Economic Policy, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 4, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: land use policy; renewable energy sources; rural entrepreneurship; local and regional development

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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Faculty of Engineering, Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy, Studentu 15A, LT-53362 Akademija, Lithuania
Interests: sustainable development; bioresource technologies; biosystems engineering; pressed fertilizers; solid biofuels; energy plants; herbaceous plants; non-traditional plants; woody plants; fibrous plants; pellets; briquettes; chaff; biofuel properties; ash characteristics; calorific value; harmful emissions; energy evaluation; life cycle assessment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exploitation of renewable energy sources for power generation has become more and more important in recent years. This results in the economic issues and the measures taken to ensure the energy security. Dynamic development of national economies requires a significant increase in the demand for energy. Conventional energy resources, like carbon, natural gas, and oil, are no longer sufficient to satisfy the demand of the global economy.

Another related issue is the growing pollution of the environment and the climate change caused by conventional sources of energy.

The development of RES in a country guarantees access to the local and renewable resources. In consequence, the country has more resources for energy production, and, in times of a crisis resulting not only in the depletion of energy sources, but also in various political and economic conflicts, it becomes independent of the import of resources from abroad.

In the world, there is observed a positive trend of the increasing share of renewable energy in the energy mix of the economy. This development is encouraged by the legislation, the advent of new technologies in the energy industry, increased awareness of ecology and nature conservation in the society.

The actual threats to energy security force us to make investments into new technologies, particularly into renewable sources of energy, including conversion of biomass and distributed systems of energy generation. The ongoing trends indicate that the most dynamically growing sector, able to be developed in rural areas, will be renewable energy generation.

This Special Issue, entitled “Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation” for the international journal Energies, mainly covers original research and studies related to the abovementioned topics including, but not limited to, economic efficiency of renewable energy sources, the market of agricultural energy raw materials, the use of energy from renewable energy sources in ensuring energy security, the role of clusters in the production of energy from renewable sources, business models in the field of renewable energy, technical aspects of energy production,  use of computer tool for modeling energy consumption and others.

We are writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue. We are looking forward to receiving your outstanding research.

Assoc. Prof. Renata Marks-Bielska
Prof. Dr. Algirdas Jasinskas 
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renewable energy sources
  • economic efficiency
  • energy conversion
  • management
  • legal aspects
  • clusters
  • spatial analysis
  • energy security
  • sustainability
  • energetic crops
  • biofuels
  • biogas
  • biomass
  • bioenergy
  • photovoltaics
  • wind energy

