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Special Issue "Application of Power Electronics Converters in Smart Grids and Renewable Energy Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Irfan Ahmad Khan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128, USA
Interests: power electronics converters; renewable energy systems; smart grids; electric and hybrid vehicles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Conventional power systems worldwide have experienced a significant transformation, which has been strongly characterized by an increased penetration of power electronic converter interfaced technologies. Among these new technologies are wind, tidal, fuel cell and photovoltaic generation, various storage technologies, FACT devices, HVDC lines, and power electronic interfaced loads. This Special Issue intends to present advanced methods involved in the applications of power electronic converters in smart grids and renewable energy systems.

Prospective authors are invited to submit original contributions for publication in this Special Issue. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Electric and hybrid vehicles;
  • High-voltage DC (HVDC) systems;
  • Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices;
  • Grid planning with large-scale renewable energy resources;
  • Bulk energy storage;
  • Uninterruptible power system (UPS);
  • Modeling of large-scale PV and wind farms;
  • Islanded and grid-connected microgrids;
  • Fuel cell-based energy systems.

Dr. Irfan Ahmad Khan
Dr. S.M. Muyeen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electric and hybrid vehicles
  • high-voltage DC (HVDC) system
  • flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices
  • grid planning with large-scale renewable energy resources
  • bulk energy storage
  • uninterruptible power system (UPS)
  • modeling of large-scale PV and wind farms
  • islanded and grid-connected microgrids
  • fuel cell-based energy system

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Analysis and Control of Battery Energy Storage System Based on Hybrid Active Third-Harmonic Current Injection Converter
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113140 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
This paper applies the emerging hybrid active third-harmonic current injection converter (H3C) to the battery energy storage system (BESS), forming a novel H3C-BESS structure. Compared with the commonly used two-stage VSC-BESS, the proposed H3C-BESS has the capability to reduce the passive components and [...] Read more.
This paper applies the emerging hybrid active third-harmonic current injection converter (H3C) to the battery energy storage system (BESS), forming a novel H3C-BESS structure. Compared with the commonly used two-stage VSC-BESS, the proposed H3C-BESS has the capability to reduce the passive components and switching losses. The operation principle of the H3C-BESS is analyzed and the mathematical model is derived. The closed-loop control strategy and controller design are proposed for different operation modes of the system, which include the battery current/voltage control and the injected harmonic current control. In particular, active damping control is realized through the grid current control, which could suppress the LC-filter resonance without the need of passive damping resistors. Simulation results show that the proposed topology and its control strategy have fast dynamic response, with a setup time of less than 4 ms. In addition, the total harmonic distortions of battery current and grid currents are only 2.54% and 3.15%, respectively. The amplitude of the injected harmonic current is only half of the grid current, indicating that the current injection circuit generates low losses. Experimental results are also provided to verify the validity of the proposed solution. Full article
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Article
A Novel Hybrid GWO-LS Estimator for Harmonic Estimation Problem in Time Varying Noisy Environment
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092587 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 463
Abstract
The power quality of the Electrical Power System (EPS) is greatly affected by electrical harmonics. Hence, accurate and proper estimation of electrical harmonics is essential to design appropriate filters for mitigation of harmonics and their associated effects on the power quality of EPS. [...] Read more.
The power quality of the Electrical Power System (EPS) is greatly affected by electrical harmonics. Hence, accurate and proper estimation of electrical harmonics is essential to design appropriate filters for mitigation of harmonics and their associated effects on the power quality of EPS. This paper presents a novel statistical (Least Square) and meta-heuristic (Grey wolf optimizer) based hybrid technique for accurate detection and estimation of electrical harmonics with minimum computational time. The non-linear part (phase and frequency) of harmonics is estimated using GWO, while the linear part (amplitude) is estimated using the LS method. Furthermore, harmonics having transients are also estimated using proposed harmonic estimators. The effectiveness of the proposed harmonic estimator is evaluated using various case studies. Comparing the proposed approach with other harmonic estimation techniques demonstrates that it has a minimum mean square error with less complexity and better computational efficiency. Full article
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Article
Distribution Network Hierarchically Partitioned Optimization Considering Electric Vehicle Orderly Charging with Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter Optimal Efficiency Model
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061614 - 14 Mar 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
The access of large-scale electric vehicles (EVs) will increase the network loss of medium voltage distribution network, which can be alleviated by adjusting the network structure and orderly charging for EVs. However, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the charging efficiency in the [...] Read more.
