Special Issue "Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity"

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mario A. Pagnotta

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali (DAFNE), Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs, Tuscia University, Via S. C. de Lellis, snc 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plant population genetics; plant evolution and domestication; in situ and ex situ conservation of plant germplasm; molecular characterization; molecular markers; molecular evolution; plant breeding

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The “Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity” are key issues to assure a reserve of variation to be used in plant breeding to answer to future needs. To ensure sustainable and developmental crop consumption, it is essential to preserve genetic variation and to investigate it in the wild relatives and landraces that, hence, are of possible value in crop breeding programs to conferring resistance to disease, to environmental stresses, but also to have new products able to face the new consumer behaviors.

In this Special Issue of Diversity, we would like to focus on “genetic diversity”, restricting it to plant aspects, since the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources are essential to the sustainable development of agricultural production. We would like to cover not only the topics related to (i) the assessment of this diversity, analyzing the diversity of genetic material contained in traditional varieties and modern cultivars, as well as crop wild relatives and other wild plant species that can be used, now or in the future, for food and agriculture, including resources which contribute to people’s livelihoods by providing food, medicine, feed for domestic animals, fiber, clothing, shelter, energy and a multiple of other products and services; but also (ii) to the preservation of this diversity by both ex situ and in situ procedures including the problems related to the gene banks management and the landraces promotion by quality label or by contribution to farmers involved in the on farm conservation.

In this Special Issue will be published contributions assessing the genetic diversity in plant species, the methods to conserve them, as well as contributions focusing on the aspect connected with this, such as statistical methods and tools used.

Prof. Dr. Mario A. Pagnotta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diversity is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Genetic diversity
  • in situ and ex situ conservation
  • Morphological characterization
  • Biochemical characterization
  • Molecular characterization
  • Landraces valorization

