Topical Collection "Positive Resources to Promote Well Being in Educational and Work Contexts and in Career Trajectories"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Paola Magnano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Human and Social Sciences, Università di Enna Unikore, Viale delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna EN, Italy
Interests: career counseling; positive psychology; vocational guidance; social psychology
Mr. Andrea Zammitti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università di Catania, Piazza Università, 2, 95124 Catania CT, Italy
Interests: career counseling; vocational guidance; work and organizational psychology; positive psychology
Dr. Ernesto Lodi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze umanistiche e sociali, Università degli Studi di Sassari (Uniss), Sassari, Italy
Interests: career counseling; career education; positive psychology; social and law psychology

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In last decades scientific literature has shown an increasing interest in mental health, well-being and quality of life of people in various life contexts. Therefore, researchers and professionals in psychosocial area are focused in studying the role that psychosocial factors play in the promotion of the best adaptation between persons and environment; they are interested in understanding human optimal functioning, more specifically in identifying the resources involved in coping with challenges of the recent economic and social changes, especially in valued contexts such as work or academic contexts.In these areas, the development of positive psychology has had a significant impact since it focuses on the preventive and promotional enhancement of people's psychosocial skills and resources. This collection is aimed to address the field of domain specific well-being (assessment tools, empirical research, experimentation of professional practices); the core theme is the construction of career paths and life trajectories – within school, university and working contexts – that can significantly affect the individual meaning of life and the subjective well-being. Particular attention will be given to a) the career transitions between one context and another; b) the study of all those factors that promote the aspirations of vulnerable segments of the population to pursue dignified and satisfactory career paths.The transitions, although no longer the only “elective territory” for career counselling and career education interventions, nevertheless represent a critical step to increase feelings of uncertainty and the experience of concern and discomfort for individuals. Moreover, well-being cannot be considered only at individual level: as the recent pandemic has shown us, accentuating social inequalities even with respect to the different jobs performed by people, we have to consider the relationship between individual well-being and success, on one hand, and the complex dynamic with the social dimensions and whole community well-being, on the other.
Positive psychology and career counselling;Positive psychology and career education;Vulnerabilities and vocational guidance;Aspirations, decent work and social inequalities;Career transitions in time of uncertainty;Career transitions in emerging adulthood;Career transitions in vulnerable people.

Prof. Dr. Paola Magnano
Mr. Andrea Zammitti
Dr. Ernesto Lodi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • educational well-being
  • well-being at work
  • academic satisfaction
  • job satisfaction
  • career counselling
  • career education
  • positive resources
  • career transitions
  • aspirations
  • social inequalities in career paths
  • psychosocial vulnerabilities
  • flourishing
  • life satisfaction

Published Papers (22 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Courage as Mediator between Positive Resources and General/Domain-Specific Well-Being Indices
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(8), 1067-1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12080076 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Background: the current post-pandemic situation has exacerbated the effects already present due to the recent socio-economic crises belonging to the first two decades of this century: perception of instability, fears, concern for the future, underemployment, undignified work. This situation has negatively impacted life [...] Read more.
Background: the current post-pandemic situation has exacerbated the effects already present due to the recent socio-economic crises belonging to the first two decades of this century: perception of instability, fears, concern for the future, underemployment, undignified work. This situation has negatively impacted life in general, career paths, and perceived quality of life, especially for new generations. Positive resources such as optimism and hope can have a positive effect in countering these effects which are impacting student academic satisfaction, life satisfaction, and flourishing. In the hypothesis, courage acts as a mediator for both domain-specific and general well-being, as perceived by college students. Methods: the research involved 410 Italian university students. Five rating scales were used: Visions About the Future, Courage Measure, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Flourishing Scale, and College Satisfaction Scale. Results: All research variables were significantly and positively correlated. The mediation model almost totally confirmed the hypotheses, as the relationship between optimism and academic satisfaction was totally mediated by courage. In other cases, optimism and hope had both a direct and an indirect effect, mediated by courage, on the life satisfaction, academic satisfaction, and flourishing of college students. Conclusions: the findings are discussed with recent theories and research on this topic, and suggestions are provided with practical implications for those involved in supporting the choice and construction of career paths. Full article
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Article
Work Engagement as a Moderating Factor between Positive Attitude toward Smart Working and Job and Life Satisfaction
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(7), 781-791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12070057 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Attitude toward smart working reflects feelings of favorableness towards this object; attitudes influence intentions, which in turn guide behaviors. Recent research confirms the positive influence that attitude toward smart working has on expected usage of it. Despite a direct influence, other factors could [...] Read more.