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 3805 KiB  
Article
The Experimental Study of the Efficiency of the Gasification Process of the Fast-Growing Willow Biomass in a Downdraft Gasifier
by Savelii Kukharets, Algirdas Jasinskas, Gennadii Golub, Olena Sukmaniuk, Taras Hutsol, Krzysztof Mudryk, Jonas Čėsna, Szymon Glowacki and Iryna Horetska
Energies 2023, 16(2), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020578 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
In this work, a study was performed on the influence of the ratio of height to the diameter of the reduction zone of a small-size downdraft gasifier as well as of the fuel fraction sizes on the gas quality (the quality was evaluated [...] Read more.
In this work, a study was performed on the influence of the ratio of height to the diameter of the reduction zone of a small-size downdraft gasifier as well as of the fuel fraction sizes on the gas quality (the quality was evaluated for CO content). The ratio of a full side area to the volume of a fuel fraction (SVR) was used as a fuel parameter. The maximum CO concentration was observed when using a small fuel fraction with SVR—0.7–0.72 mm−1 and when adhering to the ratio of height to the diameter of the reduction zone H/D—0.5–0.6. The maximum electric power for gasoline generators (nominal power equaled 4 kW) when using the gas received from the fast-growing hybrid willow biomass equaled 2.4 kW. This power is 37.5% lower than when using gasoline and 7.0% lower than when using the gas received from the hardwood biomass. The emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere by the gasoline generator engine equaled 0.12–0.14% CO and 24–27 mln−1 CxHy. The emissions were 64.8 times less for CO and 8.5 times less for CxHy when compared with using gasoline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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15 pages, 1730 KiB  
Article
A Theoretical Model of the Gasification Rate of Biomass and Its Experimental Confirmation
by Savelii Kukharets, Gennadii Golub, Marek Wrobel, Olena Sukmaniuk, Krzysztof Mudryk, Taras Hutsol, Algirdas Jasinskas, Marcin Jewiarz, Jonas Cesna and Iryna Horetska
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7721; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207721 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
The gasification rate of fuel, biomass gasification in particular, is an important parameter which is worth considering in the process of creating a gasifier with a continuous operation process. The gasification of biomass is a complex thermochemical process. The theoretical and practical studies [...] Read more.
The gasification rate of fuel, biomass gasification in particular, is an important parameter which is worth considering in the process of creating a gasifier with a continuous operation process. The gasification of biomass is a complex thermochemical process. The theoretical and practical studies of the gasification rate of biomass are complicated because of a high thermochemical rate of reactions in the functioning zones of a gasifier. The complexity of the study prevents the achievement of the required accuracy of the analytical model of the gasification rate of biomass. The known theoretical models of the gasification rate only partially describe the dynamics of the gasification rate of biomass. Moreover, most scientific studies are focused on establishing the effects of gasifier parameters and the gasification process on the quality indicators of the received gas but not on the gasification rate of fuel. To build an accurate model of the gasification rate the authors propose a series of experimental studies in a well-defined range of the parameters of a gasifier. The paper suggests a simple mathematical model of the gasification rate of biomass, which is proportional to the amount of plant biomass that remained non-gasified. The coefficients of the gasification rate for straw pellets, wood pellets and wood in pieces have been determined. Under a minimal air supply into an active zone of a gasifier (0.00088 m3/s) a coefficient of gasification rate is nearly the same for the test fuel materials and it differs by 4.7% between wood pellets and straw pellets. When the air supply increases, the gap between the coefficients increases as well and it reaches 9.44 × 10−5 c−1 for wood pellets, 1.05 × 10−4 c−1 for straw pellets and 8.64 × 10−5 c−1 for wood in pieces under air supply into an active zone of a gas generator of 0.01169 m3/s. Straw pellets have the highest gasification rate and wood in pieces has the lowest gasification rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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35 pages, 142253 KiB  
Article
Wind Turbines and Rooftop Photovoltaic Technical Potential Assessment: Application to Sicilian Minor Islands
by Claudio Moscoloni, Fernando Zarra, Riccardo Novo, Enrico Giglio, Alberto Vargiu, Guglielmina Mutani, Giovanni Bracco and Giuliana Mattiazzo
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5548; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155548 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
In order to achieve climate goals and limit the global temperature rise, an increasing share of renewable-energy sources (RESs) is required. However, technologies for the use of RESs need to be integrated into the landscape and ecological heritage to ensure a fully sustainable [...] Read more.
In order to achieve climate goals and limit the global temperature rise, an increasing share of renewable-energy sources (RESs) is required. However, technologies for the use of RESs need to be integrated into the landscape and ecological heritage to ensure a fully sustainable energy transition. This work aims to develop a scalable technique for integrating the estimation of rooftop PV and wind potential into spatial planning, providing a framework to support decision-makers in developing energy policies. The methodology is applied to the minor Sicilian islands, which are characterised by significant environmental and landscape constraints. The methodology is used to identify the areas eligible for the installation of onshore wind turbines and the usable roof surfaces for the installation of PV systems. It is shown that the available technical potential of rooftop PV installations could ensure a higher production than the actual consumption on 13 of the 14 islands studied. Nevertheless, efforts must be made to improve the legal framework, which currently places major limits on the use of wind energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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25 pages, 832 KiB  