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Phenotyping, Genotyping, and Selections within Italian Local Landraces of Romanesco Globe Artichoke
Diversity 2017, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/d9010014
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ten Italian globe artichoke clones belonging to the Romanesco typology were characterized in the western coastal area of Italy (Cerveteri, Rome), using a combination of morphological (UPOV descriptors), biochemical (HPLC analysis), and molecular (AFLP, ISSR, and SSR markers) traits. Significant differences among clones [...] Read more.
Ten Italian globe artichoke clones belonging to the Romanesco typology were characterized in the western coastal area of Italy (Cerveteri, Rome), using a combination of morphological (UPOV descriptors), biochemical (HPLC analysis), and molecular (AFLP, ISSR, and SSR markers) traits. Significant differences among clones were found for many of the quantitative and qualitative morphological traits. Multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis) showed that, of the 47 morphological descriptors assessed, four (i.e., plant height, central flower-head weight, earliness, and total flower-head weight) presented a clear grouping of the clones. Biochemical analyses showed that the clones significantly differed in the polyphenolic profiles of the flower-head, with the suggestion that some of these, such as S2, S3, S5, and S18, are more suitable for the fresh market. The clones, clustered by a UPGMA dendrogram based on 393 polymorphic AFLP and ISSR loci, showed that the clones were genetically separated from each other. This highlights the importance of characterizing, evaluating, and conserving autochthonous germplasm for future plant breeding activities. Overall, these studies resulted in the identification of two new clones, selected on the basis of flower-head morphology and earliness. These clones, named Michelangelo and Raffaello, are registered on the Italian National Register of Varieties (DM n. 6135, 3/29/2013 G.U. 91, 18 April 2013). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Genetics and Conservation of Plant Species of Extremely Narrow Geographic Range
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/d8040031
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The endemic plant species with extremely narrow geographical range (<100 km2) often have few populations of small size and tend to be more vulnerable to extinction by genetic drift and inbreeding effects. For these species, we tested if intraspecific genetic diversity [...] Read more.
The endemic plant species with extremely narrow geographical range (<100 km2) often have few populations of small size and tend to be more vulnerable to extinction by genetic drift and inbreeding effects. For these species, we tested if intraspecific genetic diversity can be applied to identify conservation priorities. The biological model was Mammillaria albiflora—a Mexican cactus that numbers ~1000 individuals distributed in four nearby patches covering 4.3 km2. A total of 96 individuals were genotyped with 10 microsatellite loci to describe the genetic substructure and diversity. There is significant population substructure: the genetic diversity is distributed in three genetic neighbors and varies among the patches, the genotypes are not randomly distributed and three genetic barriers restrict the gene flow. The current population size is 15 times smaller than in the past. The restricted gene flow and genetic drift are the processes that have shaped population substructure. To conserve the genetic diversity of this cactus we recommend that two patches, which are not private property, be legally protected; to include M. albiflora in the Red List Species of Mexico in the category of extinction risk; and a legal propagation program may help to diminish the illegal harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes under Aluminium Stress
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/d8040026
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses [...] Read more.
The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive), using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs) efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity of the Macaw Palm Ex Situ Germplasm Collection Revealed by Microsatellite Markers
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/d8040020
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native to tropical forests in South America and highly abundant in Brazil. It is cited as a highly productive oleaginous palm tree presenting high potential for biodiesel production. The aim of this work was to characterize [...] Read more.
Macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native to tropical forests in South America and highly abundant in Brazil. It is cited as a highly productive oleaginous palm tree presenting high potential for biodiesel production. The aim of this work was to characterize and study the genetic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ collections from different geographical states in Brazil using microsatellite (Simple Sequence Repeats, SSR) markers. A total of 192 accessions from 10 provenances were analyzed with 10 SSR, and variations were detected in allelic diversity, polymorphism, and heterozygosity in the collections. Three major groups of accessions were formed using PCoA—principal coordinate analysis, UPGMA—unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, and Tocher. The Mantel test revealed a weak correlation (r = 0.07) between genetic and geographic distances among the provenances reaffirming the result of the grouping. Reduced average heterozygosity (Ho < 50%) per locus (or provenance) confirmed the predominance of endogamy (or inbreeding) in the germplasm collections as evidenced by positive inbreeding coefficient (F > 0) per locus (or per provenance). AMOVA—Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed higher (48.2%) genetic variation within population than among populations (36.5%). SSR are useful molecular markers in characterizing A. aculeata germplasm and could facilitate the process of identifying, grouping, and selecting genotypes. Present results could be used to formulate appropriate conservation strategies in the genebank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Potential Population Genetic Consequences of Habitat Fragmentation in Central European Forest Trees and Associated Understorey Species—An Introductory Survey
Diversity 2017, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/d9010009
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Habitat fragmentation threatens the maintenance of genetic diversity of affected populations. Assessment of the risks associated with habitat fragmentation is a big challenge as the change in population genetic diversity is a dynamic process, often acting over long time periods and depending on [...] Read more.
Habitat fragmentation threatens the maintenance of genetic diversity of affected populations. Assessment of the risks associated with habitat fragmentation is a big challenge as the change in population genetic diversity is a dynamic process, often acting over long time periods and depending on various characteristics pertaining to both species (life history traits) and their populations (extrinsic characteristics). With this survey, we provide an introductory overview for persons who have to make or are interested in making predictions about the fate of forest-dwelling plant populations which have recently become fragmented and isolated from their main occurrences. We provide a concise introduction to the field of population genetics focusing on terms, processes and phenomena relevant to the maintenance of genetic diversity and vitality of plant populations. In particular the antagonistic effects of gene flow and random genetic drift are covered. A special chapter is devoted to Central European tree species (including the Carpathians) which we treat in detail with reference to an extensive literature survey on population genetic studies assembled from the whole of Europe. We further provide an overview of the population biology of associated understorey species. We conclude with recommended steps to be taken for the evaluation of potential perils of habitat fragmentation or population thinning for the genetics of tree populations. The complexity of effects exerted by life history traits and extrinsic characteristics of populations suggest population genetic development is strongly situation dependent. Therefore, we recommend following a case-by-case approach ideally supported by computer simulations to predict future population genetic development of both trees and associated understorey species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Sustainable Stewardship of the Landrace Diversity
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/d8040029
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (941 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landraces are heterogeneous populations and their variability goes through continuous alterations because of physical, genetic, and epigenetic procedures exacerbated by the ongoing climatic changes. Appropriate stewardship of landrace diversity is pivotal to promote its longevity in a manner that is sustainable from the [...] Read more.
Landraces are heterogeneous populations and their variability goes through continuous alterations because of physical, genetic, and epigenetic procedures exacerbated by the ongoing climatic changes. Appropriate stewardship of landrace diversity is pivotal to promote its longevity in a manner that is sustainable from the farming perspective. A seed multiplication procedure is presented based on the assumption that in order to improve effectiveness in resource use and increase seed productivity, landraces should comprise genotypes which minimize intra-species competition. These aforementioned genotypes should be of the “weak competitor” ideotype, which are selected so as to alleviate the interplant competition and reach as high as possible crop stand uniformity. Stand uniformity is essential to ensure the same growing conditions for each plant. Reduced intra-crop inequality and equal use of inputs by individual plants will optimize crop performance. Precisely, the “weak competitor” is most often of high yield potential due to a negative association between yielding and competitive ability. Therefore, the suggested procedure involves initial reproduction at nil-competition (widely spaced plants to preclude any plant-to-plant interference for inputs) where “off-type” and low yielding plants are omitted, followed by subsequent multiplication at dense stands. This may represent an effective cultural practice to improve also the landrace health status concerning seed-borne diseases in the absence of certification systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
Figures

Figure 1

Diversity EISSN 1424-2818 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top