Special Issue "Wind Generators: Technology and Trends"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Junji Tamura
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Japan
Interests: wind power generation; power system stability; power system analysis; synchronous generator; virtual synchronous machines
Dr. Masaki Yagami
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hokkaido University of Science, Hokkaido, Japan
Interests: renewable energy; smart grids; DC microgrids; synchronous generators; power system stability
Dr. Kenta Koiwa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
Interests: power systems; wind power generation; smart grids; power electronics
Dr. Md. Rifat Hazari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB), Dhaka, Bangladesh
Interests: renewable energy systems; power system stability and control; microgrids; HVDC systems; analysis and control of rotating electrical machines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to this Special Issue on Wind Generators: Technology and Trends. The penetration of renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and PV power generation into power systems has been increasing significantly all over the world. Especially, wind power generation has attracted a great deal of attention due to its superior characteristics such as low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. In this Special Issue, we invite papers about cutting-edge research and advances in the field of wind power generation systems. Theoretical and experimental studies as well as comprehensive review and survey papers are welcome. Examples for specific subjects are given in the keywords.

Dr. Junji Tamura
Dr. Masaki Yagami
Dr. S. M. Muyeen
Dr. Kenta Koiwa
Dr. Md. Rifat Hazari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wind power generators
  • Power system analysis
  • Power system stability
  • Power system control
  • Energy storage systems
  • Smart grids
  • Microgrids
  • Virtual synchronous machines
  • Virtual inertia control
  • Offshore wind farm
  • HVDC systems
  • FACTS