Attitude toward smart working reflects feelings of favorableness towards this object; attitudes influence intentions, which in turn guide behaviors. Recent research confirms the positive influence that attitude toward smart working has on expected usage of it. Despite a direct influence, other factors could interact in the context of opportunities for ICT usage for teleworkers; among these factors, work engagement stands out. In turn, work engagement influences the perception of job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Considering that literature suggests that among the antecedents of work engagement are attitudes, the present study analyzes the role of positive attitude towards smart working on work engagement, and consequently on job satisfaction and on life satisfaction, hypothesizing that work engagement could mediate between positive attitude towards smart working and job and life satisfaction. The participants were 342 workers (115 males and 227 females) in private and public organizations, aged 24 to 66 years. The results showed that a positive attitude towards smart working, along with work engagement as a mediator, positively influences job satisfaction and life satisfaction. This means that employers and human resources managers (HRM) can organize training sessions to enhance the positive attitude toward smart working and this can help workers feel more engaged and satisfied. Full article
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Article
The Relationship between Subjective Risk Intelligence and Courage with Working Performance: The Potential Mediating Effect of Workplace Social Courage
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(4), 431-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12040031 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Background: There is a growing attention toward the construct of courage from a psychological point of view; recently, courage has been related with numerous positive individual behaviors and outcomes, such as coping strategies and subjective wellbeing, and an increasing number of studies explore [...] Read more.
Background: There is a growing attention toward the construct of courage from a psychological point of view; recently, courage has been related with numerous positive individual behaviors and outcomes, such as coping strategies and subjective wellbeing, and an increasing number of studies explore the role of courage in the working and organizational environments. The present study is aimed to analyze the effect that individual courage—together with risk intelligence—and workplace social courage have on working performance; Methods: The participants are 961 Italian workers, balanced by gender; the measures used are: Courage, Subjective Risk Intelligence Scale, Workplace Social Courage Scale, and Performance Scale. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Models; Results: The results show the effect of subjective risk intelligence and courage on working performance, both directly and through the mediation of workplace social courage; Conclusions: Suggestions for further research and practical implications are discussed. Full article
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Article
The Basic Cycles of Vocational Training: Student Satisfaction and Perceived Benefit
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(4), 417-430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12040030 - 01 Apr 2022
Viewed by 763
Abstract
This study aims to better understand students who attend Basic Vocational Training Cycles (Basic Professional Training, BTP) by implementing measures that ensure diversity. This quantitative research project approximated students’ perception of their passage through previous studies and their satisfaction and goals after finishing [...] Read more.
This study aims to better understand students who attend Basic Vocational Training Cycles (Basic Professional Training, BTP) by implementing measures that ensure diversity. This quantitative research project approximated students’ perception of their passage through previous studies and their satisfaction and goals after finishing the school year. The sample consisted of 352 students from Cordoba (Spain). A questionnaire was used that follows the CIPP model. After exploratory factor analysis was completed with different groups of items and their descriptive analyses, various tests were carried out to consider the hypotheses (Pearson’s correlation (r), one-factor analysis of variance, and repeated ANOVA measures). The results indicate that the educational interest of the students is academic and professional. Likewise, there is no relationship detected between socio-professional goals and average academic levels and attributions with respect to repetitions of previous courses, although these goals vary depending on students’ satisfaction with the vocational cycles. We conclude that the course of the FPB influences decisions regarding academic–professional projects. Full article
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Article
Attitudes towards Future Unemployment and European Cooperation to Reduce Unemployment among 8th Graders in EU/European Countries
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(2), 218-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12020017 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 978
Abstract
The focus of this article is on the attitudes among 8th graders in European countries on future unemployment and attitudes towards cooperation among European countries to guarantee high levels of employment and strengthen their economies. This article uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches. [...] Read more.