The access of large-scale electric vehicles (EVs) will increase the network loss of medium voltage distribution network, which can be alleviated by adjusting the network structure and orderly charging for EVs. However, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the charging efficiency in the orderly charging of electric vehicle (EV), which will cause the scheduling model to be insufficiently accurate. Therefore, this paper proposes an EV double-layer scheduling model based on the isolated bidirectional DC–DC (IBDC) converter optimal efficiency model, and establishes the hierarchical and partitioned optimization model with feeder–branch–load layer. Firstly, based on the actual topology of medium voltage distribution network, a dynamic reconfiguration model between switching stations is established with the goal of load balancing. Secondly, with the goal of minimizing the branch layer network loss, a dynamic reconstruction model under the switch station is established, and the chaotic niche particle swarm optimization is proposed to improve the global search capability and iteration speed. Finally, the power transmission loss model of IBDC converter is established, and the optimal phase shift parameter is determined to formulate the double-layer collaborative optimization operation strategy of electric vehicles. The example verifies that the above model can improve the system load balancing degree and reduce the operation loss of medium voltage distribution network. Full article
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Article
A Novel Algorithm for MPPT of an Isolated PV System Using Push Pull Converter with Fuzzy Logic Controller
Energies 2020, 13(15), 4007; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154007 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) is a highly promising energy source because of its environment friendly property. However, there is an uncertainty present in the modeling of PV modules owing to varying irradiance and temperature. To solve such uncertainty, the fuzzy logic control-based intelligent maximum power [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) is a highly promising energy source because of its environment friendly property. However, there is an uncertainty present in the modeling of PV modules owing to varying irradiance and temperature. To solve such uncertainty, the fuzzy logic control-based intelligent maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is observed to be more suitable as compared with conventional algorithms in PV systems. In this paper, an isolated PV system using a push pull converter with the fuzzy logic-based MPPT algorithm is presented. The proposed methodology optimizes the output power of PV modules and achieves isolation with high DC gain. The DC gain is inverted into a single phase AC through a closed loop fuzzy logic inverter with a low pass filter to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD). Dynamic simulations are developed in Matlab/Simulink by MathWorks under linear loads. The results show that the fuzzy logic algorithms of the proposed system efficiently track the MPPT and present reduced THD. Full article
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Article
A New Efficient Step-Up Boost Converter with CLD Cell for Electric Vehicle and New Energy Systems
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071791 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
An increase in demand for renewable energy resources, energy storage technologies, and electric vehicles requires high-power level DC-DC converters. The DC-DC converter that is suitable for high-power conversion applications (i.e., resonant, full-bridge or the dual-active bridge) requires magnetic transformer coupling between input and [...] Read more.
An increase in demand for renewable energy resources, energy storage technologies, and electric vehicles requires high-power level DC-DC converters. The DC-DC converter that is suitable for high-power conversion applications (i.e., resonant, full-bridge or the dual-active bridge) requires magnetic transformer coupling between input and output stage. However, transformer design in these converters remains a challenging problem, with several non-linear scaling issues that need to be simultaneously optimized to reduce losses and maintain acceptable performance. In this paper, a new transformer-less high step-up boost converter with a charge pump capacitorand capacitor-inductor-diode CLD cell is proposed using dynamic modeling. The experimental and simulation results of the proposed converter are carried out in a laboratory and through Matlab Simulink, where 10 V is given as an input voltage, and at the output, 100 V achieved in the proposed converter. A comparative analysis of the proposed converter has also been done with a conventional quadratic converter that has similar parameters. The results suggest that the proposed converter can obtain high voltage gain without operating at the maximum duty cycle and is more efficient than the conventional converter. Full article
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Article
An Impedance Network-Based Three Level Quasi Neutral Point Clamped Inverter with High Voltage Gain
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051261 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Due to the impediments of voltage source inverter and current source inverter, Z-Source Inverter (ZSI) has become notorious for better power quality in low and medium power applications. Several modifications are proposed for impedance source in the form of Quasi Z-Source Inverter (QZSI) [...] Read more.