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Dynamic Aeroelastic Response of Stall-Controlled Wind Turbine Rotors in Turbulent Wind Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6886; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156886 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 250
Abstract
With the current global trend of the wind turbines to be commissioned, the next generation of state-of-the-art turbines will have a generating capacity of 20 MW with rotor diameters of 250 m or larger. This systematic increase in rotor size is prompted by [...] Read more.
With the current global trend of the wind turbines to be commissioned, the next generation of state-of-the-art turbines will have a generating capacity of 20 MW with rotor diameters of 250 m or larger. This systematic increase in rotor size is prompted by economies-of-scale factors, thereby resulting in a continuously decreasing cost per kWh generated. However, such large rotors have larger masses associated with them and necessitate studies in order to better understand their dynamics. The present work regarding the aeroelastic behavior of stall-controlled rotors involves the study of the frequency content and time evolution of their oscillatory behavior. A wide range of experiments were conducted to assess the effects of rapid variations on the rotor’s operational conditions. Various gust conditions were tested at different wind speeds, which are represented by pulses of different intensities, occurring suddenly in an otherwise constant wind regime. This allowed us to observe the pure aero-elasto-inertial dynamics of the rotor’s response. A reduced-order characterization of the rotor’s dynamics as an oscillatory system was obtained on the basis of energy-transfer principles. This is of fundamental interest for researchers and engineers working on developing optimized control strategies for wind turbines. It allows for the critical elements of the rotor’s dynamic behavior to be described as a reduced-order model that can be solved in real time, an essential requirement for determining predictive control actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Mitigation of Short-Term Wind Power Ramps through Forecast-Based Curtailment
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4371; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104371 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 445
Abstract
As the penetration of renewable energy generation in electric grids becomes more substantial, its contribution to the variability of the net load becomes more noticeable. Particularly in small or weak grids, the rate at which the output power of a wind farm decreases [...] Read more.
As the penetration of renewable energy generation in electric grids becomes more substantial, its contribution to the variability of the net load becomes more noticeable. Particularly in small or weak grids, the rate at which the output power of a wind farm decreases may become a concern to grid operators. In the present work, a novel approach, called forecast-based curtailment (FBC), is shown to be able to self-mitigate downward ramps on short time scales at a very small energy penalty, compared to conventional mitigation schemes, such as flat curtailment or up-ramp limitations. FBC allows to achieve compliance with ramp limits imposed by system operators at a very small energy cost and modest additional upfront investments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Cooperative Frequency Control of a Small-Scale Power System between Diesel Engine Driven Adjustable Speed Generator and Battery
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9085; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249085 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
This paper proposes the application of an adjustable speed diesel engine-driven power plant employing a doubly-fed induction generator to an isolated small-scale power system including renewable power sources. This type of power plant can contribute to fast and flexible power balancing regulation under [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the application of an adjustable speed diesel engine-driven power plant employing a doubly-fed induction generator to an isolated small-scale power system including renewable power sources. This type of power plant can contribute to fast and flexible power balancing regulation under vacillating power supply such as wind, solar and other renewable power sources. Installation of a battery system is also considered, which can assist in coordinating the power plant to augment renewable power sources in the isolated power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Enhancement of Power System Transient Stability by the Coordinated Control between an Adjustable Speed Pumping Generator and Battery
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9034; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249034 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 497
Abstract
The penetration level of large-scale wind farms into power systems has been increasing significantly, and the frequency stability and transient stability of the power systems during and after a network fault can be negatively affected. This paper proposes a new control method to [...] Read more.
The penetration level of large-scale wind farms into power systems has been increasing significantly, and the frequency stability and transient stability of the power systems during and after a network fault can be negatively affected. This paper proposes a new control method to improve the stability of power systems that are composed of large wind farms, as well as usual synchronous generators. The new method is a coordinated controlling method between an adjustable-speed pumping generator (ASG) and a battery. The coordinated system is designed to improve power system stability during a disconnection in a fixed-rotor-speed wind turbine with a squirrel cage-type induction generator (FSWT-SCIG)-based wind farm due to a network fault, in which a battery first responds quickly to the system frequency deviation due to a grid fault and improves the frequency nadir, and then the ASG starts to supply compensatory power to recover the grid frequency to the rated frequency. The performance of the proposed system was confirmed through simulation studies on a power system model consisting of usual synchronous generators (SGs), an ASG, a battery, and an SCIG-based wind farm. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed control system can enhance the stability of the power system effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Calibration of Reanalysis Data against Wind Measurements for Energy Production Estimation of Building Integrated Savonius-Type Wind Turbine
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9017; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249017 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 507
Abstract
In this work, a cost-effective wind resource method specifically developed for the ROSEO-BIWT (Building Integrated Wind Turbine) and other Building Integrated Wind Turbines is presented. It predicts the wind speed and direction at the roof of an previously selected building for the past [...] Read more.
In this work, a cost-effective wind resource method specifically developed for the ROSEO-BIWT (Building Integrated Wind Turbine) and other Building Integrated Wind Turbines is presented. It predicts the wind speed and direction at the roof of an previously selected building for the past 10 years using reanalysis data and wind measurements taken over a year. To do so, the reanalysis wind speed data is calibrated against the measurements using different kinds of quantile mapping, and the wind direction is predicted using random forest. A mock-up of a building and a BIWT were used in a wind tunnel to perform a small-scale experiment presented here. It showed that energy production is possible and even enhanced over a wide range of attack angles. The energy production estimations made with the best performing kind of calibration achieved an overall relative error of 6.77% across different scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Enhancement of Power System Transient Stability by Active and Reactive Power Control of Variable Speed Wind Generators
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8874; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248874 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel control method for enhancing transient stability by using renewable energy sources (RES). The kinetic energy accumulated in a rotor of variable speed wind generator (VSWG) is proactively used as the active power source, which is controlled according to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel control method for enhancing transient stability by using renewable energy sources (RES). The kinetic energy accumulated in a rotor of variable speed wind generator (VSWG) is proactively used as the active power source, which is controlled according to the frequency measured at the wind farm. In addition, coordinated reactive power control according to the grid voltage is also carried out to more effectively use the kinetic energy of the VSWG. The effects of the proposed control system were evaluated by simulation analyses performed using a modified IEEE nine-bus power system network made up of synchronous generators (SGs), a photovoltaic (PV) system and a VSWG-based wind farm. Furthermore, the coordinated reactive power control between the VSWG and PV system was also demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Power Quality Issues and Mitigation for Electric Grids with Wind Power Penetration
