Special Issue "Energy-Harvesting Technology for Stand-alone Self-Sustainable Sensor System"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sangkil Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronics, Pusan National University, Pusan 46241, South Korea
Interests: Stand-alone self-sustainable systems, Energy harvesting, RF/microwave/mmWave sensor system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue deals with the progress in the design, modeling, and performance evaluation of the novel energy-harvesting technology for stand-alone sensor systems. The stand-alone self-sustainable energy-harvesting technology has good potential for measuring physical or chemical quantities in harsh environments and for applications requiring sensing devices with low fabrication costs, small size, and long-term measurement stability. We invite authors to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, sustaining the continuing efforts towards innovative solutions for stand-alone self-sustainable sensors. 

Potential topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Stand-alone self-sustainable systems
  • Battery-less system
  • Energy harvesting
  • Printed circuits
  • RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave sensors
  • RF back-scattering sensors
  • Design techniques and fabrication processes for autonomous sensors
  • Remote sensing systems and radars

Prof. Dr. Sangkil Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Ku-Band RF Front-End Employing Broadband Impedance Matching with 3.5 dB NF and 21 dB Conversion Gain in 45-nm CMOS Technology
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030539 - 24 Mar 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a Ku-band RF receiver front-end with broadband impedance matching and amplification. The major building blocks of the proposed receiver front-end include a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) employing a cascade of resistive feedback inverter (RFI) and transformer-loaded common source [...] Read more.
This paper presents a K u -band RF receiver front-end with broadband impedance matching and amplification. The major building blocks of the proposed receiver front-end include a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) employing a cascade of resistive feedback inverter (RFI) and transformer-loaded common source amplifier, a down-conversion mixer with push–pull transconductor and complementary LO switching stage, and an output buffer. Push–pull architecture is employed extensively to maximize the power efficiency, bandwidth, and linearity. The proposed two-stage LNA employs the stagger-tuned frequency response in order to extend the RF bandwidth coverage. The input impedance of RFI is carefully analyzed, and a wideband input matching circuit incorporating only a single inductor is presented along with useful equivalent impedance matching models and detailed design analysis. The prototype chip was fabricated in 45-nm CMOS technology and dissipates 78 mW from a 1.2-V supply while occupying chip area of 0.29 mm 2 . The proposed receiver front-end provides 21 dB conversion gain with 7 GHz IF bandwidth, 3.5 dB NF, −15.7 dBm IIP 3 while satisfying <−10 dB input matching over the whole input band. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Energy Logger for Kinetic-Powered Wrist-Wearable Systems
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030487 - 15 Mar 2020
Abstract
Kinetic energy harvesting is a promising technology towards the development of alternative battery-charging schemes or even self-powered wearable devices that obtain their power supply from human motion. Although there are many developments with schemes that leverage piezoelectric materials and human motion to power [...] Read more.
Kinetic energy harvesting is a promising technology towards the development of alternative battery-charging schemes or even self-powered wearable devices that obtain their power supply from human motion. Although there are many developments with schemes that leverage piezoelectric materials and human motion to power devices especially from footsteps, some other body locations like the wrist still need assessment with piezoelectric generators to evaluate their potential of limitations. In this work, we present the results of logging the energy transference from a wrist-worn piezoelectric harvester to a battery in a wearable device. This system is the continuation of our previous work where we implemented the harvester with a resistive load previously tuned to obtain maximum power and assessed the energy harvested during physical activities. Now, we replace the linear load with a charge controller and a Li-ion battery in the same wearable set-up. These new conditions are not optimal for the piezoelectric generator but present a more realistic environment for the kinetic harvester and allows a more precise study of the feasibility of a self-powered system. Tests show that five minutes of activities that involve arm motion can provide between 1.75 mJ and 2.98 mJ of energy, which can represent between 3.6 seconds and 6.2 seconds of additional battery duration. Hence, these results provide an insight of the limitations and challenges remaining in the piezoelectric-based kinetic harvesting field for wearable devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Rate Maximization with Sum-Rate Constraint for SWIPT in Multiple-Access Channels
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121525 - 11 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper considers simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems in the two-user Gaussian multiple access channel (G-MAC). In SWIPT systems, for a transmit signal each transmitter consists of an information-carrying signal and energy-carrying signal. By controlling a different set of the [...] Read more.
