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Special Issue "ICT in Smart Cities Development Management"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 11864

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dorota Jelonek
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Management, Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: Management Information Systems; ICT in business and public administration; Intelligent systems; the development of cities; Regional Busines Spatial Community; Big Data
Prof. Dr. Andrzej Sobczak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Warsaw School of Economics, Collegium of Economic Analysis, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: Smart Cities; Digital transforomation; Digital innovation; Innovation assimilation; Robotic Process Automation; Enterprise Architecture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Scientific forecasts indicate that by 2050, at least 75% of the world's population will live in cities. We hope that these will be smart cities or their more advanced models of sustainable cities, which will ensure a high quality of life for their inhabitants, the efficiency and reliability of their technical infrastructure and the efficiency of natural and technical resources. Smart cities exist at the intersection of digital technology, disruptive innovation and urban environments. The condition sin quo non for the success of implementing the Smart City concept is effective management of the development of smart cities, starting with planning and integrating their complex and multidimensional structure. In particular, attention should be paid to energy and transport efficiency and innovative ICT solutions that ensure sustainable city development.

This Special Issue aims to group all the possibilities for using ICT in Smart Cities Development Management. These include, in particular but not exclusively:

  • ICT in in the development management of selected areas of smart cities eg: smart economy, smart mobility, smart governance, smart environment, smart people and smart living.
  • Energy and transport efficiency of the Smart Cities,
  • Smart Grid,
  • Integration of the Smart City's information infrastructure,
  • Disruptive Technologies in Smart Cities development management,
  • Sustainable development of Smart Cities,
  • Digital innovation at Cities
  • Smart Cities and Artificial Intelligence

Prof. Dr. Dorota Jelonek
Prof. Dr. Andrzej Sobczak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Smart cities
  • ICT
  • Smart Cities development management
  • energy and transport efficiency
  • Disruptive Technologies
  • smart economy
  • smart mobility
  • smart governance
  • smart environment
  • smart people
  • smart living
  • digital innovation
  • Smart Cities and Artificial Intelligence

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Article
The Use of IT Solutions Offered in the Public Cloud to Reduce the City’s Carbon Footprint
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6389; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196389 - 06 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 679
Abstract
An important trend in today’s economy is to reduce the carbon footprint of organizations, businesses and households. Modern technologies, including ICT solutions, contribute to the reduction of CO2 production. The article focuses on the potential of using the cloud computing model in [...] Read more.
An important trend in today’s economy is to reduce the carbon footprint of organizations, businesses and households. Modern technologies, including ICT solutions, contribute to the reduction of CO2 production. The article focuses on the potential of using the cloud computing model in managing a modern and intelligent city. Modern city offices have an extensive IT infrastructure. With the emergence of new services provided online by the offices, the server infrastructure is also developing. Server rooms together with additional devices are characterized by high demand for electricity. Along with this, significant amounts of CO2 are produced. An alternative is the use of Cloud Computing solutions, which contribute to a significant reduction of the carbon footprint. The paper analyses potential solutions that can be used in city offices. The benefits and positive impact on the environment were highlighted. The empirical research was conducted based on questionnaires received from city offices. The results obtained indicate that city halls contribute significantly to the production of CO2. Moving IT services and solutions in whole or in part to cloud computing should be considered as one of the important elements of managing a smart and green city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Smart City Management in the Context of Electricity Consumption Savings
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6170; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196170 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
According to one definition, Smart City is an administrative unit that uses data and digital technology to improve the decision-making processes and well-being of its inhabitants. Smart Cities use modern, intelligent technologies to forecast future changes, optimize city functions, gain a better understanding [...] Read more.