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8852; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248852 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 576
Abstract
Large penetration of wind energy systems into electric-grids results in many power quality problems. This paper presents a classification of power quality issues, namely harmonics and short-duration voltage variation observed due to the integration of wind power. Additionally, different techniques and technologies to [...] Read more.
Large penetration of wind energy systems into electric-grids results in many power quality problems. This paper presents a classification of power quality issues, namely harmonics and short-duration voltage variation observed due to the integration of wind power. Additionally, different techniques and technologies to mitigate the effect of such issues are discussed. The paper highlights the current trends and future scopes in the improvement of the interconnection of wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) into the grid. As the voltage variation is the most severe power quality issue, case studies have been presented to investigate this problem using steady-state time-series simulations. The standard IEEE test system namely IEEE 123-node test feeder and IEEE 30-node grid are solved under different operating conditions with wind power penetration. Typical daily load profiles of a substation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and an intermittent wind power generation profile are used in all case studies. Mitigation of voltage variations due to wind intermittency is achieved using reactive power compensation of the interface inverter. The results show the effectiveness of these approaches to avoid voltage variation and excessive tap setting movements of regulators and keep the voltage within the desired operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Limited Power Point Tracking for a Small-Scale Wind Turbine Intended to Be Integrated in a DC Microgrid
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8030; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228030 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Limited power point tracking (LPPT) is emerging as a new technology for power management controllers for small-scale wind turbines (SSWTs) thanks to its advantages in terms of operation flexibility, economy and system security. LPPT operates in such a way that power requested by [...] Read more.
Limited power point tracking (LPPT) is emerging as a new technology for power management controllers for small-scale wind turbines (SSWTs) thanks to its advantages in terms of operation flexibility, economy and system security. LPPT operates in such a way that power requested by the user can be extracted from the wind turbine while respecting constraints. However, operating in LPPT mode still requires a deep understanding to obtain a compromise between minimizing power oscillations and transient response. For that, three LPPT power control strategies for an SSWT intended to be integrated in a direct current (DC) urban microgrid are investigated. These methods concern perturb and observe (P&O) with fixed step size, P&O based on Newton’s method and P&O based on the fuzzy logic (FL) technique. The experimental results highlight that all methods function correctly and reach the limited power point (LPP). The FL method improves dynamic performances with more steady oscillations around LPP compared to fixed step size and Newton’s methods. The sudden variation of wind velocity and power lead us to conclude that the FL method ensures a good balance between reducing oscillation of wind turbine (WT) output power around the operating point and convergence of rising time toward LPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Novel Cost Reduction Method for Wind Farms Associated with Energy Storage Systems by Optimal Kinetic Energy Control
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7223; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207223 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Wind power generation provides an attractive method for tackling global environmental issues. However, the power grid cannot accommodate large amount of wind farms (WFs) because the fluctuation of WF output degrades the power quality (frequency and voltage) in the power grid. Technical requirements [...] Read more.
Wind power generation provides an attractive method for tackling global environmental issues. However, the power grid cannot accommodate large amount of wind farms (WFs) because the fluctuation of WF output degrades the power quality (frequency and voltage) in the power grid. Technical requirements that are related to WF power fluctuation are issued in many countries in order to introduce the WF without degrading power quality. Therefore, it is essential to smooth the WF output in order to satisfy the technical requirements. This paper proposes an operation methodology for a system that is composed of energy storage systems (ESSs) and WF by kinetic energy (KE) control. Moreover, an optimal KE control is presented. The economical aspect and the advantage of the proposed system are verified through scenario simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Article
Vibration Reduction Strategy for Offshore Wind Turbines
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6091; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176091 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
The operational environment of offshore wind turbines is much more complex than that of onshore wind turbines. Facing the persistent wind and wave forces, offshore wind turbines are prone to vibration problems, which are not conducive to their long-term operation. Under this background, [...] Read more.
The operational environment of offshore wind turbines is much more complex than that of onshore wind turbines. Facing the persistent wind and wave forces, offshore wind turbines are prone to vibration problems, which are not conducive to their long-term operation. Under this background, first, how the wave affects the vibration characteristics of offshore wind turbines is analyzed. Based on the existing wave and wave load models, we analytically show that there exist fluctuating components related to the hydrodynamic frequency in the aerodynamic load and aerodynamic torque of offshore wind turbines. Simulation results based on a GH Bladed platform further validates the analysis. Second, in order to reduce the joint impacts of the wave, wind shear and tower shadow on the wind turbine, a variable pitch control method is proposed. The integrated tower top vibration acceleration signal is superimposed on the collective pitch reference signal, then the triple frequency (3P) fluctuating component of the wind turbine output power and the azimuth angle of each blade are converted into the pitch angle adjustment signal of each blade, which is superimposed on the collective pitch signal for individual pitch control. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively smooth the fluctuation of blade root flap-wise load caused by wind and wave, and significantly reduce the fluctuation of aerodynamic torque and output power of offshore wind turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators: Technology and Trends)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Kenta Koiwa,Takuro Tawara, Mizuki Watanabe, Kang-Zhi Liu, Tadanao Zanma and Junji Tamura
Title: A Novel Cost Reduction Method for Wind Farms Associated with Energy Storage Systems by An Optimal Kinetic Energy Control

2. Oliver Probst and Ismael Minchala

Title: State of the Art of Grid Services Provided by Wind Turbines - a review

3. Seiya Goto, Atsushi Umemura, Rion Takahashi, Junji Tamura, Atsushi Sakahara, Fumihito Tosaka and Ryosuke Nakamoto

Title: Transient Stability Enhancement of Power System by the Coordinated Control of Adjustable-Speed Pumped-Storage Generator and Battery

4. Rion Takahashi, Atsushi Umemura and Junji Tamura

Title: Cooperative Frequency Control of Small Scale Power System between Diesel Engine Driven Adjustable Speed Generator and Battery

5. Alejandro Olloqui, José L. Elizondo, Marco Rivera, Manuel E. Macías, Alfonso Ávila, Fernando Martell and Patrick Wheeler

Title: Fuzzy Logic Rotor Current Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator with an Indirect Matrix Converter

 

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