Due to the impediments of voltage source inverter and current source inverter, Z-Source Inverter (ZSI) has become notorious for better power quality in low and medium power applications. Several modifications are proposed for impedance source in the form of Quasi Z-Source Inverter (QZSI) and Neutral Point Clamped Z-Source Inverter (NPCZSI). However, due to the discontinuity of the source current, NPCZSI is not suitable for some applications, i.e., fuel cell, UPS, and hybrid electric vehicles. Although in later advancements, source current becomes continuous in multilevel QZSI, low voltage gain, higher shoot-through duty ratio, lesser availability of modulation index, and higher voltage stress across switches are still an obstacle in NPCZSI. In this research work, a three-level high voltage gain Neutral Point Clamped Inverter (NPCI) that gives three-level AC output in a single stage, is proposed to boost up the DC voltage at the desired level. At the same time, it detains all the merits of previous topologies of three-level NPCZSI/QZSI. Simulations have been done in the MATLAB/Simulink environment to show the effectiveness of the proposed inverter topology. Full article
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Article
Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Mechanical Draft Wet-Cooling Towers on the Cooling Performance of Air-Cooled Condenser with Complex Building Environment
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4560; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234560 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
In air-cooled power units, an air-cooled condenser (ACC) is usually accompanied by mechanical draft wet-cooling towers (MCTs) so as to meet the severe cooling requirements of air-cooling auxiliary apparatuses, such as water ring vacuum pumps. When running, both the ACC and MCTs affected [...] Read more.
In air-cooled power units, an air-cooled condenser (ACC) is usually accompanied by mechanical draft wet-cooling towers (MCTs) so as to meet the severe cooling requirements of air-cooling auxiliary apparatuses, such as water ring vacuum pumps. When running, both the ACC and MCTs affected each other through their aerodynamic fields. To make the effect of MCTs on the cooling performance of the ACC more prominent, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model was established for one 2 × 660 MW air-cooling power plant, with full consideration the ACC, MCTs and adjacent main workshops, which was validated by design data and published test results. By numerical simulation, we obtained the effect of hot air recirculation (HAR) on the cooling performance of the ACC under different working conditions and the effect of MCTs on the cooling performance of the ACC. The results showed that as the ambient wind speed increases, the hot recirculation rate (HRR) of the ACC increased and changed significantly with the change of wind directions. An increase in ambient temperature can cause a significant rise in back pressure of the ACC. The exhaust of the MCTs partially entered the ACC under the influence of ambient wind, and the HRR in the affected cooling units was higher than that of the nearby unaffected cooling units. When the MCTs were turned off, the overall HRR of the ACC decreased. The presence of MCTs had a local influence on the cooling performance of only two cooling units, and then slightly impacted the overall cooling performance of the ACC, which provides a good insight into the arrangement optimization of the ACC and the MCTs. Full article
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Article
A Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Adaptive Control Strategy and Coordination Technology Compatible with Feeder Automation
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4463; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234463 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
The extensive connection of distributed generation (DG) with the distribution network (DN) is one of the core features of a smart grid, but in case of a large number, it may result in problems concerning the DN-DG compatibility during fault isolation and service [...] Read more.