According to one definition, Smart City is an administrative unit that uses data and digital technology to improve the decision-making processes and well-being of its inhabitants. Smart Cities use modern, intelligent technologies to forecast future changes, optimize city functions, gain a better understanding of current conditions, and deliver solutions. To make the city smart, multiple connected sensors, smartphones and other IoT devices are needed. As part of the research conducted at the Technical University in Vienna, six key dimensions (categories) of smart cities have been identified and characterized: Smart Economy, Smart Mobility, Smart Environment, Smart People, Smart Living, and Smart Governance. The aim of the paper is to present the concept of the smart cities, the implemented innovative solutions and the issue of electricity saving in Smart Cities. The theoretical considerations were expanded of the presentation of selected smart city projects in Polish cities. The considerations were also supplemented with the results of research conducted on a group of respondents living in large and very large cities in Poland in order to their awareness of the concept of smart cities, awareness on smart projects implemented in their cities of residence, and the possibility of using intelligent technologies to achieve savings in electricity consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Implementation of “Smart” Solutions and An Attempt to Measure Them: A Case Study of Czestochowa, Poland
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5668; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185668 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The aim of the study is to present the implemented “smart” solutions and the developed indicators of their measurement in the context of the city of Częstochowa (Poland), as well as a participant in the “Benchmarking—we are looking for the best smart city [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to present the implemented “smart” solutions and the developed indicators of their measurement in the context of the city of Częstochowa (Poland), as well as a participant in the “Benchmarking—we are looking for the best smart city solutions”. In order to achieve the assumed goal, a traditional review of the literature on the subject in the field of “smart city” was carried out. Then, the methodological assumptions related to developing a model set of indicators for cities participating in the program have been presented. In addition, a comparative analysis of the obtained indicators values for cities, Częstochowa and Bydgoszcz, has been carried out in the scope of one exemplary measure. The proposed research procedure can be used to analyze and evaluate cities in the country, as well as to select alternative solutions in the context of other urban features. Due to the fact that other cities in Poland will also participate in the study, the significance of this work will have a wide impact. The research presented in the article is only a part of an intended larger initiative in which several dozen Polish cities will take part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Perception of the Quality of Smart City Solutions as a Sense of Residents’ Safety
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5511; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175511 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Personalization, mobility, artificial intelligence, corporate life transferred to the online world—all these elements will shape all intelligent solutions, including those for cities in the future also in the field of energy management. A necessary condition is to determine which specific repetitive behaviors and [...] Read more.
Personalization, mobility, artificial intelligence, corporate life transferred to the online world—all these elements will shape all intelligent solutions, including those for cities in the future also in the field of energy management. A necessary condition is to determine which specific repetitive behaviors and features smart cities will have to meet in order to build an image among residents and adapt to their preferences and requirements and energy requirements. Smart cities were created to support residents in using various services, to give them the possibility of easy communication without time and local barriers. Therefore, high-quality smart solutions in cities significantly affect trust in the city and can affect its reputation. Given that the purpose of the article is to examine the perception of intelligent solutions also in the field of energy and their impact on the sense of privacy and security, different exchanges of perceptions of quality, the risks they pose to residents and their perception of what gives a picture, have been studied. The results of empirical research clearly showed that the safety and level of satisfaction with the activities carried out by the city have a significant impact on the perceived quality, which in turn has a positive impact on reputation. The authors proposed a methodology based on the Kano model for examining residents’ satisfaction in order to investigate undefined desires and identified and confirmed needs and to study the analysis of risk and potential threats. The study was in the form of a proprietary questionnaire that can be used in similar surveys on the satisfaction of residents; 2685 correctly completed questionnaires were analyzed and the results obtained after submission were included in management action plans. The city government has expressed an interest that the measures taken will be reviewed after one to two years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
The Use of Robotic Process Automation (RPA) as an Element of Smart City Implementation: A Case Study of Electricity Billing Document Management at Bydgoszcz City Hall
Energies 2021, 14(16), 5191; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165191 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Smart cities are an extremely important, multi-faceted subject, both in terms of their practical aspects and in terms of research. This is expressed, among other things, in the multitude of approaches to this concept. These approaches differ based on the emphasis placed on [...] Read more.