The focus of this article is on the attitudes among 8th graders in European countries on future unemployment and attitudes towards cooperation among European countries to guarantee high levels of employment and strengthen their economies. This article uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches. For the qualitative approach, a systematic literature review was performed using four databases, starting from 16,873 search results for the 2016–2021 period before systematically limiting them to identify possible predictors used in quantitative analyses. The quantitative part uses secondary analyses of data obtained from 52,788 upper secondary students from 14 EU and one EU associated country from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2016, which is the last available cycle with publicly available data since 2018. The techniques used to analyse the data are descriptive statistics, linear and binary logistic regression, Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients, and Principal Component Analysis. This article also considers the theoretical base of the sustainable development definition—it explores youths’ present perceptions of the future in the economic and financial domains. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Review
Smart Working and Well-Being before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(4), 1516-1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040108 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
The purpose of this scoping review focused on the relationship between smart working, a conception of job centered on the flexibility and autonomy of the worker, and well-being/illness in an organizational context before and during COVID-19. The literature review, conducted using the PRISMA [...] Read more.
The purpose of this scoping review focused on the relationship between smart working, a conception of job centered on the flexibility and autonomy of the worker, and well-being/illness in an organizational context before and during COVID-19. The literature review, conducted using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for qualitative synthesis) method for qualitative synthesis, considered studies published from 2014 to 2020. From the analyses conducted by three independent coders, three main areas of interest in the literature emerged: (1) smart working and work engagement, (2) smart working and technostress, and (3) mediators of the relationship between smart working and well-being. The review highlights the need for an organizational culture increasingly oriented towards agile working practices in conjunction with organizational support and training. Full article
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Article
School Health Promotion at the Time of COVID-19: An Exploratory Investigation with School Leaders and Teachers
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(4), 1181-1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040087 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
The Coronavirus pandemic has impacted the entire school population’s emotions and the disruption of the organization of the school world. In this context it is important to reflect on the role of health promotion at school. The present study aimed at exploring school [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus pandemic has impacted the entire school population’s emotions and the disruption of the organization of the school world. In this context it is important to reflect on the role of health promotion at school. The present study aimed at exploring school leaders’ and teachers’ perspectives and experiences about COVID-19 pandemic and its effects in the school and education system. The first objective was to gather the experience of school leaders regarding the change in school organization, with particular attention to organizational and health promotion aspects. The second was to investigate the perception of health promotion and self-efficacy of teachers in primary, middle and high schools. The research was conducted using qualitative (focus groups for the school leaders) and quantitative methods (questionnaires for the teachers). The findings showed new ways of improving wellbeing at school and implementing health promotion through the sharing of good practice between school leaders. The need for time and space to reflect among school leaders on the educational and didactic aspects of school organization also emerged. Teachers showed a low to medium level of self-efficacy regarding the adoption of strategies in line with health promotion; specificities for each grade and level will be discussed. Full article
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Article
Workplace Incivility and Job Satisfaction: Mediation of Subjective Well-Being and Moderation of Forgiveness Climate in Health Care Sector
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(4), 1107-1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040082 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Our study investigates the role of subjective well-being and forgiveness climate between workplace incivility and job satisfaction. Drawing on conservation of resource theory, we proposed a model in which workplace incivility is associated with job satisfaction through subjective wellbeing, and forgiveness climate moderates [...] Read more.
Our study investigates the role of subjective well-being and forgiveness climate between workplace incivility and job satisfaction. Drawing on conservation of resource theory, we proposed a model in which workplace incivility is associated with job satisfaction through subjective wellbeing, and forgiveness climate moderates this association. Data was collected through a survey method from 672 nurses and doctors in the health care sector at two different times. Respondents completed workplace incivility and subjective well-being scale at Time 1, and a forgiveness climate and job satisfaction scale at time 2. Findings through PROCESS Macros (Model 5) show that workplace incivility has a negative influence on job satisfaction and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being plays a mediating role in the negative effect of workplace incivility on job satisfaction. Moreover, forgiveness climate moderates the relationship between workplace incivility and job satisfaction. The implications for practice and research are discussed. Full article
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Article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance of the Italian Version of the Job Satisfaction Scale
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 1073-1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030080 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The JSS is based on the theoretical position that job satisfaction represented an affective or attitudinal reaction to a job, and today is one of the most popular instruments used in I-O psychology. This paper discusses the contribution to the validation of an [...] Read more.