This paper considers simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems in the two-user Gaussian multiple access channel (G-MAC). In SWIPT systems, for a transmit signal each transmitter consists of an information-carrying signal and energy-carrying signal. By controlling a different set of the power for the information transmission and power for the energy transmission under a total power constraint, the information sum-rate and energy transmission rate can be achieved. As the information carrying-to-transmit power ratio at transmitters and the information sum-rate increases, however, the energy transmission rate decreases. In other words, there is a fundamental trade-off between the information sum-rate and the energy transmission rate according to the power-splitting ratio at each transmitter. Motivated by this, this paper proposes an optimal power-splitting scheme that maximizes the energy transmission rate subject to a minimum sum-rate constraint. In particular, a closed-form expression of the power-splitting coefficient is presented for the two-user G-MAC under a minimum sum-rate constraint. Numerical results show that the energy rate of the proposed optimal power-splitting scheme is greater than that of the fixed power-splitting scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Low-Complexity Resource Allocation for Multiple Access Passive IoT System
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121421 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
An ambient backscatter communication (AmBC) system with multiple backscatter devices (BDs) is investigated in this work. The cooperative reader receives the information from the primary transmitter (PT) and the multiple BDs simultaneously. With the asymptotic signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR) of the BDs, an optimization [...] Read more.
An ambient backscatter communication (AmBC) system with multiple backscatter devices (BDs) is investigated in this work. The cooperative reader receives the information from the primary transmitter (PT) and the multiple BDs simultaneously. With the asymptotic signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR) of the BDs, an optimization problem that jointly optimizes the reflection coefficients of BDs and the primary transmit power is formulated. Considering that the adaptive optimization of reflection coefficients according to the instantaneous primary channel state information (CSI) is unaffordable in practice, we propose a low-complexity resource allocation scheme, which results in a long-term configuration of the BD reflection coefficients before the primary transmit power is allocated. With the long-term reflection coefficients, the transmit power of the primary system is optimized by solving the transformed two cascaded optimization problems which have closed-form solutions. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel L-Slot Matching Circuit Integrated with Circularly Polarized Rectenna for Wireless Energy Harvesting
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060651 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Radio frequency (RF) power harvesting allows wireless power delivery concurrently to several remote RF devices. This manuscript presents the implementation of a compact, reliable, effective, and flexible energy harvesting (EH) rectenna design. It integrates a simple rectifier circuit with a circularly polarized one-sided [...] Read more.
Radio frequency (RF) power harvesting allows wireless power delivery concurrently to several remote RF devices. This manuscript presents the implementation of a compact, reliable, effective, and flexible energy harvesting (EH) rectenna design. It integrates a simple rectifier circuit with a circularly polarized one-sided slot dipole antenna at 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific, Medical (ISM) frequency band for wireless charging operation at low incident power densities, from 1 to 95 μ W/cm 2 . The rectenna structure is printed on a single layer, low cost, commercial FR4 substrate. The integration of the rectifier and antenna produces a low-profile and high performance circularly polarized rectenna. In order to maximize the system efficiency, the matching circuit introduced between the rectifier and antenna is optimized for a minimum number of discrete components and it is constructed using multiple of L-slot defects in the ground plane. For a given input power of 6 dBm intercepted by the circularly polarized antenna with 3 dBi gain, the peak RF-DC (radio frequency-direct current) conversion efficiency is 59.5 % . The rectenna dimensions are 41 × 35.5 mm 2 . It is demonstrated that the output power from the proposed rectenna is higher than the other published designs with a similar antenna size under the same ambient condition. Thanks to its compact size, the proposed rectenna finds a range of potential applications for wireless energy charging. Full article
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