Smart cities are an extremely important, multi-faceted subject, both in terms of their practical aspects and in terms of research. This is expressed, among other things, in the multitude of approaches to this concept. These approaches differ based on the emphasis placed on individual aspects: some focus more on technology, and others put more weight on social issues, while still others value sustainable development issues. Currently, an important topic of discussion about the development of the smart city—the importance of which has become even greater in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic—is the digital transformation of the city. The use of robotic process automation (RPA) tools can be a part of such a transformation, as such tools, using advanced software, enable the automation of those tasks carried out thus far by humans. Although such an approach has, to date, been widespread in the case of enterprises (in particular, those operating in the financial and BPO/SSC sectors, but less often in the utilities sector, the first applications of these solutions in the context of process automation for cities are also beginning to emerge in various parts of the world. This article is based on a case study approach. The implementation conditions (including the constraints) of such an approach, the benefits achieved, and the lessons learned (which can be important for other local government units) are outlined using the example of the Bydgoszcz city hall’s (Poland) electricity billing document management. The results of the case study presented here lead to the conclusion that the use of RPA tools enables, very quickly and at relatively low cost, measurable results to be achieved that are related to the processing of electricity billing documentation for the city of Bydgoszcz. This allows the assertion to be made that robotic process automation can be taken into consideration as one of the tools used to build smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Datafication Process in the Concept of Smart Cities
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4861; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164861 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
Datafication, currently visible in almost all areas of the human life, turned out to be a very good basis for the development of the concept of smart cities. Smart city authorities use various types of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the process [...] Read more.
Datafication, currently visible in almost all areas of the human life, turned out to be a very good basis for the development of the concept of smart cities. Smart city authorities use various types of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the process of managing individual urban infrastructure systems. Modern ICT solutions enable city authorities to collect and process data about citizens. The purpose of this article is to determine the correlation between datafication and a city’s position in the global smart cities ranking, with particular emphasis on the role of social media. To achieve the goal, the method of examining documents was used. Two independent reports were thoroughly analyzed: the Smart City Index 2020 and the Digital 2021 Local Country Headlines. The study showed that the more residents use social media, the better a city performs in the ranking. Additionally, a directly proportional relationship between the level of urbanization and the percentage of people using the Internet was demonstrated. The results of the presented study may be important primarily for people and institutions responsible for creating modern urban space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Does Environment Matter in Smart Revitalization Strategies? Management towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration Programs in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4482; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154482 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
The article presents the course of the evolution of the concept of urban renewal’s emergence into its current, mature, integrated form of sustainable regeneration (sustainable urban regeneration—SUR). We present how the determination of renewal areas and its goals began to be based on [...] Read more.
The article presents the course of the evolution of the concept of urban renewal’s emergence into its current, mature, integrated form of sustainable regeneration (sustainable urban regeneration—SUR). We present how the determination of renewal areas and its goals began to be based on particular indicators, and how the importance of these analyses gradually increased in managing the implementation of urban regeneration programs. Analytical techniques using GIS were used in the analyses of the differentiation of crisis phenomena inside cities before they became popular in smart city tools. Despite the wide use of GIS to analyze the diversity of crisis phenomena within the city, the availability of data means that different spheres are characterized with different accuracy. Starting from the significance of individual spheres, the focus has primarily been on the environment, which is underappreciated in Poland. Municipalities (urban, rural, urban–rural) with regeneration programs do not perceive negative environmental phenomena as significant in assessing a crisis in a degraded area. Nevertheless, municipalities that do analyze environmental issues in regeneration programs also see the need for action and implementation of projects in the environmental sphere. In order to verify the hypothesis, the Statistics Poland (formerly known in English as the Central Statistical Office; Polish: Główny Urząd Statystyczny, abbreviated and known as GUS) data on the regeneration process was analyzed, with reference to the relationships between renewal areas and the natural environment. In order to check these dependencies (or the lack thereof), the Yule φ coefficient and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used. As a result, this study showed that analysis of the level and degree of degradation of the environmental sphere is not carried out frequently enough in municipalities. Secondly, the difficulties of municipalities, especially small ones (urban-rural and rural), in their analysis of the environmental sphere are the result of poor data availability. Thirdly, it is noted that there is a relationship between the designation of environmental zones and the type of municipality. This is of particular importance for the enhancement of smart city tools for the regeneration of existing cities, esp. small ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Smart City: A Bibliometric Analysis of Conceptual Dimensions and Areas
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4288; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144288 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
In recent years, cities are expected to develop in line with the smart city (S.C.) idea. Cities, perceived as attractive places for people to live, must now meet many conditions. A city’s duty is, among others, to meet the needs and expectations of [...] Read more.