The JSS is based on the theoretical position that job satisfaction represented an affective or attitudinal reaction to a job, and today is one of the most popular instruments used in I-O psychology. This paper discusses the contribution to the validation of an Italian adaptation of the Job Satisfaction Survey. Five hundred and twenty-seven participants (258 men, 269 women) were enrolled to participate in this study, aged between 19 and 65 (Mage = 36.0, SD = 11.7). The sample mostly worked in public administration, in health care, and in the educational sector. A self-report questionnaire is used to investigate the psychometric properties of this scale, also measuring other variables. A back-translation procedure is used. The results pinpointed the goodness of the scale and the normality distribution. Confirmative factor analyses and multigroup confirmative factor analyses were performed to verify the factorial structure of the scale. The results confirmed the same factorial structure of the original version, suggesting a nine higher-order factor structure. The results from the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that this factor solution was invariant across gender (men vs. women) and found evidence for metric invariance, uniqueness invariance, and scalar and structural invariance. The findings confirmed the applicability in the Italian context. Full article
Article
Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Working Adults in the Czech Republic: Analysis of Self-Report Psychological Data in a One Year Perspective
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 1061-1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030079 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
The article presents research evidence on psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economically active Czech population aged 18–64 (n = 1603; 365 men and 1238 women) within a one year perspective. The aim is to describe the differences in the [...] Read more.
The article presents research evidence on psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economically active Czech population aged 18–64 (n = 1603; 365 men and 1238 women) within a one year perspective. The aim is to describe the differences in the reported mental health indicators (anxiety, depression, and distress) for women and men in the four age groups, two groups with different working statuses (continuation of work/interrupted working status), and between two phases of the epidemic (March to May 2020 and September 2020 to February 2021). The results point to elevated scores of negative mental health indicators (anxiety, depression, and distress) in different subgroups. More negative experiences in a pandemic situation were found, especially in groups of women, people under the age of 35, and among people with interrupted working status. The results also indicate a deterioration of symptoms over time during the epidemic. Full article
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Article
Risk Intelligence as a Resource in Career Transition: The Role of College Satisfaction on the Visions about Future Jobs
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 1030-1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030077 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
(1) Background: University transition is a critical step in career construction due to the uncertainty and unpredictability of socioeconomic conditions; these conditions compel people to manage a greater quantity of perceived risks associated with their career projects than in the past, and to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: University transition is a critical step in career construction due to the uncertainty and unpredictability of socioeconomic conditions; these conditions compel people to manage a greater quantity of perceived risks associated with their career projects than in the past, and to face unexpected situations that could compromise their quality of life in educational and work contexts. After all, experiencing well-being during the university path can undoubtedly affect the visions of one’s future work, especially when a transition period is nearby. The present study aimed to explore the role of subjective risk intelligence in expectations about future work, analyzing the potential mediational role of academic satisfaction in this relationship. (2) Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out on 352 Italian university students at the end of the degree course. We used the following measures: in T1, Subjective risk intelligence scale, College Satisfaction scale; in T2, three items assessing the expectations about future work. (3) Results: The main findings showed that subjective risk intelligence has both direct and indirect effects (through the mediation of college satisfaction) on the expectations about future work. (4) Conclusions: The ability to manage risks, also through the contribution of domain-specific satisfaction, can lead to positive expectations toward one’s future work. This could increase the likelihood to perform career-related behaviors in a more proactive way if people have high risk management skills and high levels of academic satisfaction with their university path during transition. Full article
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Article
Impact of Ethical Leadership on Employee Engagement: Role of Self-Efficacy and Organizational Commitment
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 962-974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030071 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the roles of self-efficacy and organizational commitment in the sequential mediation of the relationship between ethical leadership and employee engagement. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires of employees from private and public sector organizations of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the roles of self-efficacy and organizational commitment in the sequential mediation of the relationship between ethical leadership and employee engagement. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires of employees from private and public sector organizations of Pakistan. We opted for a three-wave time-lagged design, and we used the PROCESS macro by Hayes on a sample of 211 employees (35% male, 65% female) via the 2000 re-sample bias-corrected bootstrap method. The results show a significant relationship between ethical leadership and employee engagement with mediating effects of self-efficacy and organizational commitment. Self-efficacy and organizational commitment fully mediated the relationship. The results provide insight into the understanding of employee behavior, particularly in the presence of moral leadership. Drawing on the conservation of resource theory, we examined how ethical leader support enables employees to invest their resources into positive outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
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Article
Predicting University Adjustment from Coping-Styles, Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Personality: Findings from a Survey in a Sample of Italian Students
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 894-907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030066 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Starting university life requires that students learn to cope with several personal, academic, and social challenges. A wide array of variables affects how students adjust to university life. This study was aimed to investigate which factors among coping styles, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and personality [...] Read more.