Article
Antecedents of Creating Business Models in the Field of Renewable Energy Based on the Concept of the New Age of Innovation
by Jan Brzóska, Lilla Knop, Monika Odlanicka-Poczobutt and Dagmara K. Zuzek
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5511; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155511 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedence of business models for the renewable energy sector, characterise their concepts and structure, and assess the importance of innovation in the creation of value for the customer and for the business in the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedence of business models for the renewable energy sector, characterise their concepts and structure, and assess the importance of innovation in the creation of value for the customer and for the business in the examined business models. According to the concept of K. Prahalad and M. S. Krishnan, an operational business model consists of three basic components. The first two are social architecture and technical architecture that represent specific resources. The third component comprises business processes. The operating business model according to the principles of the New Era of Innovation was used. The business models were presented as case studies of the following: a photovoltaic farm, a passive building and a local (communal) biogas plant. A desk research method was employed as well as triangulation of the research methods of non-participant observation, unstructured interview and business documentation review, in order to develop the case studies. The identification of antecedents for business models in renewable energy generation allows the argument that the business model can be treated as a system for the configuration of resources and interdependent activities, emphasising the role of the configuration of tangible and intangible elements. As the presented business models have been active for a relatively limited time, changes in competence and human capital attitudes, as well as social acceptance for those models, are not examined here. The absence of the upper and lower performance limit of the optimisation algorithm, or system variables, may be an interesting area for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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20 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Forecasting of Power Quality Parameters Based on Meteorological Data in Small-Scale Household Off-Grid Systems
by Ibrahim Salem Jahan, Vojtech Blazek, Stanislav Misak, Vaclav Snasel and Lukas Prokop
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145251 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Off-grid power systems are often used to supply electricity to remote households, cottages, or small industries, comprising small renewable energy systems, typically a photovoltaic plant whose energy supply is stochastic in nature, without electricity distributions. This approach is economically viable and conforms to [...] Read more.
Off-grid power systems are often used to supply electricity to remote households, cottages, or small industries, comprising small renewable energy systems, typically a photovoltaic plant whose energy supply is stochastic in nature, without electricity distributions. This approach is economically viable and conforms to the requirements of the European Green Deal and the Fit for 55 package. Furthermore, these systems are associated with a lower short circuit power as compared with distribution grid traditional power plants. The power quality parameters (PQPs) of such small-scale off-grid systems are largely determined by the inverter’s ability to handle the impact of a device; however, this makes it difficult to accurately forecast the PQPs. To address this issue, this work compared prediction models for the PQPs as a function of the meteorological conditions regarding the off-grid systems for small-scale households in Central Europe. To this end, seven models—the artificial neural network (ANN), linear regression (LR), interaction linear regression (ILR), quadratic linear regression (QLR), pure quadratic linear regression (PQLR), the bagging decision tree (DT), and the boosting DT—were considered for forecasting four PQPs: frequency, the amplitude of the voltage, total harmonic distortion of the voltage (THDu), and current (THDi). The computation times of these forecasting models and their accuracies were also compared. Each forecasting model was used to forecast the PQPs for three sunny days in August. As a result of the study, the most accurate methods for forecasting are DTs. The ANN requires the longest computational time, and conversely, the LR takes the shortest computational time. Notably, this work aimed to predict poor PQPs that could cause all the equipment in off-grid systems to respond in advance to disturbances. This study is expected to be beneficial for the off-grid systems of small households and the substations included in existing smart grids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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24 pages, 5848 KiB  
Article
Attitudes of Communities in Rural Areas towards the Development of Wind Energy
by Mirosława Witkowska-Dabrowska, Natalia Świdyńska and Agnieszka Napiórkowska-Baryła
Energies 2021, 14(23), 8052; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238052 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2239
Abstract