In recent years, cities are expected to develop in line with the smart city (S.C.) idea. Cities, perceived as attractive places for people to live, must now meet many conditions. A city’s duty is, among others, to meet the needs and expectations of both, its residents and newcomers, offering a wide range of opportunities for entrepreneurs, caring for the natural environment, constantly taking on new challenges, and meeting them for its further development. Thus, the management of a city involves undertaking activities in line with the smart city idea. However, to implement them, they use widely available means, defined as intelligent solutions, e.g., modern ICT technologies. In line with the smart city idea, a city is a center inhabited by people who create a civic and participatory society, having the ability to use the latest ICT solutions and having access to a range of services and solutions offered by the city. Since the smart city idea is considered at many levels, it is still unknown what dimensions or areas related to this concept are the most valuable and stimulating for its implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to study what dimensions or areas related to this idea are the most valuable and stimulating for its implementation. The applied methodology is based on a critical analysis of the available literature in the form of bibliometric and citation analysis and analysis of the keyword characteristics of S.C. co-occurrences. The result of the research is a set of keywords that enable identifying the key dimensions and main areas of the implementation of S.C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Integration of the Infrastructure of Systems Used in Smart Cities for the Planning of Transport and Communication Systems in Cities
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3069; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113069 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Modern mobility and adaptation of transport and communication systems to the requirements of the inhabitants are both inseparable elements of the developed concept of smart cities. One of the important stages in the implementation of this concept is the planning stage, taking into [...] Read more.
Modern mobility and adaptation of transport and communication systems to the requirements of the inhabitants are both inseparable elements of the developed concept of smart cities. One of the important stages in the implementation of this concept is the planning stage, taking into account the complexity and a large number of determinants that impact the effectiveness of decisions related to the planning of transport, communication and logistic systems. The purpose of the article is to lay out a model of a system based on the integration of selected Internet of Things tools used in smart cities to support urban development planning processes in the scope of the ongoing modification of transport, public communication and logistic systems. The model was developed on the basis of the cooperation between the authors and the boards of selected cities’ observations made during the authors’ travels and on the basis of identification and analysis of IT systems types and ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools in use within the smart city concept. The need to integrate IoT tools in support of the smart city concept resulted from the synthesis of previous research experience and the existing gap between the capabilities and the scope of applications of the tools in discussion. The results of the analysis allowed to develop a procedure that in an automated way allows to improve the communication, transport and logistics order in the area of interested cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
Article
The Association between ICT-Based Mobility Services and Sustainable Mobility Behaviors of New Yorkers
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113064 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
The energy consumption and emissions in the urban transportation are influenced not only by technical efficiency in the mobility operations but also by the citizens’ mobility behaviors including mode choices and modal shift among sustainable and unsustainable mobility modes. Information and Communication Technologies [...] Read more.
The energy consumption and emissions in the urban transportation are influenced not only by technical efficiency in the mobility operations but also by the citizens’ mobility behaviors including mode choices and modal shift among sustainable and unsustainable mobility modes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can play an important role in the mobility behaviors of citizens, and it is necessary to study whether ICTs support sustainable mode choices like public transport and nonmotorized modes, which increase the total energy efficiency in the urban mobility and reduce traffic congestion and related emissions. This paper focuses on the two most popular ICT services in the urban transport, which are ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems), and ridesourcing services. This study used the New York Citywide Mobility Survey (CMS) findings with a sample of 3346 participants. The associations between using these two ICT services and the mobility behaviors (mode choice with ATIS and modal shift to ridesourcing) are analyzed through a multinomial logistic regression and descriptive statistics, and the results are compared with similar international studies. The findings indicate that the respondents who use ATIS apps more frequently are more likely to use rail modes, bicycles, bus/shuttles, and rental/car sharing than private cars for their work trips. Moreover, the findings of the modal shift to ridesourcing indicate that the most replaced mobility modes by ridesourcing services are public transport (including rail modes and buses), taxis, and private cars, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
The Contribution of Socio-Cultural Aspects of Smartphone Applications to Smart City Creation. Poland–Turkey Comparison
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102821 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
The main objective of this article is to analyze the use of modern information technologies, referring to the example of smartphones, paying particular attention to selected cultural aspects of the phenomena that appear to play an important role in creating the concept of [...] Read more.