Starting university life requires that students learn to cope with several personal, academic, and social challenges. A wide array of variables affects how students adjust to university life. This study was aimed to investigate which factors among coping styles, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and personality traits (i.e., diligence, relational availability, mental flexibility, activity, and emotional stability) best predicted the levels of university adjustment in a sample of university freshmen (N = 204, 63% women). Data were collected using self-report instruments. Multiple regressions analyses were conducted to identify the most significant predictors of adjustment to college. Our findings reported that self-efficacy, task-, and emotion-oriented coping were the most significant predictors, together with relational availability and mental flexibility. These findings might improve the growing knowledge concerning university adjustment, supporting main previous research. The observed relationships between university adjustment and the measured variables suggest intriguing considerations about the importance for schools and universities of providing interventions for students that aim to develop and strengthen the investigated personality facets, reducing withdrawal, behavioral and/or mental disengagement, and promoting academic achievement and success. Full article
Article
The Implementation of a Remote Work Program in an Italian Municipality before COVID-19: Suggestions to HR Officers for the Post-COVID-19 Era
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 866-877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030064 - 15 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
This case study describes the implementation stages and some outcomes of a remote work program that was adopted in an Italian municipality before the COVID-19 pandemic. This research used a qualitative case study approach, proposing a semi-structured interview with 14 staff members (six [...] Read more.
This case study describes the implementation stages and some outcomes of a remote work program that was adopted in an Italian municipality before the COVID-19 pandemic. This research used a qualitative case study approach, proposing a semi-structured interview with 14 staff members (six remote-worker employees, their respective managers, and two intermediate-level managers) about the experience with the remote work program. In addition, two researchers attended two preparatory program meetings. The evidence shows that, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work was mainly performed at home, for one or two days a week. Together with their manager, remote workers decided the tasks to perform remotely and the criteria to monitor remote work. Furthermore, employees appreciated the remote work program, perceiving themselves to be more productive in their work. Elements of this case study may be relevant for companies that aim to move from an emergency to a more planned remote work. Full article
Article
Between Academic Resilience and Burnout: The Moderating Role of Satisfaction on School Context Relationships
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 770-780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030055 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
School burnout is considered an extreme form of maladjustment that can seriously undermine the academic path of students who are affected. Previous studies have focused on possible protective factors, highlighting the role of academic resilience, i.e., the ability to overcome chronic adversity in [...] Read more.
School burnout is considered an extreme form of maladjustment that can seriously undermine the academic path of students who are affected. Previous studies have focused on possible protective factors, highlighting the role of academic resilience, i.e., the ability to overcome chronic adversity in the school setting. Notwithstanding this, it is equally important to explore the role of the classroom environment and the satisfaction felt by the student toward relationships with teachers and classmates. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between academic resilience and burnout and to explore the moderating role of relationship satisfaction with teachers and classmates. A sample of 576 Italian students (Female = 53.1%), aged 14–18 (M = 15.73, SD = 1.56) were involved in the study. Correlations and moderated regressions analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. The results show academic resilience and satisfaction as inversely related to school burnout. Furthermore, the satisfaction on the relationships with classmates moderated the relation between academic resilience and burnout. Findings were discussed by highlighting the importance of promoting both individual and contextual factors to prevent burnout risk. Full article
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Article
Adolescents and Distance Learning during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: What Impact on Students’ Well-Being and Learning Processes and What Future Prospects?
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 726-735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030052 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to analyze the experiences related to distance learning in a large sample of students in upper secondary school during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and to explore the potentialities of distance learning for students’ well-being. [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to analyze the experiences related to distance learning in a large sample of students in upper secondary school during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and to explore the potentialities of distance learning for students’ well-being. Methods: Between 22 April and 1 May 2020, 1017 students completed an online survey about the characteristics of online didactic, the availability of devices for distance learning, and the psychological experiences related to e-learning. Results: All Italian schools have adopted distance learning, even if each teacher employs different approaches to e-learning. Students are aware of the importance of distance learning for the containment of the pandemic and of the need to continue with online teaching to avoid the resumption of the infections. However, distance learning is associated with a significant increase in student workload and a consequent psychological distress related to homework. Specifically, students are more distracted in studying, have difficulty organizing study and are concerned that their school career may be adversely affected by the lockdown. Furthermore, a significant percentage does not perceive adequate support from teachers. Conclusions: Future studies will have to explore the impact of distance learning even in the subsequent waves of contagion, taking into account the persistence of the stress from the pandemic. Full article
Article
The Psychological Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic Restrictions in Italy. The Mediating Role of the Fear of COVID-19 in the Relationship between Positive and Negative Affect with Positive and Negative Outcomes
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 697-710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030050 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Italy was quickly hit hard by the coronavirus. ‘Lockdown’ has significantly impacted the psychological health, personal wellbeing and quality of life of the people. The study aims to explore the relationship between positive and negative affect, as well as positive (spiritual well-being and [...] Read more.