The objective of the study was to demonstrate attitudes towards wind energy facilities in the area of the Korsze Commune. The results of the study were processed using structure indices calculated from the respondents’ answers, which were analyzed in terms of social and [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to demonstrate attitudes towards wind energy facilities in the area of the Korsze Commune. The results of the study were processed using structure indices calculated from the respondents’ answers, which were analyzed in terms of social and economic factors. The study revealed that both the NIMBY syndrome and the lack of civic engagement influence attitudes towards renewable energy technologies in rural areas. The NIMBY (“not in my backyard”) term describes negative public attitudes towards proposed development projects. However, some trends towards more pronounced attitudes can be observed, depending on socioeconomic conditions. The research results imply that the measures taken to promote renewable energy technologies should be designed differently depending on the socioeconomic situation of the targeted audience. Young people might be reached via social media appropriate to their age, and through campaigns promoting local investments. For older people, traditional ways of communication can be used, but the information transmitted should include specific benefits for the whole society as well as for individual households. The conducted research revealed that, despite the fact that many authors deny the occurrence of NIMBY syndrome in relation to the wind energy, the NIMBY problem has occurred in the Korsze Commune. The biggest challenge in the survey was the unwillingness of the residents to participate in it, which only confirms the lack of social involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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16 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
Use of Environmental Management Systems and Renewable Energy Sources in Selected Food Processing Enterprises in Poland
by Stanisław Bielski, Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska and Renata Marks-Bielska
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3212; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113212 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3252
Abstract
The issue of environmental management systems in food processing companies is gaining importance due to the need to reduce water withdrawal, wastewater, air emissions, and waste generation. New technological solutions and innovations can reduce the negative effects of the enterprises’ production facilities on [...] Read more.
The issue of environmental management systems in food processing companies is gaining importance due to the need to reduce water withdrawal, wastewater, air emissions, and waste generation. New technological solutions and innovations can reduce the negative effects of the enterprises’ production facilities on the environment. In Poland, the phenomenon of increasing use of the amount of renewable energy sources is influenced by, e.g., adopted national and EU legislation, development of new technologies in the field of energy, and increasing awareness of producers and consumers in the field of ecology and environmental protection. It is also important that the state creates favorable conditions for the use of renewable energy in micro-installations. The application goal of the study is to develop a procedure for improvement of the environmental management systems for food processing companies and increase the awareness of potential use and implementation of renewable energy sources by food processing entities. In the theoretical part of the study, methods of comparative, deductive, and synthetic analysis are used. In the practical part of the study survey method, case studies, a simple flashback, and transfer of ideas are presented. The results of the research can be used by state institutions to put emphasis on the implementation of sustainable development of state policy on the food market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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14 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
The Study of the Faba Bean Waste and Potato Peels Recycling for Pellet Production and Usage for Energy Conversion
by Aleksandra Minajeva, Algirdas Jasinskas, Rolandas Domeika, Edvardas Vaiciukevičius, Egidijus Lemanas and Stanisław Bielski
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102954 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
The article presents the results of a study on the preparation and use of faba bean waste and potato peel pellets for energy purposes. Physical and mechanical characteristics (moisture, density, ash content) of faba bean waste and potato peel pellets were investigated. The [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of a study on the preparation and use of faba bean waste and potato peel pellets for energy purposes. Physical and mechanical characteristics (moisture, density, ash content) of faba bean waste and potato peel pellets were investigated. The largest fraction of flour was formed on a sieve with 1 mm holes: faba bean waste—28.2 ± 2.02 g, potato peels—29.09 ± 0.73 g. For this experiment, samples were taken by mixing faba bean waste (four variants) and potato peel in the ratio of 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4 by volume (12 samples). It was found in this study that the density of pellets (DM) ranged from 1226.22 ± 13.88 kgm−3 to 1349.79 ± 6.79 kgm−3. The pellet moisture ranged from 6.70 ± 0.04% to 3.64 ± 0.13%. The lower calorific value of dry fuel pellets ranged from 15.27 ± 0.43 MJkg−1 to 16.02 ± 0.50 MJkg−1. The ash content of the pellets ranged from 8.05 ± 0.57% to 14.21 ± 0.05%. The ST temperature of the experimentally measured mixture of faba bean waste and potato peel pellets ranged from 924 to 969 °C; the DT temperature ranged from 944 to 983 °C; the HT temperature ranged from 1073 to 1202 °C, and a change in FT temperature from 1174 to 1234 °C was observed. The temperatures were sufficiently high to melt the ash. Specific emissions of CO2, CO, NOx and CxHy did not exceed the maximum levels allowed. In summary, from the results of the study of the physical properties, combustion, and emissions of waste beans and potato peel pellets (all samples), it is evident that they are used for biofuels. The combustion process of this type of pellet is characterized by efficient combustion and minimal emissions to the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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20 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Importance of Agriculture in Creating Energy Security—A Case Study of Poland