The main objective of this article is to analyze the use of modern information technologies, referring to the example of smartphones, paying particular attention to selected cultural aspects of the phenomena that appear to play an important role in creating the concept of a smart city. The authors asked a research question: whether there is a difference in the perception of smart cities between Poland and Turkey in terms of a set of individual criteria and cultural differences in the context of globalization processes. The authors decided to compare the use of smartphones in an international environment. In their analysis, they examined Poland and Turkey, the countries which are characterized by markedly distinct culture and customs, but simultaneously present a similar level of IT development. The research was conducted in two stages at the turn of 2019 and 2020, and it involved more than 600 selected young people aged 18–25. It is important to mention that the study consulted the group of the most active internet users who are taking advantage of the benefits of internet-aided globalization. In order to carry out the survey questionnaire, the authors applied a CAWI (Computer Associated Web Interview) method. The original study aimed at identifying the character traits of smartphone users that appear to be most important from the point of view of implementing the concept of a smart city. As a result of this research, 15 such characteristics were identified, and the impact of smartphones on the strengthening or weakening of such qualities was tested in the course of conducting the survey questionnaire. The survey was translated into native languages and initially tested as part of the pilot studies. The results were compared, and the authors have identified and commented on differences between them. They also assessed the degree to which the hypothesis formulated in the research has been verified. The main limitation of the conducted study was the selection of a random group since the research sample consisted only of members of the academic community. The part of the study which is presented in this article fills the research gap related to the impact of smartphones on selected aspects of user behavior (punctuality, individualism, the quantity and quality of contacts) as well as social behavior (homogenization of cultures, the impact on economic and technological progress, strengthening of social bonds, civic responsibility (both in the social and economic sense), personal development initiatives, increase in social activity, sense of security, technological progress, and achieving prosperity). The examined features are particularly important in shaping the idea of smart cities. The results obtained in the study are conducive to expanding the research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
Article
A Decision-Making Approach Based on TOPSIS Method for Ranking Smart Cities in the Context of Urban Energy
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092691 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
This paper presents the use of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) for the evaluation of smart cities. During the development of the method, the importance of the decision-making approach in the linear ordering of cities was presented. The method of using the Technique for Order [...] Read more.
This paper presents the use of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) for the evaluation of smart cities. During the development of the method, the importance of the decision-making approach in the linear ordering of cities was presented. The method of using the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was proposed for the preparation of ranking. The method was verified by the application in the measurement of energy performance in smart cities. The authors conducted a literature review of research papers related to urban energy and MCDM published in the period from 2010 to 2020. The paper uses data from the World Council on City Data (WCCD). The research conducted allowed for the identification of the most popular MCDM techniques in the field of urban energy such as TOPSIS, AHP and DEA. The TOPSIS technique was used to organize and group the analyzed cities. Porto took the top position, whereas Buenos Aries was the last. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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Article
Modeling the Effectiveness of Intelligent Systems in Public Transport That Uses Low-Carbon Energy: A Case Study
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2637; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092637 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
Cities have been struggling for many years with many transport problems, including the impact of carbon monoxide emitted by vehicles on the environment, traffic jams, high energy consumption, numerous accidents or high infrastructure costs. There is also a dynamic growth of vehicles on [...] Read more.
Cities have been struggling for many years with many transport problems, including the impact of carbon monoxide emitted by vehicles on the environment, traffic jams, high energy consumption, numerous accidents or high infrastructure costs. There is also a dynamic growth of vehicles on the roads, which is why an increasing number of cities are introducing intelligent transportation systems (ITS), which is part of the concept of smart cities. This paper proposes a new matrix to assess the effects of the ITS implementation in the context of a concept Smart City, which consists of five criteria: (1) movement speed; (2) safety; (3) environmental; (4) economic; (5) satisfaction and amenities for society/passengers. In this new approach the benchmark values of the indicators assigned to the criteria are involved and, therefore, it is possible to determine the level of effectiveness of the ITS in public transport that uses low-carbon energy. This research used literature studies to establish the criteria of effectiveness of ITS as well as a case study, namely public transport that uses low-carbon energy in a Polish city, which had the largest fleet of electric buses in Poland and implements and uses an ITS. Both, the theoretical and the empirical research results demonstrate the usefulness and potency of the proposed matrix to assess the effects of the ITS implementation in cities in the context of the development of a smart city. In that way, the proposed approach may be a useful tool for measuring the effects of ITS implementation in cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT in Smart Cities Development Management)
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