Italy was quickly hit hard by the coronavirus. ‘Lockdown’ has significantly impacted the psychological health, personal wellbeing and quality of life of the people. The study aims to explore the relationship between positive and negative affect, as well as positive (spiritual well-being and flourishing) and negative outcomes (psychological distress caused by a traumatic life event in terms of perception of PTSD symptoms) on Italian adults during the lockdown period. Data was collected between April and May 2020. The participants were 281 Italian adults aged between 18 and 73 years. The survey was composed of the following measures: Flourishing Scale, Jarel Spiritual Well-Being scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Impact of Event Scale—Revised, Fear of COVID-19. The mediational analysis shows that fear of COVID-19 fully mediates the relationship between negative affect and spiritual well-being and flourishing; fear of COVID-19 partially mediates the relationship between negative affect and PTSD symptoms; the positive affect shows only direct effects on positive outcomes. Therefore, fear of COVID-19 does not play any mediation role. Implications for psychological interventions and future research will be discussed. Full article
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Article
Impact of Authoritative and Laissez-Faire Leadership on Thriving at Work: The Moderating Role of Conscientiousness
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 667-685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030048 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2781
Abstract
This study empirically investigates the less discussed catalytic effect of personality in the relationship of leadership style and employee thriving at work. The growth and sustainability of the organization is linked with the association of leadership style and employee thriving at the worplace. [...] Read more.
This study empirically investigates the less discussed catalytic effect of personality in the relationship of leadership style and employee thriving at work. The growth and sustainability of the organization is linked with the association of leadership style and employee thriving at the worplace. The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of authoritative and laissez-faire leadership styles and the moderating role of the personality trait of conscientiousness on thriving in the workplace. A sample of 312 participants was taken from a leading school system with its branches in Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan. The participants either worked as managers, teachers in headquarters, or school campuses, respectively. The regression results of the study show that authoritative leadership and conscientiousness have a significantly positive impact on thriving at work. Furthermore, conscientiousness moderates the relationship between laissez-faire style of leadership and thriving at work relationship.. The findings of this study have theoretical implications for authoritative and laissez-faire leadership, employee conscientiousness, and managerial applications for the practitioners. Full article
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Article
The Role of Psychological Capital in Human Service Professionals’ Work Experiences
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 639-648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030046 - 27 Jun 2021
Viewed by 936
Abstract
The study was set up as a first exploration of the predictive role of human service professionals’ (i.e., teachers and healthcare professionals) psychological capital (PC) in their perception of work experiences and some core aspects of their own work, such as their efficacy [...] Read more.
The study was set up as a first exploration of the predictive role of human service professionals’ (i.e., teachers and healthcare professionals) psychological capital (PC) in their perception of work experiences and some core aspects of their own work, such as their efficacy to instill positive resources in their clients, the positive representation of their work and of the results that they can obtain, and positive beliefs about their career growth. Three hundred and eight Northern Italian human service professionals were involved, of which 163 were elementary school teachers of inclusive classrooms and 145 were healthcare professionals in day and residential centers. The regression analyses which were carried out—controlling for age, gender, years of work experience and the typology of the human service jobs—confirmed the predictive role of PC in the efficacy to instill positive resources in one’s clients, the positive representation of the work and of the results that can be obtained, and positive beliefs about career growth. These results have important implications for practice, and they emphasize that specific interventions aimed at promoting human service professionals’ PC may positively impact the effectiveness of their actions for the adaptation and psychosocial development of their clients. Full article
Article
The Relationship between Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Young Women Aspiring Fashion Models: The Mediating Role of Stress
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(2), 607-615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11020043 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
It is widely recognized that body dissatisfaction is an important public health concern. In the past, being a fashion model was almost synonymous with anorexia/bulimia, and even today, there are cases of eating disorders in young women whose ambition is to become a [...] Read more.