The extensive connection of distributed generation (DG) with the distribution network (DN) is one of the core features of a smart grid, but in case of a large number, it may result in problems concerning the DN-DG compatibility during fault isolation and service restoration, for which no efficient and economic solutions have been developed. This paper proposes a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) adaptive control strategy (ACS) and a coordination technology to be compatible with the typical feeder automation (FA) protection logics in the ring distribution system. First of all, an ACS simulating the inertia/damping characteristics and excitation principles of synchronous generators is developed to achieve seamless switching between DFIG grid-connection/island modes, and make distant synchronization possible. Next, a technology coordinating the DFIG islands controlled by ACS and the remote tie-switches based on local inspection of synchronization conditions for closing is developed to achieve the safety grid-connection of DFIG islands in the absence of DN-DG communication. At the last, a detailed simulation scenario with a ring DN accessed by five DFIGs is used to validate the effectiveness of ACS and coordination technology compatible with FA in various faults scenes. Full article
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Article
Simulation Study of Allied In-Situ Injection and Production for Enhancing Shale Oil Recovery and CO2 Emission Control
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3961; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203961 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
The global greenhouse effect makes carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction an important task for the world, however, CO2 can be used as injected fluid to develop shale oil reservoirs. Conventional water injection and gas injection methods cannot achieve desired development [...] Read more.
The global greenhouse effect makes carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction an important task for the world, however, CO2 can be used as injected fluid to develop shale oil reservoirs. Conventional water injection and gas injection methods cannot achieve desired development results for shale oil reservoirs. Poor injection capacity exists in water injection development, while the time of gas breakthrough is early and gas channeling is serious for gas injection development. These problems will lead to insufficient formation energy supplement, rapid energy depletion, and low ultimate recovery. Gas injection huff and puff (huff-n-puff), as another improved method, is applied to develop shale oil reservoirs. However, the shortcomings of huff-n-puff are the low sweep efficiency and poor performance for the late development of oilfields. Therefore, this paper adopts firstly the method of Allied In-Situ Injection and Production (AIIP) combined with CO2 huff-n-puff to develop shale oil reservoirs. Based on the data of Shengli Oilfield, a dual-porosity and dual-permeability model in reservoir-scale is established. Compared with traditional CO2 huff-n-puff and depletion method, the cumulative oil production of AIIP combined with CO2 huff-n-puff increases by 13,077 and 17,450 m3 respectively, indicating that this method has a good application prospect. Sensitivity analyses are further conducted, including injection volume, injection rate, soaking time, fracture half-length, and fracture spacing. The results indicate that injection volume, not injection rate, is the important factor affecting the performance. With the increment of fracture half-length and the decrement of fracture spacing, the cumulative oil production of the single well increases, but the incremental rate slows down gradually. With the increment of soaking time, cumulative oil production increases first and then decreases. These parameters have a relatively suitable value, which makes the performance better. This new method can not only enhance shale oil recovery, but also can be used for CO2 emission control. Full article
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Review

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Review
Recent Approaches of Forecasting and Optimal Economic Dispatch to Overcome Intermittency of Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems: A Review
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4392; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224392 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Renewable energy sources (RESs) are the replacement of fast depleting, environment polluting, costly, and unsustainable fossil fuels. RESs themselves have various issues such as variable supply towards the load during different periods, and mostly they are available at distant locations from load centers. [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources (RESs) are the replacement of fast depleting, environment polluting, costly, and unsustainable fossil fuels. RESs themselves have various issues such as variable supply towards the load during different periods, and mostly they are available at distant locations from load centers. This paper inspects forecasting techniques, employed to predict the RESs availability during different periods and considers the dispatch mechanisms for the supply, extracted from these resources. Firstly, we analyze the application of stochastic distributions especially the Weibull distribution (WD), for forecasting both wind and PV power potential, with and without incorporating neural networks (NN). Secondly, a review of the optimal economic dispatch (OED) of RES using particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented. The reviewed techniques will be of great significance for system operators that require to gauge and pre-plan flexibility competence for their power systems to ensure practical and economical operation under high penetration of RESs. Full article
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