by Stanisław Bielski, Renata Marks-Bielska, Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska, Kęstutis Romaneckas and Egidijus Šarauskis
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092465 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3315
Abstract
Analyses of statistical data were made and their results discussed in this article to identify the level of Poland’s energy security and to determine the role of agriculture in ensuring it. It has been demonstrated that coal continues to be the staple resource [...] Read more.
Analyses of statistical data were made and their results discussed in this article to identify the level of Poland’s energy security and to determine the role of agriculture in ensuring it. It has been demonstrated that coal continues to be the staple resource for the generation of energy in Poland. The current demands and requirements concerning the reduced consumption of non-renewable resources and Poland’s obligations towards the European Union regarding the production of energy from renewable resources—all these considerations contribute to the promotion of a skillful development of energy crop farming, which, in Poland, is likely to be very successful. Agriculture plays an important role in ensuring Poland’s energy security, and this branch of farming can grow dynamically provided adequate legal regulations and promotion are in place. The chief resource for renewable energy generation is biomass. Straw and biogas production in agricultural biogas plants are two solutions whose full energy production potential still awaits to be tapped. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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16 pages, 762 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Sustainable Development and Renewable Energy Sources Relationship in EU Countries
by Bogdan Włodarczyk, Daniela Firoiu, George H. Ionescu, Florin Ghiocel, Marek Szturo and Lesław Markowski
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2323; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082323 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 4396
Abstract
In the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, by adopting the EU Renewable Energy Directive and the European Green Deal, the European Union aims at an extremely ambitious goal to become climate neutral by 2050. This goal involves a massive investment [...] Read more.
In the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, by adopting the EU Renewable Energy Directive and the European Green Deal, the European Union aims at an extremely ambitious goal to become climate neutral by 2050. This goal involves a massive investment plan to support this initiative, but also to reduce disparities between Member States, in order to transform the Union into a modern, resource-efficient, and competitive economy. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the sustainable development and renewable energy sources relationship in EU countries from a new perspective. Based on Eurostat available data and with the help of hierarchical clustering analysis, the Member States were divided in 2019 into five clusters, highlighting the key characteristics of the selected variables. The results of this research revealed high-performing groups of countries, as well as countries that need increased attention and additional support to become more efficient in achieving their sustainable development goals and renewable energy source targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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17 pages, 875 KiB  
Article
Photovoltaic Farms—Economic Efficiency of Investments in North-East Poland
by Zbigniew Brodziński, Katarzyna Brodzińska and Mikołaj Szadziun
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082087 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3048
Abstract
The abandonment of conventional sources in favor of energy from renewable energy sources (RES) has a global dimension, and the dynamic increase in the share of energy from photovoltaic systems in the energy mix of many countries results from the possibility of obtaining [...] Read more.
The abandonment of conventional sources in favor of energy from renewable energy sources (RES) has a global dimension, and the dynamic increase in the share of energy from photovoltaic systems in the energy mix of many countries results from the possibility of obtaining it both on a small scale (micro-installations) and as part of economic investments (photovoltaic power plants). The study aimed to assess the economic efficiency of 22 photovoltaic farms located in northeastern Poland. The research covered 5 solar power plants with a capacity of up to 799 kWp (I), 13 between 800 and 1100 kWp (II), and 4 installations of 1.98 MWp (III). The evaluation was based on net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), payback period (PP), profitability index (PI), accounting rate of return (ARR). Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding the value of economic indicators. The analysis shows that all studied PV farms are economically justified investments (NPV > 0) regardless of the adopted scenario. Solar power plants of the largest analyzed capacity (group III) resulted in being the most profitable ones, but no linear relationship between the level of productivity and profitability was established. Due to the large variation in terrain shape in northeastern Poland, landscape value and social benefits, which are difficult to assess, the support system for investments regarding the construction of photovoltaic power plants proved to be the most effective in group I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources for Power Generation)
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