It is widely recognized that body dissatisfaction is an important public health concern. In the past, being a fashion model was almost synonymous with anorexia/bulimia, and even today, there are cases of eating disorders in young women whose ambition is to become a top model. Moreover, stress can play a substantial role within ill health via related behaviors such as smoking, substance abuse, and inappropriate eating. In our study, we examined 112 aspiring fashion models aged between 15 and 24 years (M = 19.5, SD = 2.08) from 32 different countries of the world during an international contest, and 100 students (control group), aged between 16 and 22 years (M = 18.6, SD = 1.39). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether stress mediated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. The study included the administration of stress and self-efficacy and the locus of control dimensions, body (image) dissatisfaction, and eating attitude disorder. Results indicated higher scores on body dissatisfaction, stress level, and eating attitudes disorder among the group of fashion models compared to the control. Mediational analyses showed that body dissatisfaction was partially mediated by stress level on eating disorders. Especially in the aspiring fashion models, there are often many possibilities that competitive stress causes candidates to exacerbate attempts to maintain their body weight below normal weight/height parameters. These results indicated that appropriate intervention for the management of stress level could possibly defend against the negative impact of body dissatisfaction on eating disorder symptoms. The presence of skilled health workers in the field of nutrition and psychology can be extremely important in the field of fashion to maintain an adequate quality of life. Full article
Article
The High School Competencies Scale (H-Comp Scale): A First Validation Study
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(2), 570-584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11020041 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Researchers widely explored non-intellective study factors because they play a central role in academic performance and are potentially more modifiable than intellective ones. The scientific literature suggests that the non-intellective factors can be classified into three main areas: self-concept, which refers to self-esteem [...] Read more.
Researchers widely explored non-intellective study factors because they play a central role in academic performance and are potentially more modifiable than intellective ones. The scientific literature suggests that the non-intellective factors can be classified into three main areas: self-concept, which refers to self-esteem and efficacy, motivation and emotional reactions; the area of study, related to study dedication and operative skills; and the area of relationships, comprising those with family, fellow students and teachers. Basing on these findings, the C-Comp Scale has been developed and tested in the past, addressed to college students. This study aimed to adapt and test a new version of this questionnaire on high school students. Methods. A pilot study was conducted on 364 Italian high school students to adapt and test the new version of the questionnaire, called the H-Comp Scale. The following study, conducted on 792 Italian high school students, provided further evidence of its reliability, structural validity, and concurrent validity with general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, and academic performance. Results. The H-Comp Scale showed to possess excellent reliability and structural and concurrent validity. The final version is composed of twelve subscales, aggregated in three areas, with just 48 items: Study (Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, Time Management, Study Dedication), Self (Learning Assessment, General Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, Reaction to Failures, Emotional Control), and Relationships (Family Relationships, Fellow Student Relationships, Teacher Relationships). Conclusions. The H-Comp Scale would be a useful and easy-to-use instrument to support school counselors, tutors, teachers, and researchers in exploring different types of non-intellective variables, to better project educational intervention aimed to improve high school students’ academic performance and satisfaction. Full article
Article
Self-Perceived Instructional Competence, Self-Efficacy and Burnout during the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Study of a Group of Italian School Teachers
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(2), 496-512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11020035 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2648
Abstract
Prolonged school closures, forced isolation, and mutations in social interactions due to the COVID-19 pandemic have posed challenges for actors in the educational context; teachers, in particular, have had to develop new instructional strategies to ensure that lessons could continue. The present research [...] Read more.
Prolonged school closures, forced isolation, and mutations in social interactions due to the COVID-19 pandemic have posed challenges for actors in the educational context; teachers, in particular, have had to develop new instructional strategies to ensure that lessons could continue. The present research measures in a group of 374 Italian teachers—curricular and specialist support teachers—the relationship between self-perceived instructional competence, self-efficacy, and burnout. The present research, conducted between April and December 2020, represents the second part of a larger study conducted from November 2018 to October 2019, which was replicated during COVID-19. Participants completed an anamnestic questionnaire, the Assessment Teaching Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory in both phases of research; an ad hoc questionnaire (to measure teaching practices) and the Teacher Sense of Self Efficacy Scale were added in the second phase. Data confirm that general level of burnout increased and personal accomplishment was reduced during the pandemic; elevated personal accomplishment appears to be a predictor of emotional, socio-relational, and didactic competences before and during the pandemic. Feelings of frustration and accomplishment represent some manifestations of distress caused by the pandemic condition; these dynamics favor the crystallization of roles and behaviors towards the perception of metacognitive teaching processes. Full article
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